Introduction on how to Start Dairy Farming in Rajasthan in India: Dairy farming is defined as the process of breeding, raising, and utilization of dairy animals for milk production and also for various dairy products. Dairy cooperatives have not only provided an organized network of milk marketing to the rural families, health services, and feed inputs. Jaipur district was selected purposively because it is 2nd largest milk producer in Rajasthan.
Rajasthan is located in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent and has a geographical area of about 3,42,239 square km, which is 10.4% of the country’s geographical area. Rajasthan contributes about 11% to the total milk production. The state currently represents the 6th largest dairy market in India. The milk production in Rajasthan generally consists of cow and buffalo milk. So, it is evident that the use of cattle for dairy purposes is increasing and this is one industry that is flourishing in the state despite the economic recession in other spheres. Milk is the main source of nutritious food for millions of people and an acceptable source of animal protein for the population in Rajasthan.
A Guide on How To Start Dairy Farming in Rajasthan in India, Dairy Breeds of Rajasthan, Dairy Management in Rajasthan
Key Characteristics of Dairy Farming: Animals that are utilized for milk production in dairy farms are known as dairy animals. Dairy farming growth supplies help current dairy farmers to extra care of cows and buffaloes. Several farmers run a large number of dairy farms and supply the dairy products to expansive organizations.
The best method for the dairy farmer is to operate a dairy farm that gives the greatest advantages to the end organization. It should be able to sustain the impact of dairy farms.
Key characteristics of such dairies are;
- Set up to make a short-term profit.
- Located in and around urban regions that have a large milk market.
- High yielding animals, including buffalos.
- Some mechanization may be seen. However, to keep input costs extremely low, by and large, mechanization will, at best, be rudimentary.
- Poor or no quality control
- Little investment in animal health
- Lactating animals are purchased and then sold off after a lactation ends
- Poor environmental management
- Average herd size 20 upwards
Rajasthan is among the top 5 milk-producing states in the country. Dairy farming business enterprise established for the processing of milk from dairy animals for human consumption.
Main Features of Dairy Farming
The main features of dairy farming are;
- In this farming, high breed milch animals are reared scientifically.
- It is highly capital-intensive agriculture.
- Animal sheds, and storage facilities for fodder, and feeding increase the farming cost.
- It requires highly experienced labor for rigorous care in feeding always and every time.
- Then, there is no offseason in this farming as we see in the farming of crops.
- Attention is paid to animal reproduction and the genetic improvement of animals.
- The dairy business is practiced near urban and industrial areas in Rajasthan.
Advantages of Dairy Farming in Rajasthan
There are several major benefits of dairy farming;
- The dairy business is the business that means increasing high milk productive dairy animals for purpose of milk production. It is a part of farming or creature husbandry, a project for long-term milk production from dairy cows.
- Dairy farming mainly plays an important role in many people.
- In India, Rajasthan ranks 2nd in milk production
- Generally, Rajasthan ranks 2nd in per capita milk availability
- It is one of the most interesting segments all over the globe. Milk demand will rise regularly parallel to the present population and will never decrease. Then, you do not have to be troubled about advertising dairy products. Because it is with the established business and you will be capable to advertise products simply.
- Dairy farming mainly contributes to the economies of some communities, regions, and countries.
- The main benefit is that the rate at which milk is sold within the market has never gone down.
- The milk demand has continuously expanded. Consumption of dairy items is on the rise by veggie lovers and non-vegetarians.
- Compared to products from other industries, milk marketing is exceptionally easy.
- Dairy farming is the only business where income is guaranteed every month.
Categorized the Rajasthan Dairy Market
Rajasthan is an agricultural state with a good potential for milk production. Dairy farming is one of the biggest farming industries in India. Make the dairy sector proper and organized to improve the quality of dairy products, and many dairy farming loans are available in India.
Dairy cooperatives have provided an organized network of milk marketing to the rural households, and also provided the provision of health services and feed inputs. Cost plays an important role in portraying the economic viability of a dairy farming system. It is a critical economic indicator for milk producers, consumers, and policymakers to provide an effective linkage for fixing the price of milk.
Farmers in Rajasthan realize 60 to 70% of the consumer price from dairy products. Livestock breeds originating in Rajasthan like Tharparkar, Kankrej, and Gir cattle.
The Objectives of the livestock industry in Rajasthan are;
- To design a pattern for better milk production in dairy farms.
- To plan and to improve milk production and productivity in Rajasthan.
- To suggest methods to improve the profitability of milk producers.
Rajasthan has a vast animal genetic resource with a different variety of indigenous cattle breeds. Thus conservation of indigenous cattle breeds is essential due to their potentiality for production of milk or draught capability or high resistance to diseases and heat tolerance ability.
Rajasthan dairy market categorized based on the product type into 18 major product segments are Liquid milk, Ghee, Curd, Paneer, Ice-cream, Table butter, Skimmed milk powder, Frozen or flavored Yoghurt, Fresh cream, UHT milk, Dairy whitener, Sweet condensed milk, Infant food, Lassi, Buttermilk, Cheese, Flavored milk, and malt-based beverages. For each of the product segments, this provides a thorough analysis of the current and historical value and volume trends, market share of key players, and market forecast.
Requirements of Dairy Farming in Rajasthan
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The dairy farming components to be used or installed before and after starting your business;
Shed and Housing – There should be a properly covered area built in the farmland before bringing in cattle to be kept. Good housing plays an important role in keeping the animal healthy and diseases free and productive. For proper production, you must give your animal the required space inside the house. Normally, 40 square feet inside the shed and 80 square feet of open space are required per animal. You have to ensure the availability of about 3000 square feet of land area in small-scale dairy production for 20 animals. About 13,000 to 15,000 square feet of space is required for medium-scale producers.
Land – Farm owners must maintain cultivated areas or land for growing fodder crops for cattle. The selected land depends on the number of cattle to be kept. Typically, 1 acre of land is sufficient to feed around 7 to 10 cows.
Water and Fodder – Water and Fodder are very important because water helps in the growth of green fodder and fodder further helps in the proper nourishment of cattle.
Breed Selection and Vaccination – Make sure, there must be good cow breed selection to yield more milk. Moreover, to control diseases and protect cow’s health, their caretaker must have a strict vaccination schedule.
Milk Production in Rajasthan
On average collecting 24 lakh liters of milk per day, Rajasthan Co-operative Dairy Federation (RCDF) is one of the biggest dairy co-operatives in the country. Rajasthan is one of the highest numbers of gaushalas wherein old, infertile and disabled dairy animals are nurtured with care.
The dairy sector in Rajasthan plays a major role in improving socio-economic status. The state is 2nd highest in milk production in the country. Of the total milk produced, 53% is buffalo milk, 36% is cattle milk and 11% is goat milk.
In Rajasthan, per capita availability of milk is highest in the Jaisalmer district. Approximately, 50% of the milk produced is sold in the market and only 25% is consumed at home as liquid milk. The remaining 25% of the milk produced is converted into milk products. In this climatic scenario, the dairy farming sector provides sustainable year-round income to a large number of farmers. Over a decade, there has been an incremental increase of about 3% in some in-milk bovine with a maximum increase in Jaisalmer and Pali districts.
Factors Affecting Dairy Farming in Rajasthan
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Following things should be evaluated before starting dairy farming in Rajasthan;
It is also critical to know the nutritious food for the cows or cattle. By providing dairy animals with clean drinking water is of incredible significance. The animal does not require clean drinking water as much as a milk-producing creature requires. Cattle require 5 liters of clean and fresh water to produce about 1 liter of fresh milk. Green fodder mainly helps in producing more milk and spares the cost of nourishing for the owner. Timothy, Clover, and Horse feed are excellent kinds of green fodder to be given to cattle.
You wish to keep it in your intellect. While purchasing the cattle, try to cattle the milk 3 times before buying. For dairy animals, it ought to be at least 16 to 17 liters and for a buffalo, normal milk production ought to be at least 12 liters.
Clean and Hygienic House
The basic prerequisite is to keep bovines and cattle stay upbeat and pick up more efficiently. It ought to be well ventilated, and floors ought to be non-slippery. The shed must be away from the roadside at the slightest 900 square meters away and not be situated at lower lying zones as amid heavy downpours water will fill up those zones first. By and large, 40-80-square feet open space is required per animal.
The main important thing to keep in mind before you begin the commerce of dairy. It is suggested to have a veterinary specialist nearby to the farm to make sure ease of access and availability. Continuously keep the dairy animal inoculated timely by a veterinary specialist. Though, leave them loosened in a shed to keep them fit, as moving openly will decrease bloating in them.
Feeding Practices for Dairy Framing in Rajasthan
Feeding dairy animals with good and high-quality nutritious foods ensures proper growth and good health of the animals. Therefore, always try to feed them a sufficient amount of nutritious food. Try to add as much green food for dairy animal growth as possible with their regular food. Since green food mainly helps the animal to produce more milk and helps the producer to reduce feeding costs. If possible, try to make a grazing place for your dairy animals. Along with nutritious foods, always provide animal’s sufficient amount of clean and fresh water.
Generally, a milk-producing animal needs 5 liters of water for producing one liter of milk. Therefore, always serve them a sufficient amount of clean and fresh water.
Dairy animals need to be fed for proper maintenance of their body and milk production. Extra feeding is necessary in case of pregnancy for the good health of the calf.
- Fresh drinking water and mineral mixtures must be fed to the dairy animals of all age groups and health conditions
- Fodder concentrates that is a mixture of grains and legumes seeds/urea
The dry matter content in various foods is as follows:
a. Concentrates: 70%
b. Green Fresh fodder: 10%
c. Green dried in air or sun: 20%
d. Dry fodder / crop residues: 85%
Dry matter requirement must be made with 1/3rd of green fodder 1/3rd from concentrates and 1/3rd from dry fodder. The protein content in leguminous seeds is 20-24%, food grains is 8 to 12% and oil cakes is 24%
To provide energy to the dairy animals, food grains can be fed which are the best source of proteins and fats. Mineral mixtures are necessary especially in growing and pregnant animals.
Dairy Breeds in Rajasthan
Native Cattle breeds in Rajasthan are;
The Rajasthan state has three main native cattle breeds. The main native cattle breeds are Rathi, Tharparker, and Nagori.
In the northern districts of Shri Ganganagar, Bikaner, and parts of Jaisalmer, Rathi cattle breed is reared for dairy purposes which are partially irrigated or irrigated arid zones with alluvial or loamy soil.
The Tharparkar cattle breed is native to the Jodhpur and Jaisalmer districts which have an arid climate considered by low rainfall and desert soil. Tharparkar breed reared for the dual purpose of draught and milk production. It can produce milk under rigorous feeding and unfavorable environmental conditions.
The Nagori cattle breed is used for ploughing, cultivation, drawing water from wells. In addition to native breeds, Gir, Malvi, Kankrej, and Hariana cattle are found in large numbers in the Rajasthan.
These cattle breeds have been reared for increased milk production with an average milk output of about 20 liters per milking per day per animal. Such unnatural quantities of milk stem from a repeated cycle of impregnation and lactation, which reduce the average lifespan of the dairy cattle and also increases the risk of reproductive diseases and udder infections.
- Gir is also called Bhadawari, Desan, Sorthi, and Surati.
- In Rajasthan, it is found in southern Ajmer, Chittorgarh, Bundi, and Kota.
- It is distinctive in appearance having a rounded and domed forehead.
- Gir is mottled with the color ranging from red through yellow to white color.
- Horns are peculiarly curved and giving a ‘half-moon’ appearance.
- Milk yield ranges from 1200 to 1800 kgs per lactation.
- It is also called Red Karachi and Sindhi and Mahi.
- The red Sindhibreed is of distinct red color and darker than Sahiwal. Red color shades vary from dark red to dim yellow but most commonly, the animals are dark red.
- Red Sindhibreed is dual-purpose cattle in many tropical countries.
- Color is red with shades varying from dark red to light, strips of white color.
- Its milk yield mainly ranges from 1250 to 1800 kgs per lactation.
- Sahiwal breed is also called Lambi Bar, Montgomery, Multani, and Teli.
- The cows are brownish red, and shades can change from a mahogany red-brown to more greyish red.
- The color is reddish dun or pale red color, sometimes flashed with white patches.
- It is a heavy breed with an asymmetrical body having loose skin.
- The average milk yield of the Sahiwalbreed is between 1400 and 2500 kg per lactation.
- It is found in Rajasthan.
- It is also called White Sindhi, Gray Sindhi, and Thari.
- The breed is medium-sized and also has a lyre-shaped horn.
- Body color is white or light grey color.
- Typically, the Harianabreed is a white or light grey colored with a coffin-shaped skull. In bulls color between the fore and hindquarters is dark grey color.
- These are a dairy cattle breed that is raised for milk production purposes. It is also called Hisar, Hansi, and Haryanvi cattle.
- The Hariana cattle are beautiful animals with white or light grey coloration.
- It is otherwise known as Wadad or Waged, Wadhiar.
- Kankrej is found in Rajsthan’s southwestern districts of Barmer, Sirohi, and Jalore.
- The unique characteristic of this breed is its large and pendulous ears. The horns are lyre-shaped.
- The Kankrejcows yield an average of about 1738 kilograms.
- The horns are lyre-shaped.
- Color of the animal changes from silver-grey to iron-grey or steel black.
- Rathi breed is an important cattle breed found in Rajasthan in the arid regions.
- These cattle breed functions as a major livelihood source for the farmers in this region.
- These are medium-sized animal which is usually brown with white patches all over the body. Although they are found in a completely brown or black coat with white color patches. Their lower body parts are lighter in color as compared to the rest of their body.
- It is found in Loonkaransar Tehsil of Bikaner and Ganganagar and Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan.
- Horn – Short and generally do not exceed 3 to 4 inches
- Ear – Medium size
- Body – Medium size and symmetrical
- Body Weight – Male – 350-400Kg, and Female – 280-300 kg
- The Malvi cattle are very beautiful cattle breeds.
- These have short, deep, and compact bodies.
- Malvi is found in the area of Madhya Pradesh and the jhalawar districts of Rajasthan.
- Type – Draught
- Color – White
- Males – Grey dark in the neck, shoulders, and hump quarters.
- Head – Short and dished forehead.
- Horns – Horns are strongly pointed emerge from outer angles from the poll.
- Nagori cattle breed are fine, big, upstanding, and active with white and grey color.
- Nagori is a cattle breed in Rajasthan. It is a draught breed used for agricultural purposes.
- It is mostly found in the Nagaur districts of Rajasthan.
- Type – Draught
- Color – White, light Grey.
- Eyes – White color eyelids, heavy and overhanging
- Hooves – Black
- Ears – Medium size and inside are pinkish.
- Muzzle – Black.
- Murrah breed color is jet black with white color markings on the tail.
- In India, the Murrah breed is efficient milk and butterfat producer.
- Butterfat content is about 7.83%. The average lactation yield is changed from 1500 to 2500 kgs per lactation.
- The Murrah buffalo is beautiful.
- It is mainly jet black but appears with white markings on the face or legs.
- The Murrah breed is a dairy breed, and it is raised for milk production. The Murrah buffalo is very popular around the world as a dairy animal.
- The daily milk production of a cow is around 14 to 15 kg, with a maximum recorded production of about 31.5 kg.
- Surti breed is also called Deccani, Gujarati, Talabda, Charator, and Nadiadi.
- Coat color changes from rusty brown to silver-grey.
- The peculiarity of this breed is the high-fat percentage in milk (8-12 %).
NABARD Subsidy for Dairy Farming Business
Dairy farming is a largely unorganized sector in India and the main source of livelihood in rural areas.
NABARD Subsidy for Dairy Farming is;
Dairy farming is a big farming business in India and milk production is growing each year. The NABARD subsidy for dairy farming was launched to strengthen dairy farming in India. The objectives of the scheme are;
- The production of clean milk encourage the setting up of modern dairy farms
- Also, increase the heifer calf rearing thereby conserve good breeding stock
- To get structural variations in the unorganized sector.
- To bring the traditional technology to handle milk on a commercial scale
- To make self-employment and provide infrastructure mainly for the unorganized sector.
NABARD Dairy Farming Subsidy Eligibility
Different types of association of persons are eligible for receiving the Dairy Farming Business Subsidy from NABARD;
- Individual Entrepreneurs
- Some groups of unorganized and organized sectors etc.
- Milk Unions, Self Help Groups, Dairy Cooperative Societies, and Milk Federations, etc.
Problems of Dairy Farming in Rajasthan
Every dairy business has some problems or difficulties. Dairy cow farming has some problems. The limitations of dairy farming in India are given below;
- Most of the dairy farmers don’t serious about the total expenditure and profit from this business.
- The breeding process of animals depends on several factors. It is a biological phenomenon and getting expected milk production mainly depends on the proper breeding process. But most farmers are not conscious of this due to a lack of proper publicity and public announcement by the government.
- For a successful business, it requires hardworking, proper care, good management and you have to be alert always. You have to employ several experienced people with high salaries for commercial purposes.
Important Recommendations for the Desired Outcome in Dairy Business
To have safe, good quality milk from healthy dairy animals, sustainable management practices can be adopted that are good for the animals from a social and economic perspective. Dairy farmers can implement the below measures to achieve the desired outcome:
- Animal Health – Healthy dairy animals that produce milk can be taken care of with effective health care programs.
- Milking Hygiene – Conditions to keep milk in hygienic conditions are proper harvesting and storing conditions. Some equipment that can be used to harvest and store milk should be well maintained.
- Nutrition (Feed and Water) – Products of suitable quality must be used to feed the animals that need to be fed and watered.
- Animal Welfare – Animals must be kept free from thirst, malnutrition, discomfort, injuries, disease, pain, and fear.
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