Starting a pig farm is a project that can bring satisfaction and happiness to farmers if done well. Establishing a pig farm can bring income if it is done properly. Pig farming is easy and is a great way to make a good profit in the short term. If you are not careful, some common mistakes that you can make in raising a pig can make the task more difficult. Let’s check out a few common mistakes in Pig farming below.
Common mistakes in Pig farming
Pigs are one of the smartest animals you can raise. Not only will they learn how to dig a hole under a standard metal or wooden fence, but they will also remember how they did it so they can do it again, and teach others. You need to buy special hog fences to keep them closed. You can use hog panels, which have narrow openings at the bottom and wide ones at the top, or you can install a three-strand electric system. Whatever you choose, you must use strong fencing materials and train your pigs immediately.
Hog panels are great because they are rigid and hard to bend. They handle the pressure of the pig well. However, it can also be more expensive. The plus side is that if something falls on it, you don’t have to worry about it getting damaged or inoperable. If you decide to use electricity, you must inspect your fence before inserting the pig. Make sure they can’t move their body below the bottom line and make sure the fence is well charged around the entire perimeter.
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Don’t give them enough space
Pigs try to poop in specific areas of their yard, after which they become much easier to clean. However, if you are collecting your pigs in a pen, you will soon find that they start to develop an odor. Make sure you have a pig pen from your house as much as possible (this will also help reduce fly problems) and give your pigs as much space to roam as possible.
Our pigs are kept on almost an entire acre of land, most of which are shaded by large trees. This gives them plenty of space to hang around, reducing the chances that they will become overly curious about the fence because they are bored. When our piglets are young, put them in a “training pen” that consists of a pellet fence in a large electric-enforced area. It teaches them to be aware of electricity and also helps them to get used to it. Then, set them free.
Giving your pigs plenty of space also helps reduce their chances of being infected by parasites. Since they will not stick to their waste all day, they are less likely to pick up anything unpleasant in the soil.
Do not provide adequate shelter
Proper housing and equipment for raising pigs are essential to provide shelter against bad weather, prevent disease, control parasites, and save labor. You do not need a massive barn to shelter your pigs. If you have been raising pigs for a few months before going to the butcher, a three-sided structure with a roof is a great shelter from the elements.
Remember that you also need some shady places, as pigs cannot sweat and will get very hot. A wallow will help them cool down, but they can also burn in the sun if they have light skin. Again, you don’t have to fancy your shelter. A pellet building will work too (but remember, keep it up – your pigs will be curious and will eventually try to destroy it).
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Now, this is an exception if you are raising pigs in the winter. October arrived with several inches of snow and cold temperatures and quickly learned the mistakes of our methods. You will need a large barn to keep the pigs during the winter, especially if you plan to farm. However, a simple shelter will work fine in most cases.
The wrong choice in pig breeds
Which breed of pig is the most profitable?
The most profitable pig breed is Berkshire. Choosing the right pig and feeding to maximize genetic potential are the keys to success. Firstly, choose a pig that matches your target show goals in terms of age and maturity. Choosing the right breed is essential for a successful pig farming business. Therefore, choose the race wisely. You should choose breeds that are readily available in your area. Indigenous breeds are also a good option but yields will be lower. Try consulting with some existing producers in your area, and ask for help choosing the right breed for your business.
Some common and popular breeds of pigs for commercial production are;
- American Yorkshire
- Chester White
- Gloucestershire Old Spots Pigs
- Large Black
- Tamworth Pigs
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Don’t know about breeding
Pigs are naturally very good breeders. If you keep a good ratio of sows and boars, they will grow easily. Pigs usually reach the breeding age quickly. Boars and sows are both suitable for breeding at 8 months of age. The duration of sow lasts from 2 to 3 days. But the first day is the best time to breed, and the second day is the best day to sow. The lactating sow is ready to breed again 2-10 days after weaning and the pig gestation period does not exceed 115 days. Generally, a sow can give birth to about 8-12 piglets twice a year, and each time.
Feeding takes up about 70% of the cost of raising pigs to maturity. To make any significant profit, you must find an alternative source of feed that is high quality but also cheap. Farmers need to find a cheap source of carbohydrates and learn to mix their food.
Feeding your pigs with cheap good feed;
- Cassava root can completely replace Maize as a source of energy for pigs.
- Cassava leaves are a good source of protein.
- Dried cassava peel (cassava husk or covers) also has relatively high fiber. Palm oil should be added to reduce dustiness.
- Sweet potato root can be purchased and dried in the sun and used as a source of energy for pig and cooking to improve digestion.
- Sweet potato leaves provide a good protein source for growing pigs.
- Green bananas contain lignin and should be bought and cooked and given as part of the feed.
- Banana leaves and banana leaves can be fed directly to pigs.
- Groundnut cake and palm kernel cake are good sources of protein.
- Papaya leaves are an excellent source of vitamins.
- Papaya fruit is an excellent source of vitamins. Boil the green papaya fruit before giving it to the pig, but the red papaya fruit can be given directly to the pig.
- Cocoyam leaves provide 25% protein to growing pigs.
- Sugarcane leaves as pig feed
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You need to invest in resources, such as automatic feeders and waterers, which are durable and can withstand the stress of pig life. This is especially true for those who give water – when it gets hot, you don’t want to have to rely on hand-watering your pigs every day. You need to give them a reliable source of clean water, and you have to make sure that they are not able to flip that source of water.
Don’t recognize pig problems
This is one of the common problems, where animals show poor development. The only bones in an animal you should pay attention to are the shoulder blades, which should be covered with a layer of meat so that you do not feel them. There are other possible causes of malnutrition, and these are just some of them;
- Inadequate food intake;
- The food is of poor quality;
- There are many parasites in animals;
- Growing pigs requires better quality food and more quantity than adult pigs.
- A sow that feeds pigs are looking for extra food or will start to lose weight so that they can produce milk for their offspring, and later it becomes difficult to regain that weight loss;
- Pigs grow very fast. If there is no big difference in the size of the pigs between the second and fourth month and then there is a problem.
Pig diseases prevention and control
Pigs should be vaccinated against swine fever at 2 to 4 weeks of age. Breeding pigs must be tested for leptospirosis and brucellosis. As a routine measure, all small pigs should be vaccinated against swine fever during weaning.
The farm purchased animals should be purchased from a disease-free herd. Newly purchased breeds must be kept separate from other animals on the farm for three to four weeks. Pig houses are kept empty for three to four weeks to destroy the disease-causing microorganisms.
Underestimating the care needed
Hygienic pigs, regular animal control, and biosafety are important components of breeding. Many farmers do not pay attention to precautionary measures until the main disease affects a large number of people, and then they begin to think about how the disease originated.
What is often forgotten when planning the construction of a facility for keeping pigs is a small room in front of which workers can retrain and disinfect, and before entering the animals. Challenges relate to aspects of animal health and animal welfare. In the age of global epizootic diseases, prevention and biosecurity measures are critical to maintaining a high level of health on pig farms. Furthermore, the demand for prudent use of antibiotics shifts adaptive strategies in prevention efforts and management.
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It goes hand in hand with animal welfare measures, which are to be realized in the present and future pig farming systems. For example, long movement restrictions, large litter management, tail docking, and castration without anesthesia are key issues to be addressed in future animal husbandry systems. In addition, the effects of raising pigs on the environment are increasingly significant.
Caring for a good animal is essential to getting a good product from your business. However, pigs are very tough and require little care and other management. Ensure a hygienic system in the house. This will help keep the animals free from all kinds of health hazards and diseases. It is a good idea to keep boars and sows apart. Not all pigs are necessary for breeding. So, keep some for breeding and you can castrate the rest of the pigs when they are 3 to 4 weeks old.
Avoiding contaminated food and contaminated water will be good for pig health. Take extra care of pregnant and lactating sow. Get them vaccinated regularly to protect them from swine diseases. Always try to have good contact with the vet in your area. It would be good to keep the pig in a quiet place. And don’t let visitors into your farm.
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