Cauliflower Farming (Gobi/Ghobi) Details:
Introduction of Cauliflower:- Cauliflower is one of popular vegetable and known as “Ghobi or Gobi” in India and this flower belongs to “Cruciferaceae” family often overshadowed by its green cousin broccoli. This edible portion of the cauliflower is called ‘Curd’ surrounded by leaves narrower than those of cabbage. There are two main seasonal types of cauliflower is cultivated in India they are 1) Early season type crop 2) Late season crop. Late cauliflower types are grown for a longer period compared to Early crop type.
Health Benefits of Cauliflower:- Some of the health benefits of cauliflower is listed below.
- Cauliflower promotes heart health.
- Cauliflower lowers cholesterol levels.
- Cauliflower helps in building healthy immune system.
- Cauliflower is rich in calcium and minerals.
- Cauliflower works as anti cancer agent.
Local Names of Cauliflower in India:-
Phool gobhi (Hindi), பூக்கோசு (Tamil), Phool Gobi/फुलकोबी (Marathi), ಹೂ ಕೋಸು/Hoo Kosu (Kannada),കോളിഫ്ലോവേര്/Cauliflower (Malayalam),Phula Kobi (Oriya),Phull Gobi(Punjabi), Fulevar (Gujarati),ফুলকপি/Phulkopi(Bengali).
Commercial Varieties of Cauliflowers Cultivated in India:- There are many varieties in cauliflower cultivation as they are season bound, care should be taken while sowing the seeds or transplanting. There are three types seasonal varieties in the cultivation of Cauliflower. a)Early crop b) Mid seasonc) Late Crop.
Varieties that are suitable for monsoon season i.e. June to July are:
Early Kunwari,Pusa Katki. The curds become ready in Sept to Oct. Aghani would mature in November, Possi in Dec and maghi in Jan. Early crop varieties produce short plant.Pusa Deepali is also early crop variety and its curds start maturing in November. Pusa synthetic variety suitable for plantation in Sept month and it’s curds become available in Dec to Jan.
The late crop variety is snow ball which can be planted in Oct to Nov and it’s curds become available in Feb to Mar.
Agro-Climatic conditions for Cauliflower Farming:- Proper climatic conditions are almost required depending on the variety of the cauliflower. Cauliflower grows well in a moist and cool climate. Cauliflower can sustain to low temperatures and for hot climatic conditions just like cabbage. Extreme dry conditions or low humidity are not suitable for Cauliflower cultivation.10°C to 25°C is optimum temperature for good seed germination. High temperatures cause poor quality of curds. Lower temperatures may result in delays in maturity and undersized curd.
Soil requirement in Cauliflower Farming:- Cauliflower can be grown in wide varieties of soils provided they are rich in organic matter and holds sufficient and finally possess a good water drainage. Sandy loamy soils are recommended for early crops and for late crops, clay loams and loam soils are preferred. This vegetable thrives best in soils whose P.H. range is 6.0 to 7.0.It is better to go for soil testing g before cultivation. If the soil possess PH value below 5.5, liming @ 5-10 quintal/ha should be done for successful crop. Soils higher in PH value (> 7.0) decrease the availability of boron.
Soil Preparation in Cauliflower Farming:- The soil should be thoroughly prepared by 1 – 2 corrosive ploughing by a soil turning plough followed by 3 – 4 ploughing with desi plough to make the soil loose and friable. Organic manures like Farm Yard Manure (F.M.Y) should be applied at the time of main field preparation. Cauliflower requires better prepared soil than what cabbage farming requires.
Seed rate in Cauliflower Farming:- In cauliflower cultivation seed rate depends on season. For early crop an average of 600 – 750 grams per/ha is required and for late crop 450 – 500 grams /ha is sufficient.
Sowing Time in Cauliflower Farming:- The seed should be sown in nursery beds in May to June for early crop cultivation, July to August for main crop cultivation and for late crop cultivation Sept-Oct.
Spacing and Layout in Cauliflower Farming:- Before seedlings are prepared in nursery beds, furrow type of layout & ridges should be prepared for this crop and the plants should be transplanted in main filed after 3 to 4 weeks. Spacing between plants should be 45 cm X 45 cm for early crop and 60 cm X 60 cm for late crop.
Inter cultural Operation:- To kill the early weeds, shallow cultivation should be given in the cauliflower plantation by hoe or khurpi and provide soil mulch. Don’t cultivate in deep as it may destroy the Cauliflower plant roots located top 3 to 6 meter in the field soil. Start weeding as soon as transplantation is done in the main field. The cauliflower plants should be slightly earthen after 4 to 5 weeks of transplanting.
Manures and Fertilizers in Cauliflower Farming:- For best result 15- 20 tons of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) or any compost should be added the soil about Four weeks before transplanting in preparation of soil. 100 kg of N, 50 kg of P2O5 /ha should be applied in Cauliflower cultivation.
Irrigation in Cauliflower Farming:- Watering should be provided to crop every 4 – 7 days to the early planting and 10 to 15 days for late crop cultivation. At head formation time, there should be enough moisture content in the main field, so irrigation is required at this point in time. When cauliflower is cultivated late in the season, it should be irrigated frequently. Drip irrigation or Sprinkler irrigation can also be considered for utilizing the water source effectively.
Harvesting of Cauliflower:- Cauliflower would be ready for harvesting when the proper head has developed. Make sure the head is compact and the plant should be cut below the head so that the stub has left the head from damaging during transportation. The cauliflower plants should be when curds are well developed. As all curds will not come to the maturity at the same time, so only those which are full developed are removed. Harvesting during morning or evening is preferred so that the produce may be kept cool for the market.
Yield of Cauliflower:- For early cauliflower crop, yield of 200-250 quintal /ha can be expected. For late season crop, yield could about 250-300 quintal / ha.
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