Hello farmers, how about getting proits from Cauliflower farming in polyhouse? well, we help you with polyhouse cauliflower production practices. Cauliflower is one of the most important vegetables grow in India and the scientific name of Cauliflower is Brassica oleracea var botrytis. It is a popular vegetable and this belongs to family Cruciferous and it works as an anti-cancer agent. Cauliflower promotes heart health, lower cholesterol levels.
A step by step guide to Cauliflower farming in polyhouse
In India, Cauliflower cultivation is done in almost all the states, but the major cauliflower cultivation states are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Assam, M.P., Gujarat and Haryana. Cauliflower has achieved importance as one of the important and popular vegetables in various parts of the world.
It is a rich source of protein, carbohydrates, vitamin-B, and vitamin C as well as various minerals which are necessary for human health. It is grown for its edible flowering head and consume as a vegetable in curries, soups, and pickles.
The best yielding Cauliflower varieties:
The Cauliflower varieties can be grouped as early, mid-early, mid-late and late-season varieties based on maturity groups.
Early varieties are Early Kunwari, Pusa Early Synthetic, Pant Gobhi 3, Pusa Deepali, and Pant Gobhi 2
Mid-Early Varieties are Improved Japanese, Pusa Hybrid- 2, Pusa Sharad, Pant Gobhi- 4.
Mid Late Varieties are Pusa Synthetic, Pant Shubhra, Pusa Shubhra, Pusa Himjyoti, Punjab Giant 35.
Late Varieties are Pusa snowball-1, Pusa snowball K-1, Ooty-1.
Soil requirement for Cauliflower farming in polyhouse:
Cauliflower cultivated on any good soil from clay to loamy, although the fairly deep loamy soil is most desirable. Soils with high moisture- holding capacity are preferred in a late-season since water stress adversely affects curd development. In the rainy season, soils that dry rapidly are ideal so that the cultural and harvesting operations can be done easily. It is sensitive to high acidity, and the optimum soil pH level for maximum production is 5.5 to 6.0. Cauliflower farming in polyhouse is moderately sensitive to salinity in soil and water.
About Cauliflower seeds:
Cauliflower seeds are head-shaped. The head of cauliflower, also known as “curd,” is a group of tightly packed flower buds that have not fully developed. The flower buds are attached to fleshy stalks where most of the nutrients for their growth are stored.
How to germinate Cauliflower seeds:
Cauliflower seed germination usually takes 8 to 10 days. When the seedlings appear, remove the plastic and keep the soil evenly moist. Place grow lights or fluorescent lights directly over the seedlings and set them on a timer for 14 to 16 hours per day. Keep the lights just a few inches above the plants to keep them from getting long and leggy.
The germinated seedling must be transplanted to the field and an optimal spacing is required so that each one gets proper nutrients. They must be placed in single rows with a distance of 45 × 45 cm for early crop and for a late crop the spacing is 60 × 60 cm. Or else the spacing in case of seeds must be 35 to 50 cm apart in rows which are 60 to 90 cm apart.
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The seed rate of Cauliflower:
For late markets, transplants may be raised in plastic plug trays or plant cells, a polyhouse seedbed, or direct-seeded. Direct seed 2 to 3 weeks earlier than transplanting for the same harvest date. Put seeds 12 mm deep and 35 to 50 cm apart, in rows that are 60 to 90 cm apart. Plant seed spacings that are squarer will aid in providing a more uniform crop.
For early season variety, Cauliflower seed rate for polyhouse 500 gm is required whereas for late and main season variety seed rate of 250 gm per acre is required.
Raised bed for cauliflower cultivation:
- Prepared raised bed for polyhouse a well rotten FYM or compost mix with soil at the rate 4 kg/m2. Make Nursery beds with one meter wide and 15 cm in height.
- After that drench fungicide like Captan or Thiram at the rate 2 g/l of water to check the incidence of fungal diseases.
- The seeds must be sown in lines at a spacing of 8-10 cm between rows and 1.5-2 cm between seeds at a depth of 1.5-2 cm. The seed must be covered with sand and FYM mixture.
- Sowing of seed must be done at a distance 8 to 10 centimeters between seedlings and 1.5-2 cm in the rows. Seeds must be covered with soil and FYM mixture.
- During the monsoon, nurseries must be created under polyhouse or polytunnel. Weeding and intercultural operation must be from time to time. Nursery beds must always be irrigated according to need.
Water requirement for Cauliflower farming in polyhouse:
In the case of direct seeding, plan to irrigate every 3 days until the seedlings are established. Steady, even growth of Cauliflower plants is essential for high quality and yields. Irrigation can also be used to cool plants during periods of high temperature.
Fertilizer can be applied through an irrigation system. Cauliflower requires a regular water supply of 25 mm every 5 – 7 days. The most critical moisture stage is during head development. Irrigation at the wrong time can cause some problems such as head rot of Cauliflower. In polyhouse sprinkler, big gun, furrow, and drip irrigation system are used in Cauliflower production.
Transplanting the Cauliflower seedlings:
- Seedlings become ready for transplanting after 4 – 5 weeks.
- During planting, the distance between the two plants mainly depends upon the fertility of the soil, cultivation season and the market demand.
- In the market, the demand for small and medium-size Cauliflower is normally high; therefore, by reducing planting distance, more Cauliflower curds can be obtained.
Manure and fertilizers for Cauliflower plants:
The requirements of fertilizer and Manure for cauliflower crop are depended upon the fertility of the soil. To determine the fertility of the soil in polyhouse, soil testing should be carried out before start Cauliflower farming. Before transplanting Cauliflower crop adds farmyard manure apply in the soil and mix thoroughly in the field. Generally, the Cauliflower crop is necessary to give Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium for optimum yield.
How to control weeds in Cauliflower farming:
Weed management is a major field problem for polyhouse Cauliflower production. Weeds compete with the intended crop for nutrients, which can lead to a reduction in the harvest as well as a delay in crop maturation. Weeds give a habitat for insects, nematodes and some diseases and can decrease the efficacy of spray-applied pest control materials by interfering with pesticide deposition. Herbicides are obtainable to use on a Cauliflower crop. Good weed control in crop requires the integration of cultural and chemical methods.
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Pests and diseases of Cauliflower:
Beet armyworm: Controlling the beet armyworm include biological control by natural enemies which parasitize the larvae and the application of Bacillus thuringiensis.
Cabbage aphid: If the aphid population is limited to just a few leaves or shoots then the infestation can be pruned out to give control. Verify transplants for aphids before planting. Reflective mulches such as silver-colored plastic can deter aphids from feeding on Cauliflower plants.
Cabbage looper: Looper populations are generally held in check by natural enemies; if they do become problematic larvae can be hand-picked from the plants. Biological controls such as spraying with Bacillus thuringiensis can be most effective at controlling looper numbers.
Bacterial soft rot: Chemical treatments are not obtainable for Bacterial soft rot disease; controls rely on cultural practices, rotate crops, plant in well-draining soils or raised beds and avoid damaging heads during harvest time.
Blackleg: Use disease-free seed or treat with hot water to eliminate fungus before planting. Remove and destroy crop debris after harvest or plow deeply into the soil.
Black rot: Primary method of controlling black rot is through the use of good sanitation practices, rotate crops to non-cruciferous crops every 2 years.
Downy mildew: Remove all crop debris after harvest; rotate with non-brassicas; it is probable to control downy mildew with the application of an appropriate fungicide.
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How and when to harvest Cauliflower in polyhouse
Cauliflower crop is ready for harvest 90 to 120 days after planting. The full white-colored matured Cauliflower must be a harvest for sale immediately. If the harvesting is delayed, then the color of the curds is becoming yellowish color, and its thickness and charm disappear. Therefore it is important to remove the Cauliflower at the right maturity time.
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