Barley Cultivation Guide:
Introduction of Barley: – Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is popularly known as “Jau” in Hindi and one of the most important cereal grain crops after rice, wheat & maize. In India, this crop is cultivated as a summer crop in temperate regions & as a winter crop in tropical regions. Barley is a short growing season crop and has good drought tolerant. In olden days, Barley was mainly used as livestock feed and currently it is one of the grains used daily in human consumption (barley malt).Barley also play major role in industrial consumption. Coarse cereals are made out of this along with other cereal crops like oats, pearl millet (bajra), finger millet (Ragi), corn/maize, sorghum (Jowar). Generally, Barley is cultivated as a rabi season crop in India and sowing being undertaken from Oct to Dec & harvesting from Mar to May.
Health benefits of Barley:- Some of the health benefits with Barley are as follows.
- Barley prevents gallstones in women
- Barley improves immunity
- Barley is beneficial in anemia patients
- Barley prevents bone disorders
- Barley lowers cholesterol
- Barley aids in weight Loss
- Barley aids in Digestion
- Barley controls the Type-2 diabetes
- Barley works as a toxin cleanser
- Barley prevents urinary tract infection
- Barley treats kidney stones
- Barley protects against cancer
- Barley prevents asthma
Barley Major Production States in India:– The major production states of Barley in India are Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, West Bengal, Jammu & Kashmir, Some regions in Bihar, Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh.
Barley Local Names in India:- Barley (English), Jau (Hindi), Barley (Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam), Satu (Marathi), Baarli Arisi (Tamil), Joba (Bengali),Sattu (Punjabi).
Varieties of Barley in India:-
- Malt Barley Varieties: BH-75, PL-426, BH-393 Alfa93*, BCU73*, RD2503,K551,DL88,DWR 28*,DWRUB52*,RD2668*, DWRB 73*,DWRUB64 and DWRUB52*.
- Feed Barley Varieties (Irrigated): RD2035, RD2503,RD 2552,BH 902,PL426,K329,K508,K 409,Narendra Barley-2 (NDB940),BH 393,RD2592 and PL751.
- Feed Barley Varieties (Rainfed): RD2508, K560, K603, RD2624, PL419,RD2660 and Getanjali (K1149).
Climate Requirement for Barley Cultivation:- Barley can be grown as summer crop as well as winter crop. This crop is mainly cultivated as Rabi season crop in India. This crop requires temperature of 12°C to 16°C at growing stage and about 30°C to 32°C at maturity. This crop is very sensitive to frost at any stage of its growth. This crop yield is highly impacted by incidence of frost at flowering stage. Barley has very good tolerance to drought conditions.
Soil Requirement for Barley Cultivation:- Barley crop can be grown on wide range of soils including saline, sodic & lighter soils. However, this crop thrives best in sandy to moderately heavy loam soils having neutral to saline reaction and medium fertility. Acidic soils are not suitable for Barley cultivation.
Propagation in Barley Cultivation:- Propagation is done through seeds.
Land Preparation, Seed Rate, Treatment and Sowing in Barley Cultivation: – Land should be prepared to fine tilth stage and weed free by giving 2 to 3 ploughing with cultivator followed by planking. To prevent from soil borne diseases and pest like Termite, Ants and other insects, seed treatment should be carried. Seed treatment is advisable in barley cultivation to prevent smut diseases and termites. Treat seeds with Bavistin @ 2 gm per Kg seed for the treatment of Loose Smut disease where as in covered Smut disease, seeds should be treated with Vitavax @ 2.5 gm per Kg. Seeds should be treated with 250 ml Formathion (25 EC) in 5 liter of water for 100 Kg seed to prevent the termites. The best method of sowing in Barley cultivation is with a seed drill or dropping seeds with a Chonga attached to a desi plough. Line sowing with seed drill is more effective. The following shows seed rate and spacing in Barley cultivation.
|Seed rate (kg./Ha.)||Production Condition||Spacing (cm)||Time of Sowing|
|Irrigated Timely sown||Irrigated Timely sown||23||10th to 25th Nov|
|Irrigated Late sown||Irrigated Late sown||18||26th Nov to 31st Dec.|
|Rainfed Hilly Region||Rainfed Hilly Region||23||20th Oct to 7th Nov.|
|Rainfed Plains||Rainfed Plains||23||25th Oct to10th Nov.|
Crop Rotation in Barley Cultivation:- Crop rotation is beneficial in Barley cultivation. The following are the preferred combinations.
Maize-Barley, Bajra-Barley, Rice-Barley, Sorghum-Barley, Pigeon pea-Barley, Sugarcane-Barley, Bajra-Barley, Cotton-Barley, Sesame-Barley and Rice-Barley
Note: This crop rotation varies from state to state.
Irrigation in Barley Cultivation:- 2 to 3 irrigations are enough in Barley cultivation for optimum yield.
- First irrigation should be given at crown root initiation, 25 to 30 days after sowing.
- Second irrigation should be given at panicle emergence, 65-75 days after sowing.
Weed Control and Intercultural Operations in Barley Cultivation:- Broad leaf and Narrow leaf are the main weeds found in Barley cultivation. Appropriate weed sides should be used to control these.
- Broad Leaf=> 625 gramsof 2,4-D (Na-Salt 80%) and 625 grams of 2,4-D (Easter 38%) should be mixed in 250 liters of water separately and applied per hectare after a month of sowing.
- Narrow leaf=> 1250 grams of Isoproturan 75 % WPshould be mixed in 250 liters of water and applied in 1 ha land after a month of sowing.
Fertilizers in Barley Cultivation:- The following is the fertilizer application in Barley Cultivation.
|Sowing Condition||Nitrogen (Kg/Ha)||Phosphorous (Kg/Ha)|
|Irrigated Timely sown||60||30|
|Irrigated Late sown||60||30|
|Rainfed Hilly Region||40||20|
How to apply these fertilizers? In case of irrigated crop, 1/2 of the ‘N’ & full dose of ‘P’ should be applied as Basal application & remaining 1/2 of the ‘N’ should be top dressed after 1st irrigation or 1 month after sowing the crop.
Pests and Diseases in Barley Cultivation:- Covered smut, Loose smut, Leaf rust, Stem rust, Stripe rust, Powdery mildew, Net blotch, Spot blotch, Stripe, Root rot and foot rot, mosaic and Sclerotial disease are the diseases and pests found in Barley cultivation. Some of them can be prevented from seed treatment, however, contact local agriculture/horticulture department for appropriate control measures.
Harvesting in Barley Cultivation:- Usually, Barley crop will be ready for harvesting by end of the March to mid of April. Barley should be harvested in right time to prevent from over ripening to avoid breaking of spikes. Barley grain has a property of absorbing moisture from the atmosphere so the crop should be stored in dry place. Machine harvesting is preferred in Barley farming.
Yield in Barley Cultivation:- Yield of the crop depends on the cultivar/variety, farm management practices and weather conditions. An average yield of 18 to 20 quintals/acre can be expected.
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