Coconut Production Guide:
Introduction to Coconut Production:
Coconut is one of the best plants that can produce fruits for years. There are many improved/hybrid/commercial varieties grown across India. Coastal areas are very famous for coconut production. By following some tips and proper management practices, one can obtain decent profits with coconut production. In the following article let us discuss month wise tips and cultural practices to follow throughout the year (month wise) when you plan for coconut production.
Coconut Production Practices – the top Coconut Production States in India:
The following are the top 10 coconut production states in India.
- Tamil Nadu
- Andhra Pradesh
- West Bengal
Coconut Health Benefits:
The following are some of the health benefits of the coconut fruit.
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- Good for the immune system and it can work as anti-viral, antibacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-parasite.
- Coconut provides a natural source of energy & enhances physical and athletic performance.
- Coconut is good for digestion and absorption of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals.
- Consumption of coconut improves the insulin secretion and symptoms of diabetes.
- Coconut may protect from a certain type of cancers.
- Coconut may reduce the risk of heart attack. It can also improve HDL (good cholesterol).
- Coconut may restore and support the thyroid function.
- Coconut can help in protecting against kidney disease.
- Coconut is good for weight loss.
- Coconut is good for hair and skin health.
- Coconut has good anti-aging properties.
- A coconut is an excellent option for protecting from sun stroke.
Coconut in Indian Languages:
Coconut (English), Nariyal (Hindi), Thengai (Tamil), Nalikeram / Thenga (Malayalam),Kobbari Kaaya(Telugu), Thenginakai (Kannada), Narcole (Bengali), Naliyer / Nariyal(Gujarati),Naarlu (Konkani), Naral (Marathi), Nadia (Oriya), Gola / Nariyal (Punjabi),Narjeel(Kashmiri).
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Coconut Production Practices – In the month of April:
- You must make sure that the soil is suitable for coconut growing by digging of a profile pit of 3 feet X 3 feet X 3 feet.
- If there is any calcareous nodules or sheetrock presence, those soils are not suitable and must be avoided plantations.
- You must ensure that the soil is well-drained and keep in mind that the coconut trees are sensitive to waterlogging conditions.
- In case of going for the soil test, a soil sample should be collected for every one feet depth of soil from the profile pits.
- If the soil pH value ranges from 7.0 to 8.0, then you can consider the soil for growing coconut trees.
Coconut Production Practices – In the month of May:
- Ploughing should be carried out in summer with MB plough twice and levelling of land should be done.
- Alignment and peg marking for pit digging at 8 meter X 8 meter or 7.5 meters x 7.5 meters spacing between the rows and should be given. If the spacing is 8 meters x 8 meters, it will accommodate 60 coconut plants/acre whereas 7.5 meters x 7.5 meters can accommodate 70 coconut plants/acre.
- Pit digging – Care should be taken while pit digging. Make sure to place the dugout topsoil (1 ½ foot) to the right side of the pit. The dugout bottom soil (1 ½ foot) should be placed to the left side of the pit.
- The dugout pits should be allowed to expose to the sun at least for 2 to 3 weeks before filling the pits to control soilborne diseases.
- The ideal pit size should be about 90 cm X 90 cm X 90 cm.
- Quality planting material is very important as these trees are going to serve for years to come. Quality and disease-free planting material should be procured from certified nurseries.
Coconut Production Practices – In the month of June:
- Each Pit filling should be carried out with topsoil mixed with 20 to 25 kg’s of well-decomposed farmyard manure (FMY) and 1 kg of single super phosphate and 1 kg of Neem Cake and 100 and 100 grams of 10 % Follidol dust.
- You must ensure to fill the pits with the soil at least 6 inches above the ground level so that when the soil settles down, it will be at the ground level at the time of planting.
- Securing the field is one of the priority tasks needs to be completed by arranging the fencing around the field to prevent any trespassing by animals.
- Generally, drip irrigation is recommended in a coconut orchard, so this requires marking for trench cutting. One should complete the trench cutting for installing the drip irrigation.
- Farmers can make additional income by growing intercrops during initial years. You can sow any green manure crops or inter-crops with the receipt of monsoon showers.
Coconut Production Practices – In the month of July:
- Selecting the quality of coconut seedlings is another important task before any planting is done.
- Selection should be made on coconut plants which have sprouted early in the nursery bed and vigorous growing.
- Select the plants which are free from diseases.
- Select the seedlings which are at least 1 year old with more number of healthy leaves and stout stem at the plant base.
- Selected planting material should be transported to main field from the nursery.
- After getting required plants, keep them in a trench near the water source, and they should be watered regularly till the seedlings are planted in the field.
- If there is any indication of monsoon delay, you must ensure that the pits dug for plantation should be soaked by providing regular irrigation.
- Make sure the coconut saplings (seedlings) planted at the centre of the pit.
- Watering should be done immediately after planting in the pit.
- Irrigation should be given at every 5 to 6 days interval during the first month and later at 8 to 9 days interval provided there are no rains during the initial 2 years. There is no need of any watering in rainy season and make sure the soil has well-drainage in case of water logging conditions.
Coconut Production Practices – In the month of August:
Weed free plantation ensures good yield and less consumption of fertilizers / nutrients / manures. Weeding should be carried out at least once in a month during rainy season (monsoon season) to control weeds. Clean and make the plant basins to retain the water by working around the plant base.
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Coconut Production Practices – In the month of September:
- Apply 10 grams of Carbofuron – 3g granules in the leaf whorls to save the coconut plants from the beetles, black headed caterpillars and red palm – weevil attacks.
- If slug caterpillars are observed well before defoliating the coconut leaves, you can control them by spraying any contact poison like Monocrotophos.
Coconut Production Practices – In the month of October:
- Gap filling should be carried out in case of any plant death. These dead plants should be replaced by new plants.
- In case of high rain fall zones, planting of coconut can be carried out in the months of October and November.
- Farmers can go for any inter crops for rabi season during this month, if they did not cultivate any intercrops during the months of June and July.
Coconut Production Practices – In the month of November:
- Mulching can be done in this month to prevent the soil moisture loss and control the weeds apart from preventing from soil erosion. Mulch materials like dry leaves and coconut husk can be used.
- Make sure to water the plants regularly at 7-9 days intervals.
- It is advised to provide first trop dressing in the plant basin with 125 grams of urea plus 250 grams of Super phosphate plus 425 grams of MOP and water immediately after the application.
Coconut Production Practices – In the month of December:
- It is essential to keep the coconut plant basins weed free by hoeing and mulching the soil.
- To control any termites at the base of the trunk, spray Chloropyrephos @ 5 ml / litre of water.
- Monitor each and every plant for any appearance of small circular holes on the stem with brownish viscores fluid oozing out, this indicates the red palm weevil pest/disease attack and this can be controlled by root feeding with Monocrotophos 10 ml / litre of water and immediate removal of the dead and dying plant.
Coconut Production Practices – In the month of January:
- In this month, make sure to provide frequent and regular irrigation at 7 to 9 days interval.
- Mulching should be done at the plant basins with coconut husk or any other dry hay which can later serve as good organic compost.
Coconut Production Practices – In the month of February:
- In this month, make sure to water the plants 6 to 9 days regularly and avoid any water stress.
Coconut Production Practices – In the month of March:
- Apply the fertilizers at least six inches from the plant and irrigate the pits immediately after application of fertilizers.
- Apply 1 full basket of mulch material to prevent the moisture evaporation and weed growth in the plant basins.
Coconut Production Practices – April Month:
- As it is the summer time in India, coconut plants should be irrigated regularly either through drip irrigation or at least once in 4 to 5 days interval through basins irrigation. However, drip irrigation is most recommended watering method as it saves water, controls weed growth and properly ensures fertilizer application at the root (if fertilizers are provided through drip system).
Coconut Production Practices – May Month:
- As it is a hot summer month, avoid any water stress and provide regular and sufficient irrigation.