Introduction: Hi, polyhouse farmers, we are here with an excellent information of Chrysanthemum Farming in Polyhouse for maximum profits. Chrysanthemum is an important commercial flower crop. The Chrysanthemum flower has both commercial and export potential. The scientific name of the Chrysanthemum is Dendranthema Grandiflora and it belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is a very important flower crop grown all over the world. It gives more yields when grown in polyhouse.
A step by step guide to Chrysanthemum farming in polyhouse
In India, the commercial cultivation of Chrysanthemum flower is done because of its good demand. Flowers are generally used for as cut flowers for party arrangements, religious offerings, and garland making. It is an herbaceous perennial plant that attains a height of 50 to 150cm.
In India, some of the main Chrysanthemum producing states are Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh.
Some of the important varieties of Chrysanthemum are Ajina Purple, Snowball, Potomac, M-24, Agnishikha, Batik, Gypsy Queen, Navneet Yellow, Gamit, Gauri, Pournima, Shabnam, etc.
The requirements for Chrysanthemum farming in polyhouse
Polyhouse is a way of protected cultivation in agriculture. The polyethylene plastic is used to cover the polyhouse structure. It enables to cultivate of high-value crops (horticulture) in the structure. These structures are preferably suited for small farmers and unemployed youth from rural areas. Any type of land can be used for the erection of polyhouse structures.
Precise irrigation and fertilization are probable in polyhouse. Export-oriented production is most possible under these polyhouse structures.
In polyhouse, plants can be grown as per the requirement, irrespective of the weather conditions, because it is a closed structure. The covering of polyvinyl sheets protects seedlings from insect and pest attacks to a great extent, ensuring the production of healthy seedlings.
Plants grow faster inside the polyhouse structure because the temperature remains a little higher inside the polyhouse, even when it is cooler outside.
Cultivating Chrysanthemums under polyhouse conditions and providing artificial environment congenial for its growth and quality blooms is considered as another option to generate the crop throughout the year. For this, the entire parameters essential for flower production are provided under controlled environmental conditions. The temperature, humidity, and aeration, etc are modified according to crop needs.
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Suitable soil for Chrysanthemum farming in polyhouse
Generally, the Chrysanthemum plant prefers well-drained soil. Additionally, it prefers sandy loam of good texture and aeration. A good amount of organic matter and a pH level of 6.5 is essential. Red loamy soil having a good drainage system is good for Chrysanthemum farming in polyhouse.
Prerequisites for site selection for Chrysanthemum farming in polyhouse
The site should be far from traffic, factories, and buildings to avoid pollution. The site must have metallic connectivity. There must be proper transportation carriages to load and unload the materials required. There must be storage and packaging facilities near the site. Proper practices to avoid pest infestation are essential. The site must be fledged with irrigation facilities.
Chrysanthemum planting method
The Chrysanthemum crop can be raised by either of the method plantings by seeds or vegetative propagation. The seeds are directly sown in the field once the bed is arranged. After sowing, the bed is to be watered immediately but mostly seed cultivation is done to raise new cultivars. Hence, for commercial cultivation of the Chrysanthemum crop is done by vegetative propagation. Plant propagation is done through root suckers or terminal cuttings. Terminal cutting produces neat and strong plants and is chosen over root suckers.
The sowing depth of Chrysanthemums
In polythene bags, sowing depth should be 1-2 cm.
The seed rate of Chrysanthemums
In polyhouse, use a planting density of 45,000 plants/acre.
The seed treatment of Chrysanthemums
For Chrysanthemum seed treatment, cuttings are treated with Ceresan@0.2% or Captan@0.2% to protect seedlings from soil-borne or damping-off disease.
How and when to water Chrysanthemum plants in polyhouse
The frequency of irrigation will depend upon the growth stage, weather conditions and soil conditions. Chrysanthemum requires a good drainage system in the soil. Mainly irrigation in Chrysanthemum farming is given twice a week in the first month and then subsequent irrigations are given at weekly intervals.
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The process of Chrysanthemum farming in polyhouse
- Clean the polyhouse, including the walls, floors, and benches, with a commercial disinfecting product before introducing the Chrysanthemums.
- Sterilization eliminates any fungal or bacterial infections that can spread to the Chrysanthemums.
- Plant Chrysanthemum cuttings in sterilized and potting soil that drains well. To sterilize, spread the soil in a metal baking pan and preheated to 180 to 200°F for 30 minutes.
- Let the potting soil cool totally before filling peat pots. The sterilizing process reduces or eliminates issues with disease and soil-borne insects.
- Plant the cuttings shallowly, so the roots are covered with the sterilized potting soil. Place the plant cuttings near the rim and allow them to lean at a 45-degree angle, which allows light to penetrate the soil and reach the emerging root system. Water the growing medium until it is moist.
- Water the plants on a precise misting schedule, particularly during rooting, to ensure the soil doesn’t become overly dry. Set the misting system frequency at 5 to 10 minutes for the first one to three days after planting. 4 to 7 days after planning, the mister is adjusted to a frequency of every 20 minutes and then to a frequency of every 30 minutes after 8 to 15 days. If you don’t have a mister installed, pay attention that the growing medium is moist, not soaking wet.
- Fertilize the chrysanthemums with a gallon, of 1-1-1 liquid fertilizer until the plants begin to flower. Once flowering occurs, reduce this amount until no fertilizer is applied for the last 2 weeks before cutting.
- Set the polyhouse thermostat to anywhere from 68 to 75°F during the growth period, or until the plant begins to flower. Once the flowers begin to bud, decrease the night and day temperature range to 65° Auburn University recommends maintaining a temperature range of 60°F during the “showing color” stage, which is the last two weeks before cutting.
- Water the plants once or several times a day, depending on the polyhouse temperature, to keep the soil consistently moist. Watering the plant during the early or late-morning hours gives the water time to evaporate before nightfall.
Pests and diseases, plant care of Chrysanthemum farming in polyhouse
The Chafer bettle grubs appear usually in July and August at the base cause the wilting of plants. These grubs must be removed by hand and destroyed. It is useful to mix a little 5 percent BHC and DDT dust mixture in the soil. The other insect pest is the aphid that appears in the cold months and sucks the sap from the leaves and spraying Malathion, 2ml in one liter of water, is effective in controlling aphids.
Among diseases, wilt and powdery mildew are very important. The wilted plants must be uprooted and burnt as soon as they appear. To control powdery mildew, the white mold on leaves, dusting with sulfur is helpful.
How to control weeds Chrysanthemum orchard
Weeding and hoeing are yields normally done manually as and when required, normally 8-10 times yearly. Chrysanthemum crop suffers heavily if timely weeding is not given. Also, control of weeds the soil is made loose porous to provide aeration.
Pinching process of Chrysanthemums
Pinching is one of the most important operations in Chrysanthemum farming. Pinching in Chrysanthemum refers to the removal of the growing tips of the plant to induce the growth of vegetative laterals. It reduces the plant height, promotes auxiliary branching, delays flowering and helps in breaking rosetting.
Pinching is performed both in suckers and cuttings. It is generally done with thumb and forefinger. Pinching is most necessary for small-flowered chrysanthemum. First pinching is done when the plants reach a height of 15 to 20 cm with 3-4 pairs of leaves. A second pinching can be necessary if the plants make straggly and lean growth.
Two types of pinching are performed in Chrysanthemum farming. In soft pinching, the soft tip of the shoot along with 2 to 3 open leaves is removed while in hard pinching a longer portion up to hard shoot is removed.
In the case of standard Chrysanthemum crop, only a single bloom on a branch is usually allowed to produce. The pinching is not done if only one central bloom is desired on the major branch. Single pinching is done if two flowers are desired, whereas double pinching is done for 4 flowers.
In spray Chrysanthemum numerous small to medium-sized flowers are formed, therefore, two pinchings are required to encourage lateral growth. As a general rule rooted cuttings are pinched 2 weeks after planting or about 100 days before full bloom.
When and How to Harvest chrysanthemum flowers
Flowering mainly starts after 5 to 6 months of planting. Mainly harvesting of Chrysanthemum flowers is done in October-November month. Harvesting is generally done of fully opened flowers in the morning time. Harvested flowers are then packed in bamboo baskets for transportation and sale purpose.
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