Commercial Pig Farming
The following is all about Commercial Pig Farming Business in India.
Introduction to Commercial Pig Farming
Pig farming in India is one of the lucrative and profitable livestock businesses and most of the people are successful in commercial pig rearing business. Commercial pig farming is beneficial due to the fact that pigs are prolific breeders can deliver 10 to 14 piglets in a single birth. Pig meat (pork) has an excellent demand since this red meat is a good source of protein and tasty as well. As pigs are prolific breeders, the animals in the farm can be doubled within a short period of time. Pigs have fast growth rate than other livestock in a similar category.
Pork has good demand in the export market as well. Apart from meat, there are other products such as pig fat, skin, hair, pork, and bones are used to make some luxury items. To be successful in commercial piggery business, you must have a proper pig farming business plan based on your budget. Nowadays there are many pig farming training centers and Pig breeding centers established in India. Before entering into commercial piggery business, you must know the facts different breeds of pigs and their management. You can attend any pig training courses to know more about commercial pig farming business. You can also visit nearby pig farms for learning about problems in commercial pig farming business. Let us discuss more on how to raise pigs for meat in the commercial livestock business.
Scientific Name of a Pig
- Sus scrofa domesticus.
Pig in Indian Languages
- सूअर /Sooar: Hindi.
- பன்றி / Paṉṟi : Tamil.
- പന്നി / Panni : Malayalam.
- ಹಂದಿ / Handi : Kannada.
- పంది /Pandi : Telugu
- শূকর / Śūkara : Bengali
- ડુક્કર / Ḍukkara : Gujarati.
- डुक्कर / Ḍukkara : Marathi.
- ਸੂਰ / Sūra : Punjabi.
- سور: Urdu.
Pig Rearing Advantages and Benefits
Well, there are many benefits and advantages of commercial pig farming business.
- Pigs have excellent feed conversion ratio. They feed on various inedible feeds, forage crops, byproducts of grins from mills, byproducts of meat, damaged feeds and garbage. Pigs convert this useless stuff into the nutritious meat.
- Commercial pig farming in India can create employment and help the financially weaker sections/communities.
- Pig farming can also contribute to local as well as national economy.
- Pig growth rate is faster than other animals and they are prolific breeders and produce 10 to 14 piglets in a single birth. They can also produce 2 litters/year under ideal pig management practices.
- Pigs do not require expensive housing hence commercial pig farming does not require a huge investment.
- The setup and management of commercial pig farming are easy.
- The other best benefit is you can retain almost 70 to 80% of meat of body weight of pig (carcass return).
- Pig meat has excellent demand both in domestic and export markets.
- Apart from pig fat being used as feed for poultry, the byproducts of pig such as ham, bacon, sausages, lard, pork (meat) have good market worldwide.
Who Can Start a Pig Farming Business
- In fact, anybody who wants to make good profits.
- This can be taken as a part-time job for additional income.
- It is best for uneducated and unemployed people.
- It can also be a best fit small-scale farmers.
- Women from agriculture sector can try this business.
How To Start a Commercial Pig Farming Business
In order to be a successful pig farmer, you must have basic ideas about pigs and their management. This includes a selection of quality pig breeds, good pig farming site, building a secured and safe shelter, pig feeding management, pig breeding management, and protecting pigs from various diseases. Prepare pig rearing business plan which should include all the financial aspects of purchasing pig breeds to marketing the pigs.
To obtain maximum profits from commercial pig farming business, consider the following:
- Proper schedule of feeding.
- Secured and safe housing/shed.
- Proper estrus (heat) detection and mating.
- Proper care for pregnant sows.
- Make sure hygienic farrowing pens.
- Proper care and management of newborn piglets.
- Ensure early weaning.
- Ensure early postpartum mating.
- The animals must have proper health coverage.
How To Choose Perfect Location for Commercial Pig Farming
- Choose a location free from pollution.
- The selected site should be on elevated to prevent any water from rains.
- It is better to choose a location with good road/transport facility, and electricity.
- The location should be closer any veterinary aid.
- Select a pig farming location in areas where enough laborers are available.
- It is better to be close to any town which can make marketing of pigs easy.
Housing / Shelter Requirement for Commercial Pig Farming
- You must make sure that proper housing and related equipment for raising pigs commercially are in place before getting the animals.
- Construct a shelter that can protect pigs from adverse climatic conditions, to prevent diseases, to control parasites and to protect from external predators.
- The pig house should have good cross-ventilation and air-flow. You can build separate pens for boar, farrowing, dry sow and weaner.
- House flooring can be covered with straw or paddy husk to keep the pigs warmer in winters.
- You can also heat lamp in extremely cold winters. In summer times, sprinkle the water on the roof and cover with any cooling material.
- Keep the pig house always clean and dry.
- The house floor should be built with a rough surface.
- Make proper draining channels to dispose of any effluents.
- You can build 3-meter x 3-meter pens under village conditions.
- Housing walls should be 4 feet to 5 feet high from the ground.
- Any gourd rails should be provided with G.I pipes.
- In addition to guard rails, creep space should be provided for the piglets in any corner of the house.
- Provide shade in prolonged sunshine conditions as pigs can be overheated.
- Ensure availability of clean water in the house.
- Disinfect the pens especially when keeping the pregnant pigs.
How Much Area and Water Required for Pigs in the House
Boar (Male pig):
- Covered floor area in the house: 5 to 7.5 square meters / Pig.
- Open yard area: 9 to 12 square meters / Pig.
- Water Requirement: 46 liters.
Farrowing (Pregnant pig):
- Covered floor area in the house: 8 to 9 square meters / Pig.
- Open yard area: 9 to 12 square meters / Pig.
- Water Requirement: 21 liters.
- Covered floor area in the house: 1 to 2 square meters / Pig.
- Open yard area: 9 to 12 square meters / Pig.
- Water Requirement: 4 liters.
Dry sow :
- Covered floor area in the house : 2 to 3 square meters / Pig.
- Open yard area : 1.5 to 2 square meters / Pig.
- Water Requirement: 5 liters.
Breeds for Commercial Pig Farming
There are many local types available however, they are not suitable for good weight gain in commercial pig farming business. Hence, one should go for exotic pr imported breeds of pigs. Here are some the popular pig breeds.
- Yorkshire (white and light).
- Knight houses.
- Chester White.
- Poland China.
- Ghungroo pig (Indigenous pig for the rural farmers with a litter size of 6 to12 piglets).
The best pig breeds for commercial pig farming are Large White Yorkshire, Hampshire, Landrace and Ghangaru. The large white Yorkshire is top breed for meat production. An adult boar (male) can weigh up to 350 to 400 kg where as adult sow can weigh up to 250 to 300 kg. They are excellent for cross-breeding.
Selection of Commercial Pig Breeds
- Breed selection and gain and feed efficiency, and fertility are most important factors that influence the success rate of commercial pig farming. It is better to take veterinary professional at the time breed selection so that healthy and disease free animals should be selected.
- Purchase the breeds when the animals weigh about 85 to 90 kg. Select gilts (female pigs)from sows which have consistently farrowed and weaned large litters
- Purchase breeds only from certified pig breeding facilities and avoid individuals and markets.
- Select the breeds with high performance in daily weight gain and good feed conversion ratio.
- When purchasing getting complete records/history of pigs (for both male and female) is extremely important.
- The boar (male breeder pig) should be selected from a females which have consistently farrowed and weaned high litters.
- The feed conversion from weaning to 85 to 90 kg weight would be the most desirable factor while choosing the boar.
- Generally, a good boar (male) will gain weight of 85 to 90 kg in 150 to 180 days would be good type to select.
The following factors need to be considered while selecting a breeding stock of pigs.
- Litter size of pigs.
- Strength and vigour of litters
- Milking ability of pigs
- Temperament of pigs
Feed Management in Commercial Pig Farming
- In any livestock business either for meat or milk needs good nutritious feed. Good feed inputs make quick weight gain in commercial pig farming. You should stick to feeding schedule of all the animals in the house. Uncontaminated feed should be supplied along with fresh and clean water. Buying feed from market may incur some expenses. If you have 1 to 2 acres of land, you can grow grain crops like paddy/rice, maize, sorghum, wheat, oats, and millets. Saving on feed cost directly reflects in pig farming profits.
- Apart from regular feed, supplemental feeds like fishmeal, oil cakes. mineral mixtures, salt cubes can be added in regular pig diet.
- You can mix antibiotics of 10 mg/kg of feed/fodder with the instruction of veterinary professional.
- Generally, feed intake in commercial pig farming should be based on pig weight and age.
|Feed Requirement in commercial pig farming based on weight|
|Weight of pigs (in kg’s)||Consumption of feed/pig/day|
|25||2 kg to 2.5 kg|
|50||3.25 kg to 3.5 kg|
|100||5.3 kg to 5.5 kg|
|150||6.8 kg to 7.2 kg|
|200||7.5 kg to 8.0 kg|
|250||8.3 kg to 8.6 kg|
Breeding Management in Commercial Pig Farming
- In commercial pig farming, pig breeds will be mature for breeding at the age of 240 to 275 days (8 – 9 months), usually, they weigh about 90 to 100 kg at the time of breeding.
Commercial Pig Breeding Chart:
- Gilts breeding age: 240 to 250 days.
- The breeding weight of gilts: 3 months to 4 months.
- Heat / estrous period in Pigs breeding: Lasts for 3 days.
- Best time for breeding: First day for gilts and second day for sows.
- of services per sow: 2 at an interval of 13 to 14 hours.
- Period of heat/ estrous cycle: 21 days.
- Heat occurrence after weaning: 2 to 9 days.
- Gestation period: 114 to 115 days.
The breeding management in commercial pig farming includes the following tasks:
- Age of breeding stock.
- Detection of heat in breeding pigs.
- Flushing in pigs.
- Care and management of pregnant pigs.
- Management of pigs at farrowing.
- Care of pigs during farrowing.
- Removal of needle teeth.
- Management of pigs during lactation.
The male piglets may be castrated when they are 21 to 25 days old if they are not chosen for the breeding purpose.
Pigs Care and Management in Commercial Pig Farming
- In any livestock farming, care should be taken throughout their growth period to prevent any unhealthy conditions and diseases.
- Newborn piglets should be vaccinated against Swine fever at the age of 60 days. Pigs are more prone to worm infection which can cause to lose weight drastically, hence frequent deworming should be carried in all the animals.
- Skin infections are also very common in pigs. For the treatment, contact local veterinary facility.
- In case of any disease, The pen and shelter should be thoroughly cleaned out and washed.
Some of the common diseases in pigs are:
- Infectious arthritis.
- Dry, flaky and itchy skin.
- Bacterial infection
- Swine influenza.
- Sarcoptic mange.
- Cystitis and urolithiasis.
- Salmonella Infections.
Note: For symptoms, control measures and treatment of above-said diseases, talk to your veterinary doctor.
Marketing of Pigs
Once pigs are reached marketable weight, you can sell them to slaughterhouses and wholesale livestock dealers. The commercial pig farming does not require extensive marketing as pork has excellent demand. They can be even sold at the farm gate.