Breadfruit Farming Guide:
Introduction of Breadfruit:- Breadfruit is one of rare fruits in India which is consumed as a vegetable than as a fruit. Breadfruit is grown throughout the tropics and this fruit belongs to the family of “Moraceae” and Genus of “Artocarpus”. Usually, breadfruit is consumed after cooking. However, it can be fried, baked, boiled and roasted. Apart from human consumption, breadfruit tree leaves are being used as livestock (animal) feed. Commercial breadfruit farming is limited in India although India warm costal climate is excellent for its growth. This fruit is produced in Kerala and the Southwest’s Konkan coast.
Health Benefits of Breadfruit:- Following are some of the health benefits of Breadfruit
- Breadfruit is good for heart health
- Breadfruit protects against infections
- Breadfruit is a good source of energy
- Breadfruit helps in digestion
- Breadfruit controls the diabetes
- Breadfruit contains omega 3 & 6 fatty acids
- Breadfruit helps in relieving in tooth ache
- Breadfruit helps in preventing skin inflammation
- Breadfruit treats skin diseases
- Breadfruit is good for hair
Local names for Breadfruit in India:- Bakri-chajhar (Hindi), Nirphanas (Marathi), Irppla, kadapila (Tamil), Gujjekai (Kannada), Jivi kadgi (Konkani), Nagadamani (Sanskrit).
High Breadfruit Production Sates of India:- Kerala and Southwest’s Konkan coast.
Climate and Soil Requirement for Breadfruit Farming:- Breadfruit grows well in hot humid tropical conditions are best for its cultivation. It requires 150 cm to 250 cm annual rainfall with a temperature of 20°C to 33 °C. In the initial stages of the plantation, partial shading helps to grow fast and later stages they thrives best under full sunlight conditions.
These trees grow on wide range of well-drained deep soils with good organic matter.
Land Preparation in Breadfruit Farming:- Prepare the land till the fine tilth stage by giving couple of ploughings. Land should be weed free from previous crops. To increase the soil fertility, any well rotten farm yard manure can be supplemented during the land preparation.
Propagation in Breadfruit Farming:- Propagation in breadfruit farming is done through vegetative cuttings as these fruits don’t have any seeds. Root cuttings of 2.5 cm in diameter and 20 cm in length should be panted horizontally.
Cultivation in Breadfruit Farming:- The best planting season for breadfruit is June to December. Pits size of 60x 60 x 60 cm should be dug at a distance of 10 to 12 meter. Organic manures can be applied at each tree at the rate of 25 kg per tree. There is no particular fertilizer is recommended in breadfruit farming. However, based on the plant age, N:P:K can be applied in the ratio of 7:10:5 at 1 – 2 kg/plant.
Aftercare and Irrigation in Breadfruit Farming:- Irrigation should be given immediately after planting and frequency of irrigation depends on the soil moisture holding capacity and weather conditions. During hot dry summer, frequent irrigation is needed. In case of heavy rains, make sure the water from soil drains out very quickly.To check the fruit rot disease in rainy season, spray the mixture of Bordeaux (1%).
Harvesting in Breadfruit Farming:- Depending on the soil, cultivar or planting material, these trees come to fruit bearing stage in 3 to 6 years after planting. Generally, breadfruits are harvested 2 to 3 months after emergence of inflorescence. Harvesting can be carried by using sickle or manually with hand.
Yield in Breadfruit Farming:- A fully matured breadfruit tree yields about 600 to 2000 fruits which weigh about 1 to 5 kg.
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