Diseases in Cattles, Causes, Symptoms, and Control

Diseases in Cattles, Treatment, and Preventive Methods

Are you planning to start a commercial dairy farming? Well, then you should be aware of Diseases in Cattles.

Diseases are a serious obstacles to successful in the dairy farming business. The hygienic rearing method will keep the animals healthy and productive. Damp and dirty conditions in cattle house are the root cause of diseases.  The cattle can be affected by many types’ diseases, diseases can be viral, bacterial, parasitic and protozoan.

Read: Dairy Farming FAQ.

Diseases in Cattles (Dairy) or Common Diseases in Dairy Farming:

Viral Diseases in Cattles:

Foot and mouth diseases in Cattles: Foot and mouth disease is a severe disease in cattle.  The cattle with hoof will mainly infect with this disease. This disease spreads through food, used water, saliva, and contiguity of affected animals. Air can also be a source of this disease. High productive cattle are mainly affected with this disease.

  • Symptoms: Body temperature, blisters in and around mouth and hoofs and saliva from nose and mouth. Infected animals cannot walk, and faces constipation. If a pregnant cow infected with this disease, abortion may happen. Infected cattle will loss appetite and hoof drop day by day.
  • Treatment: Preventive vaccination should be given regularly; first vaccination should be given at age 2-3-month, second dose after one month. And the third vaccine should be given after six-months.

Rinderpest disease: Rinderpest is a fatal disease in cow and buffalo. It is tough to save the severely infected animals.

  • Symptoms: High body temperature, loss of appetite, low milk production, saliva from the nose and eyes.  Blotches around lips, teeth, gums, and necks.
  • Treatment: There is no treatment for this disease. Give preventive vaccinations. Provide fresh water and quality food. Infected animals should be kept neat and clean.

Bacterial Diseases in Cattles:

Calf scour: Calf scour is a fatal bacterial disease. Mainly affected to newly born babies. Poor sanitation and poor nutrition are the root causes of this disease.

  • Symptoms: the main symptoms are high fever, watery closet, swelled umbilicus, increase heart beat and loss of appetite.
  • Treatment: Feed the infected baby with its mother’s milk, keep the calf neat and hygienic. Consult veterinarian for suitable medicine.

Calf pneumonia: Young calves are mainly affected with this disease

  • Symptoms: Breathing problems, watery nose, cough, high temperature, high heartbeat and loss of appetite.
  • Prevention: Keep calf dry and clean, make a straw bed to keep calf warm. Keep the cattle house ventilated with good air and light. Consult veterinarian for proper treatment.

Black quarter disease: Black Quarter: Young cows between age 6 months to 2 years are mainly affected with this disease. This disease spreads through wounds.

  • Symptoms: High fever, flatulence, grained skin and sudden death of the cattle.
  • Treatment: take care special care of the infected animal, keep it separately. Vaccination is compulsory for every six months.

Anthrax disease: Anthrax disease is most dangerous bacterial disease. Long rain seasons and damp environments encourage this disease.

  • Symptoms: High temperature, body shakes, breathing problems, loss of appetite, and loose bowels.
  • Treatment: There is no proper treatment for this disease, Preventive vaccination should be given, Clean the house with sodium hydroxide, and clean the equipment with insecticides.

Mastitis disease: Mastitis disease is common in reproductive cows. Causes due to damp conditions in cattle house, poor sanitation and coagulation of milk.

  • Symptoms: red cored mammy, tummy pain, curd type milk, high temperature and loss of appetite.
  • Treatment: Keep the infected animal dry and clean, milking should be done in the neat place with proper sanitation.  Make soft and warm bed for infected cow. Contact the veterinarian for proper treatment.

Navel ill disease: Navel ill disease is mostly seen in newborn. Causes due to impure knife and blades for navel cut.

  • Symptoms: navel of infected cow will get swelled, sore navel, loss of appetite and infected calf will suffer convulsions.
  • Treatment: Infected calf should be kept clean, use sanitized knife or blades for navel cut, and delivery space should be dry and clean. Use antibiotics as per veterinarian’s suggestion.

Parasitic Diseases:

Roundworm: There are many types of Round worms. These are very harmful to animals. Round worm infected animal loss their appetite.

  • Symptoms: Sudden loss of weight, Rough skin and hair, anemia and malnutrition.
  • Treatment: Cattle house should be cleaned regularly with disinfectant, garbage should be kept away. Don’t graze animal in muddy and damp areas. Worm medicine should be given regularly.

Ticks: This disease damages the skin, and these are very harmful. They damage skin and suck the blood from the animal body.

Treatment: Keep the cattle house dry, wash the house with disinfectant, ticks can be removed by scouring comb and consult the veterinarian.

Lice: Lice are tiny parasites, which are harmful to animals. There are two types of lice Biting Lice and blood sucking lice. Biting lice stay behind the tail or hunch. Blood sucking lice are very harmful, they live on the neck, chest, thighs, head, nose, eyes and ears.

  • Symptoms: animal infected with biting lice will feel inching over the body. An animal infected with blood sucking lice will suffer with anemia. Growth of the animals can be obstructed with lice. Production of milk will be reduced in animal infected with lice.
  • Treatment: Treat the animal with lice killing medicines regularly. Good sanitation will keep animal protected from this kind of parasites.

Protozoan Diseases in Cattles:

Babesiasis disease: This disease also known as red water fever. This disease spread through ticks.

  • Symptoms: Red blood cells are mainly infected, red colored urine, high fever, anemia, and sudden death if animals.
  • Treatment: Good Sanitation, spray neocidol on the infected animal, feed boric and potassium aluminum sulphate.  Consult veterinarian when you observe the above symptoms.

Coccidiosis disease: This disease will get infected to the animals of age 6-12 months. Dampy and lower places will encourage this disease.

  • Symptoms: closet with blood and mucus, anemia, liquid defecation, breathing problems and loss of appetite.
  • Treatment: Hygienic environment, nutritious food, clean the house and equipment’s with formaldehyde solution and keep it dry.

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases in Cattle:

Vitamin “A” deficiency diseases: Animal that grazes in the green fields will not suffer with vitamin A deficiency. And the cattle in the field never caught by vitamin A deficiency diseases. But the cattle which eat only straw, hay and grainy food may suffer with vitamin A deficiency diseases.

  • Symptoms: poor eyesight, difficult movement, rough skin, swelled eyes. In case of negligence the animal may loss eyesight.
  • Treatment: mother milk for few days after birth, feed with green grass and artificial Vitamin A supplementary feed.

Vitamin “D” deficiency diseases: Vitamin D deficiency in cattle occurs due to insufficient sunbeam. Lack of calcium and phosphorous can also cause Vitamin D deficiency diseases.

  • Symptoms: Weak bones and teeth, loss of appetite and low milk production.
  • Treatment: Good amount of sunbeam and feed with fish liver oil and artificial Vitamin D supplement food.

Vitamin “E” deficiency diseases: Vitamin E deficiency occurs cattle.

  • Symptoms: Fatigue, contraction of bone, muscle, abnormal movements, low reproduction and infertility.
  • Treatment: Feed them with green grasses, leaves and germinated crop. Supply artificial vitamin E supplementary feeds. Feeding calves with mother’s milk for a few days will solve vitamin E deficiency diseases.

Digestive Diseases in Cattles:

Bloat disease: It is a fatal disease in dairy farming. Irregular feeding and rotten feed is main causes for this disease.

  • Symptoms: swollen belly, watery mouth, dyspnea, breathing problems, improper movements, red colored eyes and infected animals stop ruminating.
  • Treatment: remove gas from the stomach, avoid broken grain feed and feed them with pulse or pea grasses. In severe cases an operation is necessary. Provide enough water as per the requirement.

Diarrhea in Cattle: The root cause of diarrhea can be due to different types of virus, bacteria, fungus, germs like protozoa, various types of worm, etc. the causes can be eaten rotted and polluted hay, leaves, straw etc. from the field while grazing.

  • Symptoms: Diarrhea, loss water, sickness, loss of the appetite, pain in the belly, blood from the closet, thirsty, blood from the closet, and severe diarrhea can make cow die.
  • Treatment: good sanitation, house should be dry and clean, feed with a healthy and nutritious feed. Provide good fresh, clean water. Consult the veterinarian in case of severity.

Metabolic Diseases in Cattles:

Milk fever: Cows get infected with this after giving birth. Lack of calcium and lack of minerals are the main reasons for this disease. Metabolic problems of minerals can also cause milk fever.

  • Symptoms: Loss of appetite, unstable, weakness and infected cow lays down on back legs. Saliva flows from the mouth, tongue pops out from the  mouth and the cow stops walking. Sometimes belly gets swollen
  • Treatment: consult the veterinarian if you observe milk fever symptoms. Treat the medicine or feed rich in calcium. Make a clean bed for infected cows and give good rest. For preventing this disease, feed cows with calcium enriched food before delivery and feed 30g calcium gluconate mixed with water or food.

Milk And Meat Borne Diseases in Cattles:

Tuberculosis: It is a milk and meat borne disease.

  • Symptoms: Body temperature, sudden reduction in body weight, diarrhea, constipation, long-term cough and dysponea.
  • Prevention: There is no treatment for this disease. The best way to prevent is to kill the infected animal, don’t use milk of infected cows. Clean, fresh and hygienic rearing methods are only the best way to treat this disease.

Tetanus: It is a milk and meat borne disease. Spreads through the milking person and by not preserving the milk properly.

  • Symptoms: Convulsion in affected animals, flat and hard body, tetanus become torpid and the animal gets unconscious sometimes.
  • Prevention and Treatment: mammy should be washed properly before milking and milking man also should wash his hands.  Preserve milk properly and consult veterinarian for proper treatment.

Read:Prawn Cultivation.


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