Basmati Rice Farming Guide:
The following information is about Basmati Rice Farming.
Introduction of Basmati Rice: – These days, farming technology involved using of agro-chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides in greater extent for higher yield in most of the crops. However using these chemicals are impacting the environment and causing health problems. One should come out of chemical intensive agriculture and start thinking of organic cultivation of crops. Organic farming or cultivation basically focus on at achieving agro-eco system which are socially acceptable and ecologically sustainable. Organic cultivation uses ecological principles for crop management. As Basmati rice production is concerned, India is the #1 producer and exporter of basmati rice in the world. In India, Basmati rice is usually used in biryani due their texture/shape and fragrance. This rice has huge demand in international markets as well.
In this article we try to brief about organic basmati rice farming or cultivation practices.
Organic Basmati Rice Cultivating States in India:- Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand are the major basmati rice cultivating states in India.
Varieties of Basmati Rice in India:- Basmati 370 & Taraori Basmati are the two mainly cultivated Basmati varieties in India. Other improved varieties are Pusa-1121, CSR-30, Pusa Basmati-1. Out of all these improved varieties, Pusa Basmati-1 yields more and HBC-19 yields less (Traditional variety). Pusa-1121 has better aroma and yields almost same as Pusa basmati -1.
Climate Required for Basmati Rice Farming:- Basmati rice crop requires evenly distributed rainfall throughout its growth and ideal temperature for its cultivation is 20 to 38. It also requires clear sky during day and low night temperatures.
Soil Requirement for Basmati Rice Farming:- Basmati rice can be grown in all kinds of soils. However, heavy neutral soils like clay loam, clay and loamy are excellent for its cultivation. These soils have the property of holding water for longer period. The ideal pH range of soil for its better yield is 5.0 to 8.5. Alkaline or Saline soils are not suitable for its cultivation.
Seed Selection and Seed Rate in Basmati Rice Farming:- Selecting good quality and genetically good seeds are very important in basmati crop cultivation. Farmers should buy the seeds from the trusted sources.
Seed rate in basmati rice farming is about 6 to 8 kg /acre of land.
Seed Treatment in Basmati Rice Farming:- Once seeds are selected, they should be treated properly. Take 1kg of salt and dilute in 10 liters of water .Soon after this, 8-10 kg of seeds should be poured in this solution to sort out the quality seeds. The quality seeds will reach the bottom where as waste seeds float in the solution. Throw the waste seeds and take out quality seeds and soak them with fresh water for couple of time to wash away the salt. Then these seeds should be kept in the solution of 10 liters of water, 5 grams Emison & 2.5 grams of Agromycin (or) 1 gram of streptomycin for 1 day.
After 1 day, the rice seeds should be spread in a place with wet sacks on the seeds. Then sacks should be waters continuously or at frequent intervals for germination process to start.
Land Preparation and Transplanting in Basmati Rice Farming:- The main field should be dry ploughed 2 to 3 weeks before plantation. After ploughing, the field should be submerged with 5 cm – 10 cm standing water. Incorporate 10 to 12 tonnes of organic manure/compost or 10 to 25 tonnes of green manure. The field should be levelled properly after applying the organic matter. Normally land preparation for rice crop cultivation is 1 time ploughing & 1 time puddling. Make sure the field is flooded at least 3 to 4 days before transplanting the seedlings.
Propagation and Planting Method in Basmati Rice Farming:- Rice is cultivated by growing in nursery and transplanting of seedlings.
- Ideal Time of Transplantation – First week to second week of July.
- 3 to 4 weeks of seedlings should be transplanted in the main field .
- Spacing between the two plants should be 15 cm to 20 cm.
- Spacing between the rows should be 20 cm to 25 cm.
Manures in Basmati Rice Farming:- Apply Farm Yard Manure @ 5 to 4 tonnes/ha & Vermicompost @ 5 to 6 tonnes/ha.
Irrigation in Basmati Rice Farming:- Basmati rice crop requires 2 to 4 cm of water in the field throughout the growing season. Sometimes it requires timely irrigation but low quantity of water during specific period of growth.
Weed Control in Basmati Rice Farming:- In rice cultivation, weed growth is minimal due to the fact that this crop is cultivated under submerged condition of water. Hand weeding should be carried 3 to 4 times @ 3 weeks interval starting from 3 weeks after planting.
Pruning in Basmati Rice Farming: – To reduce the plant height and prevent it from lodging, should cut the flag leaf at about 10 cm from upper most leaf collar without affecting the yield.
Top Dressing in Basmati Rice Farming:- Usually ,basmati crop varieties require low fertilizer quantity. Especially, it requires low quantity of nitrogen to avoid excessive vegetative growth of the crop.
Pests and Diseases in Basmati Rice Farming:- Pests and diseases are main threats in basmati rice farming. Neck blast disease, Sheath blight are the main diseases in basmati crop. Sheath rot & false smut, yellow stem borer, gall midge and brown plant hopper are the main pest found. These pests and diseases can be reduced substantially by applying effective bioagents like “Trichogramma japonicum” & T. chilonis.
Water Drying Before Harvesting in Rice Farming:- Drying the field /Removing the water from the field 2 weeks before the harvesting is mandatory for getting good yield and quality of seed.
Harvesting of Basmati Rice:- This crop will be ready for harvesting when crop turns to golden colour. To get maximum yield, crop should be harvested @ 20 % of moisture @ 35 – 38 days after 50% of flowering. Usually the crop will be ready for harvesting depends on the variety cultivated. The crop should be harvested 25 to 30 days after flowering in early & medium duration varieties. In ate varieties, harvesting should be done 35 – 40 days after the flowering.
Yield of Basmati Rice: – In Organic Farming, yield reduces in the conversion period as chemical fertilizers are withdrawn. The crop yield stabilizes and reaches 95% normal yield rate in 4th year of cultivation.
|Year||Yield in Quintals/Hectare|
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