A step by step guide Beans farming techniques, tips, and ideas:
Today, we get through the farming of beans, beans cultivation practices, beans planting, beans plant care and harvesting procedure of beans. Beans are easily grown from seeds in pots, on the terrace, backyard, balcony and indoors.
Introduction to Bean Cultivation:
Beans belong to Leguminaceae family and is an important vegetable crop cultivated throughout India for its green pod. Beans plant has a climbing habit also. Mainly Indian beans are used in daily vegetable cooking, animal fodder and for soil improvements as well. Green beans are harvested with their beans in a pod before they have had a chance to fully matured. They are more nutritionally comparable to other pod vegetables, being this reason they have very goodgood demandlocal markets. This article details about beans and French beans farming in India.
Indian local names for Beans:
Kamal Kakdi (Hindi), Kakkari (Malayalam),Kakdi-Maraihi) Dosakaya (Telugu), and Vellarikkai (Tamil).
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Commercial Varieties of Beans cultivated in India:
There are two main categories of beans 1) Hills 2) Plains.
Hills popular varieties of beans are:
Ooty 1, Ooty (FB) 2, YCD 1, Arka Komal (Sel.9), Premier, Arka Sampoorna, Arka Bold, and Arka Karthik.
Plains popular varieties of Beans are:
Arka Suvidha ,Arka Komal, Premier, (Sel.9), Arka Samrudhi, Arka Anoop and Arka Suman.
Other varieties of Beans are:
Deepali, Kankan Bushan, Dasara, and Phule Gauri.
The climatic condition required for Beans plantation:
Common Indian beans grow within a range of temperatures of 17.5-27°C requires a cold climatic condition. Temperature above 30°C may cause the bean flower buds to fall and in temperatures above 35°C, been seeds might not form. Apart from this, beans are very sensitive to the night frost.
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French Beans thrives within the ideal temperature range of 20-25°C but can be grown in temperatures ranging between 14 and 32°C. High temperatures will cause poor flower development and poor pods. However, French beans mature faster in warmer climatic areas.
The suitable soil for Beans plantation:
Beans can be grown in a wide range of soils. Indian bean thrives best in loamy, silty loam and clay loam soils. It is necessary to have well drainage of the soil. The soil pH range 5.5 -6.0 with a cool climatic condition is suited for beans farming. It is better to have rich organic matter in the soil for better yield. Adding Farmyard manure (FMY) or any other compost can make the soil rich.
How to prepare the soil for planting Beans:
The main field of beans should be prepared thoroughly by giving 4 to 6 ploughings, Adding organic matter in the field while preparing the field is important for higher yields.
The best season, seed rate and seed treatment of Beans:
Beans seed rate is 8 to 10 kg/ha. Sowing of beans best in the monsoon in July to August, Flowering will start in November to December and are ready for harvesting in January to February.
Beans sowing method:
The seeds may be sown on ridges, or in rows by dibbling or drilling. Ridges and flatbed and furrow layout are used. Spacing in sowing is 1m X 1m or 90 cm X 90 cm.
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Manure and fertilizers requirement of Beans:
Apply Farm Yard Manure (FYM ) 25 tons/ha, each of NPK as basal 90 kg and 45 kg each of NPK is applied as a top dressing on 20 days after sowing.
Water requirement of Beans crop:
Drip Irrigation is the most effective method for beans farming. Irrigation is done immediately right after sowing the seed, again on 3rd or 4th day and after once in a week. is needed. Again Indian bean is commonly cultivated as a rainfed crop, if it’s the rainy season, irrigation should not be given and make sure the soil has good drainage. There are may drip irrigation benefits in growing vegetables,
Weed control operations in Beans production:
3 to 9 weeding are required for control of weeds in beans plantation. Apply insecticides and fungicides from the time to time manner to control diseases and pests.
Pests and Diseases of Beans:
Main pests in bean farming are:1) Leafhopper 2) aphids 3) glasshouse whitefly.
- Pod borer can be controlled by spraying Carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit.
- Leaf hopper can be controlled by spraying Methyl demeton 25 EC or Dimethoate 30 EC at 2 ml/lit.
Main diseases in beans farming are: 1) Powdery mildew 2) Mosaic 3) Rust 4) Anthracnose.
- Powdery mildew: Powdery mildew can be controlled spraying Wettable sulphur at 2 g/lit or dust with Sulphur 25 kg/ha
- Mosaic: To control this remove the affected plants and spray with systemic insecticides to control insect vectors.
- Rust: This disease can be controlled by dusting with Sulphur @ 25 kg/ha.
- Anthracnose: To control this disease, remove the affected plants and pods and apply with Mancozeb 2 grams/liter water.
Harvesting and the yield of Beans:
The Indian bean will be ready for harvesting after 2 to 3 months of sowing. Full grown beans are harvested according to the need. The average yield is 100 – 120 quintal of green pods per hectare can be expected.
Marketing of Beans:
As it has good demand in local markets, can be transported via trucks.
Some facts of growing Beans:
- Usually, under fertile and good climatic conditions, Beans seeds take 8 to 12 days to germinate.
- Beans can be grown on the terrace, backyards, pots, greenhouse, polyhouse, shade net.
- Beans require full sunlight and a minimum of 9 hours of sunlight is ideal.
- Avoid too much nitrogen which can cause lush green foliage.
- Mulching is preferred to retain soil moisture and control weeds and soil erosion.
- Bean plants require regular watering, especially during flowering and pod formation.
- When you apply fertilizers to bean plants, make sure nitrogen content is approximately half when compared to phosphorus and potassium.
- Generally, one bean plant will produce 20 pods and each pod can have 5 to 6 beans, so the total number of beans per plant is approximately 100 to 120.
The bottom line of growing Beans:
Green beans farming is a profitable business.
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