Drumstick Powder and Oil Extraction (Moringa):
The following guide is about the Drumstick Powder and Oil Extraction process.
Introduction to Drumstick Powder and Oil Extraction
The drumstick is one of the most useful nutritious tropical vegetable trees in the world. The tree is grown for its tender pods, leaves, and flowers that are nutrient-rich. Drumstick leaves contain 90 various nutrients, 27 vitamins, and 18 essential amino acids. The drumstick leaves contain disease-preventing nutrients. The trees are grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. The drumstick tree has many common names for its various qualities such as moringa, drumstick tree, benzoil tree, and horseradish tree. They are an exceptional source of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. The tree is a fast-growing, drought-resistant, and perennial vegetable tree. For its various purposes in commercial production; drying and processing of fresh drumstick hygienically are explained for young entrepreneurs.
The trees are small to medium-sized of about 10 to 12-meter in height. The trunk of the tree can reach a diameter of 35 to 45 cm and is thick corky with fragile stems. The pods are long pendulous reaching 20 to 80 cm in length. The seeds inside are trigonous in shape with wings on angles. The pods of the drumstick tree are a very popular vegetable with distinctly inviting flavor and its leaves are used in dry seasons in South Indian cuisine. Pods are nutrient-rich in Carotene 110 mg, Vitamin C 120 mg, Phosphorous 110mg, and minerals such as Potassium 259 mg, Chlorine 423 mg, Magnesium 28 g, etc. in every 100 grams.
Drumstick Powder and Oil Extraction – Drumstick Industry Outlook
The drumstick is a superfood vegetable for its exceptional nutrition with a variety of potential uses. Compared with everyday food the nutritional values in drumstick products contain significantly higher sources. Based on the high nutrition and health benefits the leaves are converted into a powdered form and pods to drumstick oil for consumption. Nutritional analysis indicates this vegetable would be useful as a food supplement, especially for the economically weaker communities. Besides human consumption, it can be used as fodder for animals and also in other various industrial applications. The drumstick is used in traditional medicines throughout the world to cure ailments such as skin infections, blackheads, anemia, cough, diarrhea, cataract, chest congestion, anxiety, blood impurities, abnormal blood pressure, joint pains, psoriasis, aphrodisiac, lactation, diabetes, eye, and ear infections. Ancient cultures have documented these healing properties. Ancient Egyptians used drumstick oil in skin preparations and ointments. The oil contains cosmetic values and is used in skin and hair care moisturizers. Many commercial companies in various countries started manufacturing different products of drumstick leaves such as drumstick leaf powder, drumstick soaps, drumstick face wash, drumstick tea, drumstick capsules, and tablets. In this article, the processing of fresh drumstick leaves into drumstick dry leaf powder and drumstick oil extract hygienically for consumption purposes is being described.
Drumstick Powder and Oil Extraction-Market Potential and Marketing Issues
This is a business that can combat malnutrition in developing countries worldwide through the production of nutrient-rich drumstick leaf powder. It is also a business in developed countries in the production of drumstick oil in various health and cosmetic industries. By creating global awareness of the benefits of drumstick; the business start to grow to ensure the end-user can receive low-cost products.
Health Products: Drumstick capsules and tablets, Drumstick leaf powder, and other traditional medicines. Cosmetic Products: Drumstick conditioners and moisturizers, Drumstick soaps, and Drumstick facewash.
Food: Drumstick tea, cooking oil, Condiment in various dishes, leaf powder as nutritional supplementary diet.
Drumstick powder is not permitted in herbal medicines but widely used in various formulations of nutraceutical products. Drumstick leaves contain high levels of antioxidants and all essential amino acids unlike in other vegetables. Drumstick powder is marketed in the local and international market as a ‘superfood’ and categorized as ‘novel food’ in the European market as it needs additional safety testing. The demand among senior citizens for nutraceutical products has increased. Market analysts forecast its demand is growing at the rate of 10% per annum.
Raw Materials Requirement for Drumstick Powder and Oil Extraction
The basic raw material required is matured drumsticks pods and leaves. India is the largest producer of drumsticks both in area and production. Fresh drumstick leaves can be grown or can be purchased from local farmers to convert into dry powder and oil. There is no lack of raw materials as this is a year-round production tree producing healthy green foliage, flowers, and pods with the market having excess to supply.
Drumstick Varieties / Drumstick Cultivars
The trees grow 4 to 6 m in height with a higher pod yield producing 200 to 230 pods per tree. Pods are non-bitter with uniform length (65 to 70 cm) and green in color. The pods’ texture is fleshy, non-fibrous, and soft with extended shelf life. Proper pruning produces more side branches yielding high leaf production.
This variety is a higher yield hybrid producing 240 fruits per tree with a yield of 90 to 97 tonnes per hectare. Fruits are fleshy and 120 to 130 cm long. On densely planting, the tree produces a high yield of fresh leaves.
Kudumianmalai 1 (KM -1):
The tree is bushy and starts bearing pods from the sixth month after planting for up to two to three years. Each plant produces 400 to 450 fruits per year, giving both pods and fresh leaves a very high yield.
Harvesting can be undertaken up to 8 to 10 times in a year from the well-established densely planted field. In the production of dry drumstick powder, both matured and immature leaves can be harvested. Young leaves are grayish-downy on long petiole with 8 to 10 pairs of pinnae. Leaves are one to two-centimeter long elliptic bearing on each pinna would be in pairs on the opposite side with one at the apex. Harvesting of the leaves should be carried in the cool time of the day, especially in the mornings as drumstick leaves can easily lose moisture after harvesting.
Selection of Healthy Leaves and Pods:
Pest and disease can attack the foliage of the tree. Fungi, insects, caterpillars cause brown spots on the leaves and some turn the leaves yellow. The leaves that are damaged and diseased are discarded from the harvested fresh leaves. Immature, damaged, or discolored leaves and pods should be separated which can be used for animal feed or compost. Pods should be fully grown having matured seeds in them. Harvest matured pods before they split open and the seeds may fall on the ground. The selected seeds on average should be 1 cm in diameter and weigh 0.3 to 0.4 g.
Fresh matured drumstick leaves and pods are selected for processing. The field dirt and any other form of dirt are removed by thorough washing. Clean water can be used or a very weak bleach solution in the ratio of 1:100 can be used for any germs and dirt.
Drumstick Leaf and Seed Drying:
Most of the nutrients are in the leaves of the tree which can be made into powder by drying them. To prevent dust, pests, and contamination the leaves are dried in a clean place and to prevent loss of vitamins they must not be dried in direct sunlight. Leaves are separated from the stems and spread out onto the trays that are placed inside the industrial dehydrator machine. Maintaining a 50° to 60° C temperature inside the dehydrator for up to 18 to 24 hours, the leaves become brittle and ready to crush easily.
Depending on the production quantity, either a local commercial grain grinder or blender is chosen. Dried leaves are poured into the grinder inlet funnel that let’s pass the dry leaves into the grinding section. The leaves are thoroughly ground into powder and can be collected from the grinder outlet. The collected powder is then sifted to remove large particles or stem pieces. The dry powder is now ready for packaging.
Drumstick Seed Oil Extraction:
Seeds that are matured naturally on the tree will yield more oil. Mature pods are dried that stimulates the fruit opening to release the embedded seeds inside. The seeds are separated from the chaff and other impurities. The collected seeds are then dried in the sun for about two to three days. The seeds should be free from any other unwanted impurity which is very important as this will reflect on the oil extracted. The collected seeds are thoroughly cleaned and dried manually in the sun or in an electric oven to remove the moisture content in the seeds.
The dried seeds are passed inside a shelling machine that will remove the seed coat to get the kernels. The kernels are further dried for about 5 to 7 days at room temperature in a clean and dry place. To extract oil from drumstick kernels, the kernels are passed through the cold presser receiving funnel. The presser separates oil and seed cake. The oil is collected in a container at the oil outlet and the seed cake from the seed cake outlet. The seed cake is used as animal fodder or for water purification.
2.7 kg kernels can produce one kg oil. The extracted oil is golden yellow in color. The oil has to undergo a sedimentation process for about 3-days, this will let settle down the impurities and protein residues. Use a filter cloth of five to six-micron pore size to decant the sedimented oil into another container.
Packing Drumstick Leaf Powder and Oil
The ground and sifted dry powder are packaged in a clean and dry packing unit. Depending on the market packing requirement; the powder is packed in 250 grams, 500 grams, and 1000 grams in metalized, foil pouches or tins. The pouches are sealed properly. The brand adhesive labels are applied to the tins and pouches, and the finished products are packaged in carton boxes for marketing and distribution. The decanted oil after filtering from a 5 to 6-micron cloth is then bottled in transparent PET bottles of different measurements. The extracted oil yield was expressed in percentage, which was calculated as the weight of oil extracted overweight of the sample taken.
Cost and Profits in Drumstick Powder and Oil Extraction Business
Economics in Drumstick Powder and Oil Extraction
Investment and Maintenance pattern on Drumstick farming in a 2500 s.ft to 3000 s.ft space. Pricing is subjective to change depending on the region in which the business is set up. A yield of one-tonne matured drumstick pods produces 263 kg drumstick seeds. While 2.7 kg seed produces one-kg drumstick oil. And it requires 8 kg of fresh green leaves without stems to produce 1 kg of dry leaves. The figures in this project report are not accurate, but to give an understanding to young entrepreneurs on investment and the returns of the drumstick dry powder and oil extraction business project.
Given below are the cost and returns for drumstick leaf powder and drumstick oil extraction.
- Establishing Cost for Drumstick Leaf Powder:
|1.||Land /Building – rental||6,500/-|
|2.||Commercial Flour Grinding Machine||27,500/-|
|4.||Furniture and Fixtures||15,000/-|
|7.||Manual Pouch Sealing Machine||2,200/-|
- Establishing Cost for Drumstick Oil Production:
|1.||Land /Building – rental||6,500/-|
|2.||Cold Oil Press Machine||33,275/-|
|3.||Seed Shelling Machine||26,000/-|
|4.||Furniture and Fixtures||15,000/-|
|7.||Manual Cap Sealing Machine||6,500/-|
- Purchase of Raw Materials:
|1.||Fresh Green Leaves @ 25/- per kg||25,000/-|
|2.||Drumstick Pods @ 35/- per kg||35,000/-|
|3.||Pouches and PET bottles with caps||4,000/-|
- Income on Drumstick Farming:
|1.||Income – Dry leaf Powder @ 650 per kg||81,250/-|
|2.||Income–Oil Extracted @ 1,000 per kg||97,500/-|
|Total Income for 1 Ton on each Fresh Leaves and Seeds||1,78,750/-|
With a one-time investment of less than Rs.200, 000/– on equipment and with recurring Rs.64, 000/– on raw materials; an entrepreneur can get a net income of Rs.178, 750/– per one-tonne drumstick leaves and pods each. If the production and procurement of raw materials increase the profit margin will increase even more.
Why Is Drumstick considered a Superfood?
The by-products of the drumstick trees such as fresh pods, fresh greens, and flowers are packed with antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, vitamins, nutrients, and minerals are fully packed in a recommended dietary allowance (RDA). The drumstick is rich in A, B, C, D, and E vitamins. They are rich in minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, copper, iron, magnesium, silica. Drumstick also contains alpha-linolenic acid, amino acids, plant-based omega-3, carotenoids along nutraceutical properties. Compared with other vegetables and other food products; a dried drumstick of 100 grams contains the following:
- 9 times richer in protein than yogurt.
- 10 times richer in vitamin A than carrots.
- 12 times richer in vitamin C than oranges.
- 15 times rich in potassium bananas.
- 17 times richer in calcium than milk.
- 25 times richer in iron than spinach.
- 30 times richer in magnesium than eggs.
Marketing of Drumstick
The main marketing focus is on showcasing the health benefits of drumstick leaf powder and drumstick oil. There is a number of NGOs and government programs with the purpose of combating malnutrition, a contract to supply with them will allow the business to expand and increase the production process. In the present market, the product has no big competitors. The market demand is growing and the awareness of the product momentum is gaining. Many are focusing on exporting products to the European and American markets for a much higher profit margin. The oil has more cosmetic value and the western market is more inclined towards the cosmetic industry. Retail sales on social media, online sales, and other e-commerce sites are a good market to explore.
Read this: TEAK WOOD FARMING PROJECT REPORT.
The production unit must possess the following requirements:
- License from the State Food and Drug Department.
- MSME & GST Registration.
- For export – IEC Code for end products.
- Registration – PF, ESI, and Labor laws.
- Clearance Certificate from Fire and Safety Department.
- Local authority clearance for shops and establishments.
Training Programs for Drumstick Oil Extraction
For effective handling of the business, an entrepreneur can undergo a short-term training program from the Indian Institute of Food Processing or the National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management or any other government-approved training centers. Sharing the training, knowledge can lead to increase employee knowledge and capabilities. Recruiting an experienced operations manager and marketing manager will ease the running of the business and provide on-the-job training for staff. Being a product for consumption, the operations manager needs to be aware of any regulatory requirements for inspection and certification for safe handling of the product. The operations manager having knowledge on dehydrator and grinder will be added advantage while all other positions can be trained on the job.
Just a couple of machine manufacturers are specified in the article, although numerous machine makers are available in the market. The addresses given for machinery makers have been taken from dependable sources to the best of the knowledge. In case of any incorrectness is noticed, no responsibility is admitted as we don’t convey any proposal or recommendation.
UTM Company Limited
Bharat Nagar, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Dombivli East, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Mob: +91-9920194009, +91-9920196006.
Aarana Solution Private Limited
Sudesh P. Desai (CEO)
1, Preeti Kanha Building,
Behind Portuguese Church & Bharat Bank,
Dadar West, Mumbai – 400028, Maharashtra, India
Mob: +91-9223357207, +91-9820367618.
Anil Kapila (Proprietor)
Plot 1019, Macharia Road,
Naubasta, Kanpur – 208021,
Uttar Pradesh, India.
Mob: +91-9450143995, +91-8318178425.
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