A step by step guide for cucumber farming techniques, cul
Introduction of Cucumber:
Cucumber belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family and is an important summer vegetable crop cultivated throughout India. Cucumber plant has a climbing or trailing habit. The tender cucumber can be eaten raw or with salt in a salad. Cucumber is also used in daily cooking. Cucumber seeds can be used in oil extraction.
Indian local names for Cucumber:
Kamal Kakdi (Hindi),
Commercial Verities of Cucumber cultivated in India:
The following are major varieties of Cucumber commercial crops.
- Japanese Long Green.
- Straight Eight.
The climatic condition required for Cucumber plantation:
The cucumber crop requires a moderately warm temperature and grows best at a temperature between 20°C and 24°C. It’s not suitable for frost conditions.
Suitable Soil for Growing Cucumber:
Cucumber can be grown in wide varieties of soils from sandy loam soils to clay soils with good drainage. Make sure the soil contains organic matter by adding organic compost or any Farm Yard Manure (FMY) for higher yield. Soil pH should be between 5.5 and 6.7 is favorable for optimum growth.
Soil Preparation for Cucumber:
The main field should be prepared thoroughly sowing of seeds. Plough the land around four times and form long channels at 1.5 meters apart.
The best season, Seed rate and Seed Treatment of Cucumber:
Sow the cucumber seeds during June or January to April. About 3 kg of cucumber seeds is required for a hectare. Treat the cucumber seeds with Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 grams/kg or Trichoderma viride 4 grams/kg or Carbendazim 2 grams/kg of seeds before sowing.
Sowing method of Cucumber:
The cucumber seed is sown by the method of dibbling at a distance of 1.5 m to 2.5 m (row to row) x 60 cm to 90 cm. (Plant spacing). Two to three cucumber seeds are sown in each pit. Layout in Ring & basing method is preferred.
Manure and Fertilizers of Cucumber:
40 to 50 cartload well decomposed Farmyard Manure (FYM) should be added at the time of soil preparation. , 25 kg P/ha 50 kg N, Should be given ½ N and full phosphorus should be given at the time of sowing cucumber seeds and remaining half N should be given 30 days after sowing of seeds.
Irrigation requirement for Cucumber crop:
Drip Irrigation is the most effective method for cucumber farming. Install a drip irrigation system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5meter. Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively. For summer crop irrigation should be given to maintaining moisture and for rainy season crop irrigation is needed.
Read here for drip irrigation advantages.
Weed control operations of Cucumber
Shallow cultivation can be given during the early stages of cucumber plant growth to control the weeds. Herbicides may be used for controlling the weeds.
Pests and Diseases of Cucumber:
The main disease in cucumber farming is Downy mildew and it can be controlled by applying Mancozeb or Chlorothalonil 2 g/lit twice at 12 days interval. The main pest is Fruit fly and it can be controlled by 1) Picking the affected cucumbers and destroy them.2) Neem oil @ 3.0 % as a foliar application as need-based.
Harvesting and Yield of Cucumbers:
Harvesting can be done @ 40 to 45 days after sowing. On an average of 8 to 10 harvests can be done. Timely picking of cucumber is more important for better quality for fruit. Yield: 8 to 10 t/ha in 80 to 90 days for salad purpose.
Marketing of Cucumbers:
As it has good demand in local markets, can be transported via trucks.
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Healthy vegetable makes you wealthy with good yield.