Bamboo farming project report – introduction
The below information is about “Bamboo Farming Project Report, Cost and Profit” Analysis.
The bamboo is an evergreen flowering plant belonging to the grass family. They are considered as the fastest growing plants in the world. It is observed that some species of bamboo can grow to almost 90 cm in a day. The plant is of economical importance in regions of South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia. The bamboo is classified according to the geographic division where it existed such as the new world herbaceous, tropical woody and temperate woody. It is believed that there are more than 1400 species of bamboo all round the world. This plant is native to warm tropical and temperate climatic zones, but sometimes certain species of bamboo are also found to grow in cool mountainous regions. Bamboo plants have natural regeneration capacity and are mostly found in the forest areas. The bamboo plant helps in preserving forests by releasing 35% more oxygen and reducing the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Bamboo plants have two different growth patterns such as clumping and running. The clumping variety spreads slowly during the growth period, whereas the running variety has aggressive growth behavior. The average height of the bamboo could be estimated around 4.5 to 12 m. Though it is a flowering plant, the frequency of flowering is different all the species. Also the interval of flowering is extremely large and could range from 65 to 120 years. It is observed that once the bamboo plant starts flowering then it slowly declines and dies.
The bamboo has a cultural significance; it is used as a symbol of uprightness by the Chinese and friendship by the Indian community. Bamboo also signifies the behavior of a gentleman according to the Chinese culture and is a part of Buddhism. The young bamboo shoots serve as food to the Buddhist monks.
This bamboo project report speaks about the plant, its importance, cultivation methods and needs, etc. At the end of the report, the cost and profit analysis for one acre of bamboo plantation is presented for reference.
Bamboo farming project report – scope and importance
Bamboo is an important part in the socio-economic development of India. It greatly contributes to the economy of the nation. Bamboo is largely produced by the north-eastern states of the country. It is estimated that the annual turnover from a bamboo plantation in the country amount to 9,000 crores of rupees. The demand of bamboo in India is around 26 million metric tonnes approximately and is expected to increase in the near future. The multipurpose use of bamboo has made it a universal resource for the rural population and its demand is ever- increasing. To support this demand the government of India has launched the ‘National Bamboo Mission’, under the Ministry of Agriculture to promote the growth of the bamboo sector. ‘National Mission on Bamboo Application’, has been launched by the Department of Science and Technology to provide technological help in the bamboo sector. The Cane and Bamboo Technology Centre (CBTC) has designed a project for the sustainable development of the bamboo industries to create a livelihood for people in the North Eastern India. Such initiatives can bring an organized bamboo cultivation structure within the country and facilitate more income for the rural population as well as contribute enormously to the national economy.
Bamboo farming project report – varieties of bamboo
Among different species of bamboo found all over the world, there are some commercially cultivated species in India and they are:
- Bambusa balcooa
- Bambusa bambos
- Bambusa nutans
- Bambusa pallida
- Bambusa tulda
- Bambusa vulgaris
- Dendrocalamus brandisii
- Dendrocalamus giganteus
- Dendrocalamus hamiltonii
- Bambusa polymorpha
- Dendrocalamus strictus
- Oxytenanthera stocksii
- Melocanna bambusoides
- Ochlandra travancorica
- Schizostachyum dullooa
- Throstachys oliverii
Bamboo farming project report – uses of bamboo
There are many uses of bamboo out of which a few are listed here.
- Support material in agriculture
- Construction purposes
- The shoots are edible
- Making furniture
- Panels and particle boards
- Pulp and paper
- Biomass production
- Making musical instruments
Bamboo farming project report – soil and climate
The soil for bamboo plantations should be well drained. They are found to grow well in sandy loam or loamy clay soils. It has been observed that bamboos also grow in swampy soils. The soil with slightly acidic nature or with pH around 4.5 to 6 is good for bamboo cultivation. The soil with high water table is favorable for the growth of bamboo. The best climates for bamboo cultivation are the warm temperate and tropical climates. It is believed that the under these conditions, it grows 3 inches a day. Rainfall less than 1200 mm a year is not acceptable for bamboo cultivation. Humidity of the area should be in between 75-85% and the wind velocity above 80 km/hr can cause problems during the development stage.
Bamboo farming project report – propagation methods
The planting material for bamboo may come in the form of seeds, wildings, air-layering, offsets, cuttings and tissue cultured plantlets. All these planting materials have to be raised in a nursery before transplanting them into the main area.
Propagation by seeds for large plantations is a rarely used method because seeds are produced when bamboo plants flower and the interval may range from 40 to 80 years. Propagation by seeds produces seedlings after 8-12 months, but needs good water and nutrient supply.
Wildings can be obtained from young bamboo clusters by scooping them with a spade. Many seedlings can be raised using this method, but it is observed that the establishment of the plant would be poor owing to the disturbance in the root system while uprooting.
Vegetative propagation or propagation through rhizomes is the best possible way for large plantations and is a traditionally used method. The lower part of the culm with 3 to 5 nodes, rhizome and roots together is called a bamboo offset. Collecting the offsets at the right time is an important factor in bamboo propagation and is done mostly during the months of February till April. A healthy parent plant is chosen for collecting the rhizome. If the species of bamboo are thick walled, then a 1-2 year old culm is selected and the offset is removed else if it is a thin walled species of bamboo then an assembly of 2-3 offsets is removed. The rhizome with the roots must be carefully detached from the offset and wrapped in banana leaves or should be sacked with moist sawdust. They are transplanted into the main field immediately.
2-3 years old culm cuttings can also be used as planting material, but successful rooting and shooting is difficult to achieve. Also it is found that buds facing downwards do not grow if the weather is hot.
Bamboo farming project report – land preparation and planting
The site selected for bamboo plantation should be cleared of bushes, grasses and other unwanted materials or plants. The cultivation area should be cleaned so as to facilitate intercropping. A proper layout is designed and pits are dug for planting. The size of the pit depends on the type of planting material being used. Generally the pits are made large and deep so that the newly planted bamboo gets established easily. The dimensions of the pit are 60 x 60 cm in heavy rainfall areas. Small pits of size 30 x 30 cm are dug for well rooted seedlings. Where the rainfall is scanty, pits of size up to 1 m are created to improve micro-catchment. The spacing between the seedlings should be 5 x 4 m, so that 1 acre of land can approximately accommodate 200 plants. The offset should be placed 10-20 cm below the ground and should be covered with soil. It is necessary to slightly press the soil around the seedling.
Bamboo farming project report – manure and fertilizer requirements
Top soil mixed with 2 kg of phosphoric fertilizer is filled in each pit up to 10 cm and planting should be done just before the rainy season. Bamboo is a plant which needs excess nutrients. One clump of mature bamboo needs 5 pounds of NPK fertilizer in a year. The plants need a constant supply of nitrogen and potassium. The green colour of the bamboo and the growth of new shoots depend on the content of nitrogen in the soil. The development of strong, healthy root mass depends on the amount of potassium in the soil. A 13-3-13 special fertilizer is recommended for bamboo plants because it releases the nitrogen and potassium slowly into the soil so that the supply is constant and as required by the plants throughout the year. Macronutrient silica is also required by the plants for extreme growth of the bamboo clump.
Bamboo farming project report – irrigation requirements
The production of healthy bamboo depends heavily on irrigation. A drip irrigation system or a sprinkler arrangement can be an effective solution for supplying water regularly to the plants. During the first few months, watering should be done on a regular basis because the bamboo plants take time to establish in the soil. Once the plants get rooted firmly, then the interval of water supply can be increased.
Bamboo farming project report – intercultural operations
Weeds in the soil can prevent the growth of bamboo by absorbing the nutrients from the soil. So, regular and systematic weeding should be done. The weeds removed from the farm should be disposed properly. 60 cm around the bamboo plants should be always free from weeds.
Mulching helps in proper bamboo growth. Areas which have less rainfall or have dry weather conditions, mulching helps to prevent soil water from evaporation. Dry organic matter or dry leaves can be spread around the base of bamboo plants as mulch material to preserve soil moisture and also to control weeds. Mulch also protects the young bamboo shoots from direct sunlight and facilitates in producing good quality shoots.
Managing the clump is highly essential as this improves the productivity of the farm. The unwanted culms should be removed as a part of maintenance activity so as to decongest the clump. Old and rotten culms should be removed to promote the growth of healthy shoots.
Intercropping is done during the early years (3 years) of planting bamboo. Most plants which are intercropped with bamboo are ginger, turmeric, chillies and other shade loving plants.
Bamboo farming project report – pest and disease control
Diseases common in bamboo plants are:
- Bamboo blight
- Branch die-back
- Witches’ broom
- Little leaf
- Thread blight
- Leaf rust
- Leaf spot
- Foliage blight
- Rhizome and root rot
The first important step in disease management is to monitor the plants regularly. Most of the diseases can be controlled by the cutting and removal of infected parts of the plant. The debris, thus collected should be burnt. The cultural operations should be carried out before the monsoon. Application of prophylactic fungicides can also help control the spread of diseases.
Pests that attack the bamboo plants are:
Non-chemical insecticidal soap is the best way to prevent the insects from infesting the plants.
Bamboo farming project report – harvesting and yield
Some species of bamboo regenerate naturally after harvesting. Harvesting in bamboo is done by selecting the culms rather than felling the trees. The crop of bamboo is ready for harvesting in typically 5 years. The harvesting should be done from the centre because new culms are produced outwards and the older clump is left at the center. A few strong clumps are left on the tree so as to support the new soft culms for a few months otherwise they would bend.
Culms which are dead or become dry should be removed. Stems less than 2.5m should be removed if the clump has more than 10 culms. It is necessary to clear-fell the heavily congested clumps. Culm cutting is done only in the dry seasons and not during the rains. Generally a long sharp knife or a curved saw is used for harvesting the bamboo.
The average weight of each culm is considered to be 15-20 kg and it is believed that 1 acre of land with 200 bamboo plants can produce around 13.5 tonnes of bamboo on the 5th year of planting.
Bamboo farming project report – post harvest management
Preserving the harvested bamboo is highly important because they are susceptible to decay and attack by powder post beetles. Some non-chemical methods are used to treat harvested bamboo such as:
- The culms that are cut at the bottom are left standing on the clump such that assimilation of the leaves goes on and the starch content is reduced which thereby increases the durability of the culm against the infestation.
- Storing the culms above the fireplaces inside the houses blackens the culms and due to the heat the starch within it gets destroyed. Generally bamboo culms can also be kept in heating chambers with temperatures around 120-150˚C for 20 minutes to protect them against insect attacks.
- The culms of bamboo are painted with slaked lime such that the water absorption is delayed and leads to higher resistance against fungi.
- The freshly cut bamboo culms are soaked in mud or stagnant water for a few weeks so that the starch content is reduced and the bamboo becomes resistant to borers. Later they are dried in shade.
- The bamboo should be painted with water repellents, so that they are free from mould, insects and rot.
Some chemicals are also used to preserve bamboo and are considered more effective than the non-chemical procedures.
- Chemicals are applied on the bamboo to control infestation by insects.
- The freshly cut bamboo culms are made to stand vertically in a preservative solution so that the culm is coated with chemicals.
- Sometimes big pits are dug and lined with plastic sheets and are filled with a chemical solution into which the cut bamboo culms are soaked for several days.
- Butt treatment method is an economical way of treating the bamboo culms. The bottom part is dipped in a container with preservative solution for e.g. 10% copper sulfate, which improves the service life of bamboo culms.
Bamboo farming project report – economics / cost and profit analysis
The estimation of cultivating bamboo in one acre of land is given here. The values or figures may vary depending on the area of farming and the cost of raw material availability in that area. The data can be just used for reference and it is advised to check the local market for facilities to start bamboo cultivation. Spacing between the plants is an important factor to determine how many plants can be accommodated in one acre of land. The minimum number of plants per acre of land when the spacing is 5 x 4 m is 200 approximately. Whereas when the spacing is reduced to 1.25 x 1.25 m then the number of plants that can be accommodated are 2564.
We assume the following:
- 1 acre of land can accommodate plants: 200.
- 1 bamboo plant cost: Rs 100.00.
- Manure required per plant in 1 year: 10 kg.
- Cost of manure: Rs 2.5/ kg (the cost may vary depending on the type of manure such as FYM or organic).
- Fertilizers required per plant in 1 year: 7.2 kg.
- The cost of fertilizer: Rs 22/kg (the price may change depending on the type and composition of the fertilizer).
- Cost of installing drip irrigation facility for 1 acre of land: Rs 35000-55000 (this price may vary depending on the spacing between the plants).
- Irrigations required in 1 year: 20 (approximately).
- Wage of labour per man-day: Rs 200.
- Land preparation requires: 5 man-days (Rs 2000, if 2 labourers work).
- 20 pits digging and refilling: 10 man-days (Rs 5000 for 2 labourers).
- Planting and stalking: 5 man-days (Rs 2000).
- Application of plant protection: 2 man-days (Rs 800).
- Manual removal of weeds: 5 man-days (Rs 2000 in the 1st year).
- 4 man-days (Rs 1600 in the 2nd year).
- Pruning in the 3rd year: 5 man-days (Rs 2000).
- Other soil activities: 2 man-days (Rs 800).
Harvesting in the 5th and 6th year: 10 man-days (Rs 5000 each year).
|Material and labour
|Investment in (Rs) Year 1
|Investment in (Rs) year 5
|Cost of planting material
|Drip Irrigation installation charges
|Cost of Insecticides and pesticides
|Cost of irrigation
Income and profit
Number of trees that can be harvested are: 180 (it is assumed that there is a 10 % mortality rate).
Per clump the number of culms is: 5.
1 acre of land produces culms: 900 (approximately).
Weight of each culm of bamboo (average): 15 kg.
Tonnes of bamboo per acre: 13.5.
The average sale price of bamboo culms per piece is: Rs 100 (may vary depending on the quality and area of sale).
So the total price of 900 culms is: Rs 90,000 (5th year of planting).
Profit from the investment in the 5th year would be: (Rs 90,000 – Rs 59,280) = Rs 30,720.
Next subsequent year the number of culms per clump increase to 7 (average), so the income in the 6th year would be: Rs 63,000.
It is important to note that the other extra charges like the electricity, transport, labour shed, post harvest management, land, agricultural equipment etc. have not been included in the calculation. These may bring up more investment into the business and also every subsequent year after the 1st year of planting needs some investment into labour, manure, fertilizers and plant protection materials similar to the 5th year.
Sometimes farmers refill the 10% loss of plants by replanting new plants in the 2nd year.
Bamboo farming project report – loans and subsidies
NABARD has a bamboo development policy to help develop the bamboo cultivation sector. It provides funding under the RIDF-JFM model and also micro finances through various NGO’s. For the exact amount of subsidy and loan, it is advisable to visit the nearest NABARD office or contact them over the phone for assistance.
Bamboo farming project report – planting material availability
‘Dongroli nursery’, Dongroli (Mumbai) is a place where 24 varieties of bamboo plants are available for purchase.
Other options to buy commercial bamboo plants can be carefully chosen from a list of nurseries advertised on the agrihub and Indiamart websites.
Read: SMALL SCALE DAIRY FARMING.