The majority of the population in Kerala depends directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihood. Kerala produces 96% of the country’s national pepper production. The main spices are Cardamom, Cinnamon, Cloves, Turmeric, and Nutmeg. Other cash crops that make up the agricultural sector include Tea, Coffee, Cashews, Pulses, Nuts, Ginger, and Coconut. Let’s check out district wise crop production in Kerala.
Kerala’s crop pattern is marked by the superiority of perennial crops. Apart from major crop production, Kerala is also a major producer of spices which makes cash crops for the state. The Kerala spice trade is about 3000 years old and it is well known how the fresh aroma of excellent quality Kerala spices attracted foreigners to this country in medieval times. Kerala produces 96% of the country’s national pepper production. Cardamom is exported and brings huge revenue to the country.
Coconuts provide the main source of income in Kerala – from the coir industry to coconut shell samples; Coconuts bring the most economic benefits to Kerala. Kerala provides about 70% of Indian coconut production. Cashew is also an essential cash crop. Kerala also accounts for 91% of the country’s natural rubber production. In addition to Rubber, other planting crops such as Bananas or plantains are also grown in plenty. The Indian state of Kerala has a total of 14 districts. Here, we discuss district-wise crop production in Kerala.
District wise crop production in Kerala
Alappuzha, a district of Kerala known as the ‘Rice Bowl of the State’, is a major producer of rice. An integrated farming system model that incorporated the region’s common and potential production systems, such as Paddy, Coconut, Banana, Vegetables, and Mushrooms, was considered with appropriate interventions. Rice is the main crop followed by Banana, Coconut, and vegetables. Due to floods and unseasonal rains, only one crop of Paddy can be grown in the village.
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The Department of Agriculture deals with the formulation and implementation of various programs to increase the production of both food crops and cash crops in the state. It promotes activities among farmers to promote scientific methods of plant protection, etc., and also manages the supply of high-yielding seeds, plants, planting materials, and plant protection chemicals to farmers.
The department also develops policies and programs for providing loans to farmers. Main crops Paddy, Jowar (including cattle feed), Ragi / Finger Millet, Maize, Small Millet (Thina/Chama), Wheat, Tur/Red gram, Sugar Cane, Pepper, Ginger, Turmeric, Cardamom, Arecanut, Cloves, Nutmeg, Garlic, Mango, Banana, Pineapple, Cashew, Sweet Potato, Sesamum, Coconut, Cotton, Drumstick, Green Chillies, Potato, Groundnut, Papaya, Betel Leaves, Tobacco, Tea, Coffee, and Cocoa.
According to an estimate by the Department of Agriculture, Ernakulam District, more than 6.40 lakh farmers will be involved in the production of about 15,000 tons of vegetables and fruits for the Onam season. Department sources said that about 1000 hectares have already been brought under cultivation and with the reduction in rainfall, the area under crops will increase.
Vegetables being grown for the season include Cucumber, Gourd, Pumpkin, Tomato, Okra, Bitter Gourd, Green Chillies, Cabbage, and Eggplant. The department was engaged in providing seeds to small farmers for self-sufficiency in vegetable production, including those engaged in backyard and roof farming. Seeds supplied by various agricultural offices in Panchayats, Municipalities, and Corporations were in great demand.
Agricultural climate conditions are suitable for the cultivation of plantation crops like Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Coconut, Cardamom, Pepper, etc. A collective of organic farmers has initiated a program to help and rebuild farmers’ fields and livelihoods in Idukki, a spice growing center in Kerala, which has been hit hardest by heavy rains and floods in the state in August. The total geographical area of the Idukki district is 4358 sq km of which 45% is forest cover.
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About 81% of the total land area is less than one hectare and the average land area is 0.56 hectares. Major cash crops cultivated in this area are Pepper, Cardamom, Coffee, Tea, Coconut, Rubber, etc. More than 80% of the cultivated area is under perennial crops. Short-term crops such as Bananas, Tapioca, and vegetables are also grown.
Recently, flower cultivation, mushroom cultivation, medicinal plants, vanilla cultivation, etc., are being taken up by some progressive farmers in the district. The district ranks second in the state in agricultural production. The district has a majority of small and backward farmers. However, in the highlands, there are large orchards of Tea, Cardamom, etc., which are owned by corporates and private agencies.
The backbone of Kanwar is its agriculture, fishing, and other related industries, on which the majority of its population depends for its livelihood. Paddy, Coconut, Pepper, Cashew, Tapioca, and Arecanut grow abundantly in the area along with other crops like Rubber.
This is an important source of agricultural income for the population of the Kasaragod district. There are three types of soil in the three natural divisions. This is a latrine in a highland region. In the Midlands, there is a red fragrant loom of lateral origin with a mixture of clay and sand. The coastline is sandy. The diversity of agriculture is another hallmark of agriculture.
Forests and hilly areas cover the eastern expanse. Forests consist of a variety of timber, along with teak and other orchards. Most of the mountainous areas are cleared and kept for private cultivation. Rubber, Cashew, and Ginger are important crops. In the skeletal plateaus, Cashew trees are grown, while in some patches, Arecanut, Pepper, and Cocoa are grown. Other major crops are Paddy, Coconut, Arecanut, Cashews, Tobacco, Vegetables, and Tapioca.
The development of pulses will be done to increase the area and production under pulses crops are Cowpea. Polyhouses with low-cost technology are working successfully to grow vegetables all year round. It is proposed to assist in the construction of new polyhouses through Krishi Bhavan in special vegetable and flower zones, providing technical assistance to revitalizing poly houses and capacity building.
Spice crops play an important role in the agricultural economy of the state. It is necessary to revive the production of spices to improve the livelihood of the people as well as to improve the foreign exchange earnings. The program also includes pepper rehabilitation programs, intercropping of Ginger, Turmeric, Nutmeg, and Cloves.
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- Vegetables – Major vegetables such as Bitter gourd, Snake gourd, Amaranthus, Bhindi, Cowpea
- Fruit crops – Mango, Jack, Cashew
- Plantation crops– Rubber
- Spices – Pepper
The Department of Agriculture, in collaboration with the local bodies, will implement various projects to promote the comprehensive development of this sector.
The Department of Agriculture is concerned with the formulation and implementation of various programs to increase the production of both food crops and cash crops in the Agriculture District. It promotes activities among farmers to promote scientific methods of plant protection, etc. and also manages the supply of high-yielding seeds, plants, planting materials, and plant protection chemicals to farmers. The department has offices at the district and panchayat levels. It is present in all the Gram Panchayats through Krishi Bhavans under the department.
- Fruits – Banana, Jack fruit, Mango, Pineapple
- Vegetables – Drumstick, Amaranthus, Cucurbits, Okra, Brinjal, Chillies
- Spices – Pepper, Ginger, Cardamom, Nutmeg, Turmeric
- Plantation crops – Rubber, Coconut, Cocoa, Tea
The main crops grown on this farm are coconut, arachnid, cocoa, and spices such as pepper, ginger, nutmeg, and small crops. The income from these crops contributes a lot to the income of the farm.
- Fruits – Jack, Mango, Banana, Plantain, Pineapple, Papaya, Cashew, Others
- Vegetables – Drumstick, Amaranthus, Bitter Gourd, Snack Gourd, Okra, Brinjal, Green Chillies, Little Gound (Kova), Ash Gound (Kumbalam), Pumpkin, Cucumber
- Spices – Pepper, Ginger, Turmeric, Cardamom, Tamarind, Vanilla, Cloves, Cinnamon, Nutmeg
- Plantation crops – Coconut, Arecanut, Cocoa, Rubber, Tamarind
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Agriculture is the mainstay of the agricultural population, involving 75% of the population directly or indirectly. The major crops grown are Paddy, Coconut, Tapioca, Arecanut, Cashew, Banana, Rubber, Pulses, Ginger, and Pepper.
- Field crops – Paddy, Sesamum
- Fruits – Banana
- Vegetables – Cucumber, Pumpkin, Ash gourd, Bitter gourd, Okra
- Medicinal plants – Lemongrass
- Plantation crops – Coconut, Rubber, Arecanut, Pepper, Cashew
The main crops grown in this district are Paddy, Coconut, Tapioca, Fruits, Spices, Vegetables, etc. The majority of the people of this district are engaged in agriculture and allied sectors. Agriculture is the main activity of Kerala. Palakkad, the largest district in Kerala, is the main agricultural area. The district ranks first in the state in the production of almost all types of food crops and cash crops.
A cropping pattern means the production of the area under different crops at a time. This is a local time concept as it changes from time to time and from place to place. A cropping pattern means the change in the density of any crop in a particular area or area at a given time. The higher the concentration index, the higher the level of interest in the production of this crop.
There are several agricultural institutes like Regional Agricultural Research Station, Soil Testing Laboratory, Fertilizer Quality Control Laboratory, Mushroom Laboratory, and Agricultural Engineering Workshop. Seeds of different varieties of Paddy are produced and distributed through the five state seed farms of the district located at Alathur, Anangandi, Kongad, Kannanur, and Muthalamada.
- Field crops – Rice, Jowar, Ragi
- Fruits – Banana, Mango, Plantain, Jack, Papaya, Pineapple, Other fresh fruits
- Vegetables – Drumstick, Bitter gourd, Okra, Green chilies, Amaranthus, Snake gourd, Brinjal, Ash gourd, Little gourd, Pumpkin, Cucumber, Other vegetables
- Spices and condiments –Cardamom, Arecanut, Pepper, Ginger, Turmeric, Tamarind, Vanilla, Clove, Nutmeg, Cinnamon
Paddy is the most important crop grown in wetlands. Tapioca and pulses are important dryland crops. Other important crops are Coconut, Banana, Pepper, and Ginger. In some areas, Cashew, Pineapple, Sugarcane, Cocoa, and other tree spices are grown. Land available for cultivation is scarce as much of the district is a forest reserve.
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About 75% of the people depend on this sector. Rubber is the most important crop, with orchards covering 478 square kilometers (185 square miles). Hilly terrain and high humidity make this area suitable for rubber plantations.
The department is concerned with the formulation and implementation of various programs to increase the production of both food crops and cash crops in the state. It promotes activities among farmers to promote scientific methods of plant protection, etc., and also manages the supply of high-yielding seeds, plants, planting materials, and plant protection chemicals to farmers. The department also develops policies and programs for providing loans to farmers. The Thiruvananthapuram’s agriculture department has procured about 3,000 metric tons of vegetables from local farmers.
- Fruits – Banana, Jack, Mango, Papaya, Pineapple
- Vegetables – Amaranthus, Cucumber, Snake gourd, Bitter gourd, Okra
- Medicinal and Aromatic crops – Pepper, Ginger, Nutmeg, Clove
- Plantation crops – Coconut, Rubber, Cashew, Arecanut, Tea
Kerala Agricultural University has an important place in the agricultural map of the Thrissur district of Kerala due to its presence, traditional rice lands, numerous nurseries.
- Field Crops – Paddy, Tapioca
- Fruits – Mango, Plantain, Cashewnut, Papaya, Pineapple
- Vegetables – Drumstick, Amaranth, Bitter gourd, Snake gourd, Bhindi, Brinjal, Chillies, Little gourd, Ash gourd, Pumpkin, Cucumber, and other vegetables
- Spices – Pepper, Nutmeg, Ginger, Turmeric
- Plantation crops – Coconut, Arecanut, Rubber
More than 80% of the people of Wayanad depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihood. Coffee, Pepper, Tea, Banana, Paddy, Cardamom, Ginger, Vegetables, etc., are the major crops grown in Vienna at present. A notable feature of the Wayanad district is coffee-based farming where other cash crops are Pepper, Ginger, Cardamom, and Vanilla are integrated. Pepper is a major source of income and employment for rural households in the hilly areas of Kerala. The state of Kerala accounts for about 97.4% of the total area under Pepper cultivation in the country.
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