Hello farmers, we are discussing today about Cabbage farming in polyhouse along with production practices. Cabbage is a very important vegetable grown worldwide. Cabbage can vary in color from green to red and purple color, and the leaves can be smooth or crinkled. The outer leaves are usually larger than the inner and the stem is short and stout. Plants flower generally after the winter season.
A step by step guide to Cabbage farming in polyhouse:
Cabbage is leafy green or purple color plant grown as an annual vegetable crop. These are a rich source of vitamin A and vitamin C also it contains minerals like phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sodium, and iron. It can be eaten as raw as well as in cook form.
The main cabbage producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, Bihar, Assam, West Bengal, Maharashtra, and Karnataka.
The best cabbage varieties:
Some of the main Cabbage varieties are Golden acre, Pusa Drum Head, Pride of India, Copenhagen Market, Pusa Mukta, Pusa Synthetic, Midseason Market, September Early, Early Drum Head, Late Large Drum Head, K-1, etc.
Requirements for Cabbage farming in polyhouse:
Polyhouse is a house or a structure made of translucent material like polyethylene or glass where the plants grow under controlled climatic conditions. The size of the polyhouse structure can differ from small shacks to big-size buildings as per the need. Crops inside a polyhouse grow regardless of the weather conditions, as the atmosphere can be artificially controlled with ventilators and motorized screens to facilitate crop growth. Also, the poly film on the structure doesn’t allow even a drop of rain to enter the polyhouse structure. In developing countries like India, polyhouse farming is a popular greenhouse technology due to its low cost of construction and very easy maintenance.
Soil and climate for Cabbage production in polyhouse:
Cultivation of Cabbage in polyhouse is done mainly on sandy to heavy soils rich in organic matter. Early crops prefer light soil whereas late crops thrive better on heavier soils due to retention of moisture. On heavy soils, plants develop more slowly and the keeping quality is improved.
Optimum temperatures for seed germination are 25-30ºC. Optimum temperatures for growth and head formation in Cabbage is 15-20ºC
Heat tolerant varieties of Cabbage can form compact head under tropical conditions in day temperature of 30- 35ºC.
Cabbage seed germination:
Cabbage seed germinates best when exposed to a constant temperature of 65 – 70ºF. At this temperature range, seeds will sprout within 3 to 4 days. The seed will germinate in a temperature range of 45 to 85ºF. Outside of the optimum temperature range, seeds can take anywhere from four to 14 days to germinate. Cooler temperatures slow the germination method, while warmer temperatures speed it up. Irrigation must be done early or mid-morning.
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Sow cabbage seed indoors in containers 6 to 8 weeks before the last average spring frost date to produce starts for transplanting. Cabbage seeds need a planting depth of 1/2-inch to 3/4-inch and spacing of inches, with seedlings later thinned to 12 to 24 inches apart, in rows that are spaced at least 18 to 34 inches apart.
The seed rate of Cabbage:
In polyhouse, the seed rate of Cabbage is 200-250 gram for one acre of land.
Before sowing dip seeds in hot water (50°C for 30 min) or firstname.lastname@example.org/Ltr for 2 hours. After seed treatment dry them in shade and then sow on the bed. Black rot generally observed in Rabi. As a preventive measure seed treatment with Mercury chloride is necessary. For that dip seeds in a chemical that means Mercury chloride@1gm/Ltr solution for 30 min after that dry them in the shed. Cabbage crop grown in sandy soils are more prone to stem rot. To prevent it does seed treatment with Carbendazim 50%WP@3gm/kg seed.
Seed transplanting in Cabbage farming in polyhouse:
Cabbage can be planted by direct seeding or transplanting of seedlings. Seedlings must be transplanted as soon as they reach the desired size and only well-hardened, young, stocky plants should be used. Seed transplanting is done on moist soil. The soil around the roots must be firmed and irrigated as soon as possible after the seedlings rare set. Cabbage should be planted on raised beds to reduce water-logging and stem or root rot diseases. Cabbage plant population and spacing influence head size, head shape and yield.
Cabbage plant populations differ according to the target market for a particular crop. Cabbage is a heavy feeder and needs supplemental fertilization in the form of manure or compost, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Fertilizer programs must be based on soil analyses and should be developed for each field.
Cabbage needs micronutrients for proper growth and development. The crop has a high requirement of calcium and deficiencies of this nutrient could occur on acid soils, on soils with very high potassium or very dry soils.
Foliar sprays of calcium nitrate could be used to supply calcium. Magnesium can also be deficient on acid soils, on very light soils or on soils that are very high in potassium.
Water requirement for Cabbage farming in polyhouse:
Cabbage must be irrigated immediately after sowing or transplanting should be irrigated immediately after sowing or transplanting.
Thereafter, irrigation must be applied at intervals of 10 to 12 days in heavy soils or eight days in light soils and the schedule must be followed until the heads are fully developed and firm. Young plants must receive enough water for vegetative growth before forming heads. Excess moisture when the heads have produced may cause them to crack.
First irrigation is given just after transplanting of seedlings and subsequent irritations are given at an interval of 10 to 15 days depending upon the season and soil conditions. Care must be taken to avoid water stress from the time of head formation to the head maturity period. At the time of crop maturity, irrigation must be avoided as excess irrigation at this stage causes splitting of heads.
Proper care for cabbage farming in polyhouse:
- Keeping the bed weed-free and not disturbing the roots of the Cabbage plants are most important when caring for the plants.
- Watering must be at about one inch per week, a little more in dryer climates and less in more humid areas. Soaking should go moderately deep about half afoot.
- Most Cabbage growers use the flooding process of watering rather than overhead sprays because of this requirement.
- Cabbages can be heavy feeders and side-dressing with compost every 3 weeks will keep the soil rich.
- The biggest maintenance when farming Cabbage in polyhouse is keeping them watered.
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Cabbage plant care:
Cutworms: Carefully apply Chlorpyriphos 2 ml/lit in the collar region during evening hours for the control of common cutworm – Agrotis segetum.
Aphids: Install yellow sticky trap @12 no/ha to monitor “macropterous” adults. Spray neem oil 3 % with 0.5 ml Teepol/lit or different insecticides.
Biological control: Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens at 10 g/ kg of seeds and followed by seedling dip @ 5g/ l and soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha along with 50 kg Farm Yard Manure before planting
Chemical control: Dip the plant seedlings in Carbendazim solution 2 g/l for 20 minutes. Drench the soil around the seedlings in the major field with Carbendazim @ 1 g/l of water. Crucifers must be avoided for three years.
Leaf spots: Leaf spot disease can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb at 2 g/lit or Carbendazim 1 g/lit.
Leaf Blight: Leaf blight disease can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb @ 2.5 g/liter.
Ringspot: Ring spot could be controlled by spraying Mancozeb 2 g/lit or Carbendazim 1 g/lit or Copper oxychloride 2.5 g/lit.
Downy mildew: Downy mildew disease can be controlled by combined spraying of (Metalaxyl + Mancozeb) 2 g/lit 3 sprays at 10 days interval.
Black rot: Black rot disease can be controlled by dipping the seeds in 100 ppm Streptocycline for 30 minutes.
How to controls weeds in Cabbage plants:
Weeds in Cabbage plants are controlled mechanically or by hand as well as chemically through the application of registered herbicides. Mechanical cultivation must be done during land preparation until the plants are about half-grown. The first cultivation must be done two to three weeks after transplanting.
Cabbage harvesting procedure:
Cabbage is ready for harvest at 90 to 120 days after planting. Cabbage must be harvested promptly when the heads are firm and mature. Delaying harvest, even a few days beyond maturity can effect in split heads and increased incidence of field disease.
Harvesting Cabbage can be done based on market need. In case of high demand for Cabbage and offers high price the crop is harvested early. Cabbage harvesting is done with the help of a knife.
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