Cluster Bean Farming (or) Guar Cultivation Guide :
Introduction of Cluster Beans: – Cluster bean is an annual legume crop and one of the famous vegetable, popularly known as “Guar” in India. Cluster bean is cultivated for its green vegetables and dry pods, & as a forage crop and also cultivated for Green manure because guar planting increase subsequent crop yields, as this legume crop conserves soil nutrients. It is grown in all parts of India. Cluster bean(or) Guar belongs to family of “Leguminaceae” and its botanical name is “Cyamous tetragocalobe L. Taub”. The guar seeds have three parts: a) germ, b) endosperm c) husk. The very famous guar gum used in mining, petroleum drilling & textile manufacturing, is obtained from the endosperm of the guar seed.
Major Cluster Beans Production States in India:- All over India but Rajasthan is biggest producer of cluster beans.
Health Benefits Cluster Beans (or) Guar Beans: – Some of the health benefits of Cluster Beans are given below.
- Guar beans have low glycemic index, hence good for diabetes.
- Guar beans are good for heart health.
- Guar beans help make bones strong.
- Guar beans make better blood circulation.
- Cluster beans are good at the time of pregnancy.
- Cluster beans stimulate bowel movement.
Local Names of Cluster Beans in India:– Guar (Hindi), Kothavarangai (Tamil),Goru Chikkudu (Telugu), Gawar (Marathi),Mitke Saang(Konkani),Gorikayi (Kannada), Guanra Chhuin (Oriya), Borboti (Bengali), Gawar ki Phalli (Rajastani), Guwar Phali (Gujarati),Guara-di-Phalli (Punjabi).
Commercial-hybrid varieties of Cluster Beans in India:- Goma Manjari,Pusa Mausami (good for rainy season/monsoon crop), Pusa Sadabahar and Pusa Naubahar (good for both summer and rainy season crop) are the famous varieties of cluster beans in India.
Climatie required for Cluster Bean Farming:- Cluster bean grows well in warm climatic conditions and this crop can be cultivated in both summer and monsoon or rainy season. This crop tolerates salinity and drought conditions.
Soil Requirement for Cluster Bean Farming:- Cluster bean grows on wide variety of soils, but thrives excellent in well drained sandy loam soils. Soil pH range of 7.0 to 8.0 should result in good yield and quality. Soil test can be done to find out the nutrient deficiencies in the field. The soil needs to be prepared well by repeated ploughing.
Sowing Season in cluster Bean Farming:- Main crop sowing can be done during monsoon(June- July) and early guar crop is sown from Feb to March.
Seed rate in Cluster Bean Farming:- Approximate seed rate in cluster bean cultivation is about 9 to 10 kg per hectare.
Seed treatment in Cluster Bean Farming:- Treat the guar seeds with Rhizobium @ 600 grams per hectare. Dry the treated seeds in shade for 20 to 30 minutes before sowing in the main field.
Preparation of field in Cluster Bean farming:- Main field should be Ploughed to fine tilth and form furrows and ridges @ 40 cm apart.
Sowing method & Spacing in Cluster Bean Farming:- Dibble the seeds on the sides of the ridges at 10 to 15 cm apart. Flat bed and spacing 60 X 30 cm is recommended.
Manures and Fertilizers in Cluster Bean Farming:- Add about 40 to 60 cartloads of Farm Yard Manure (F.M.Y) (or) F.Y.M @ 25 tonnes / ha at the time of soil preparation. Should apply Inorganic fertilizers 25 kg of N, 50 kg of P 50 and 25 kg of K/ha as basal. Should apply 25 kg of N/ha as top dressing in 1 month after sowing the seeds.
Weed control in Cluster Bean Farming: – About 3 weeding should be carried out to control the weeds in the field.
Irrigation in Cluster Bean Farming:- Irrigation is required immediately after sowing the seeds and subsequent irrigations should be carried out @ 7-10 days intervals. Watering the field may also depend on the soil type and season. If it is rainy season, Irrigation may not be needed. Drip irrigation system can be adopted for effective use of water.
Pests and Diseases in Cluster Bean Farming:- Below are the commonly found pests and diseases in guar cultivation.
Leaf hopper, ashweevils, pod borer are main pests in cluster bean plantation.
- To control the leaf hopper, spray dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/liter of water (or). methyl demeton 25 EC 1 ml/liter of water.
- To control the ash weevils, spray phosalone 35 EC @ 1.5 to 2.0 ml/liter of water.
- To control the pod borer, spray quinalphos 25 EC 2 ml/liter of water (or) carbaryl 50 WP 2 grams/liter of water.
Leaf spot and Powdery mildew are the main diseases in cluster bean cultivation.
- To control leaf spot,spra mancozeb 2 grams/liter of water.
- To control powdery mildew,dust with Sulphur 25 kg/ha (or) spray wettable sulphur 2 grams/liter of water. Should repeat the application @ 2 weeks interval.
Harvesting of Cluster Beans:- Cluster beans will be ready for harvesting in 60 to 90 days and the green pods can be harvested from the plant by cutting (or) by twisting. picking of green pods should be continued over a period of time as they continue pop up as the plant grows.
Yield of Cluster Beans:- The yield depends on good farm management practices and variety. An average of 35 to 55 quintals per hectare can be expected.
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