Introduction to Duck Farming Project Report
Today let us discuss about Duck Farming Project Report and rearing methods.
The scientific name of duck is Anas platyrhynchos. It belongs to the family Anatidae. Duck is the common name for a most of the species in the waterfowl family Anatidae. Swans and geese are also included in this family. Ducks are mostly aquatic birds which are smaller than the swans and geese. These are found in both sea water as well as fresh water. Ducks, geese, swans and screamers are classified as Anseriformes. There are 166 species found, though some are probably extinct. The Mallard is the most common dabbling duck species. The northern pintail, American wigeon and different teals are also comes under dabblers. Ducks market is next to to chicken farming in India. 10% of the total poultry population includes duck farming and about 6-7% of total eggs produced in the country. The duck eggs along with meat are relished and consumed throughout the globe. Ducks are mostly found in the Eastern and Southern States of the country, mainly coastal region with non-vivid original stocks. The duck farming has the potential and can provide opportunities for rural people to engage in duck production and they must be given adequate training for duck farming. During 5th Five Year Plan 1981, the Central Duck Breeding Farm has been established in the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India with technical collaboration with Government of United Kingdom in order to introduce ducks of high yielding variety for the advantage of farming society.
Benefits and Advantages of Duck Farming:
Ducks feed on predators and help to grow fingerlings. 2 – 3 % of protein has been reduced by raising ducks in fish ponds. Duck feeds and duck droppings go directly into the water to increase the biomass of natural food organisms and provide essential nutrients.
Ducks make little or no noise.
- Ducks are gentle and soft temperament.
- Ducks are easy to manage.
- Ducks lay more eggs per year than a bird and the size of the egg is large.
- Ducks require less attention and can flourish well.
- Ducks do not require expensive or large scale shelters.
- Ducklings are adorable and supplement their food by eating grains in paddy fields, snails, earthworms, fish and aquatic materials.
We could use them as meat also. Ducks being a larger poultry birds, are less prone to air predators and are excellent foragers. Ducks are much easier to control than chickens. Ducks of laying breeds can be confined with 2 feet high fence, food, water and their buddies have been provided. Ducks are quite hardy, more easily brooded and more resistant to common avian diseases. Ducks are intelligent, tamed easily, and trained to go to the ponds and come.
Read: RAS Fish Farming.
The small house is sufficient for ducks. Wooden or cement floor can resist the predators underneath. Vinyl flooring over the floor makes the cleaning easier. But it is ventilated properly. It should be dry and rat proofed. The roof has been shed type, gable or half rounded. The house must have an easy access to run out as the ducks prefer to be during day time, in winter or in rains. Proper drainage system has been set up. A continuous water channel with 50 centimeters wide and 15 centimeters deep has been constructed at the end on both sides which is parallel to the night shelter in the rearing. Ducks can also be kept in open ponds if the dry sheltered area is available nearer to the pond and they get only part of their food from plant and animals in and around the pond. It is important and necessary to feed the necessary supplement. In tropical areas, duck farming combines with fish farming as the duck manure provides nutrients to plants and animals in the pond which is consumed by fish. Limited ducks are kept in the pond to resist over growth of plant and depletion of oxygen supply which causes death of fish.
Water for Ducks: Even though duck is a waterfowl and it is fond of water. Continuous water channel with 50 centimeters wide and 15 centimeters deep has been constructed at the end on both sides which is parallel to the night shelter in the rearing. In duck rearing, water is not essential at any stage of duck farming. The drinkers are deep to allow the ducks to immerse their heads in that, but not the body as a whole. Deep drinkers resist the ducks to get their eyes, scaly and crusty and it may lead to blindness. They clean their bills periodically in the drinkers and clear off the feed. Swimming has become a disadvantageous to egg laying ducks.
Ducks can be grown in the combination of wet or dry mash. Generally, ducks prefer wet mash which can be swallowed easily. Pellet feeding is costly, but has advantages as saving an amount of feed, minimized wastage, saving in labor, convenience in sanitary conditions. Pellets are four types. One pellet single ingredient like dehydrated alfalfa meal. Second one is grain mixture. Third pellet is a supplement which contains proteins, minerals and vitamins in high level. The fourth is completed ration. Ducks are good foragers. During the first eight weeks, birds should always have access to feed, but later on they may be fed twice a day once in the morning and then late afternoon. The Duck Khaki consumes 12.5 kilograms per day, which depends on the rate of production and availability of greens. Corn, duck pellets, lettuce, other greens, frozen peas, oats and seed, barley, rice, (uncooked or cooked), grapes (half or quarter sized) and nut hearts of any type without salt, coatings have been fed to ducks.
The best producer Khaki Campbell among egg laying breeds. Individually, the total eggs produced are at an average of 365 eggs per duck per year. Khaki Campbell ducks weigh about 2 to 2.2 kilograms and drakes 2.2 to 2.4 kilograms. The size of the egg varies from 65 to 75 grams. White Pekin is the popular duck in the world for table purpose. It weighs 2.2 to 2.5 kilograms at the age of 42 days with the feeding ratio 1:2.3 to 2.7 kilograms.
The incubation period is 28 days for Khaki Campbell. Good results have been obtained at a temperature 37.5 to 37.2°C (99.5 to 99 0 F) in forced draft incubators. The wet-bulb reading on the thermometer should be 30 to 31°C (86 to 88°F) during incubation for the first 25 days and 32.7 to 33.8°C (90 to 92°F) for the last three days of hatching. Sprinkling of lukewarm water having sanitizer for eggs once in a day from 2 nd to 25 th day and can be cooled for a maximum period of half-an-hour. Candling is done on the 7th day. The eggs are turned hourly. The eggs are transferred to Hatcher on the 25th day.
Duck Brooding (0-4 Weeks):
The brooding period is 3 to 4 weeks for Khaki Campbell ducklings and the brooding period is 2 to 3 weeks for meat type ducklings such as Pekin. 90 to 100 square centimeters of hover space have been provided for the ducklings under the brooder. A temperature of 29 to 32°C (85 to 90°F) is maintained during the first week. It is reduced by about 30°C per week till it reaches 24°C (75°F) during the fourth week.
Ducklings may be brooded in litter or batteries or wire floor. Up to 3 weeks of age, floor space of 0.046m2 (1/2 square feet) per bird or solid floor space of 0.093 m2 (1 square feet) per bird would be sufficient. Water in the drinkers should be 2″ to 3” is good enough to drink but not dip themselves.
The ducklings are reared in intensive, semi-intensive or range system. The allowed floor space in the intensive system is 0.279m2 (3 sq.ft.) up to 16 weeks of age, and for semi-intensive system, floor space would be 0.186 to 0.279m2 (21/2 to 3 sq.ft) per bird and allowed in night shelter and 0.929 to 1.394 m2 (10 to 15 sq.ft.) as outside run per bird up to 16 weeks of age. Generally, the ducklings are allowed to move or run at the end of 3 to 4 weeks of age depending upon weather condition. The drinkers should be 12.5 to 15 cm (5” to 6”) deep to allow minimum immersion of their heads. Partitions up to the height of 60-90 cm inside the pens of the house and the outside runs are adequate. A flock of 1000 can be reared per hectare.
Duck Stock (above 17 weeks of age):
The floor space of 0.371 to 0.465* (4 to 5 sq.ft.) per duck is essential in intensive system, whereas a floor space of 0.279m2 (3 sq.ft.) is required in the semi-intensive system in the night shelter and 0.929 to 1.394m2 (10 to 15 sq.ft.) as an outside run bird would be adequate. The feeding space for duck is 10 to 12.5 centimeters for feeding wet mash in the V-shaped feeder. The feeding space for dry mash or pellet feeding, 5 to 7.5 cm. (2 to 3”) per duck would be sufficient. At the age of 16 to 18 weeks, high egg laying ducks have come into production. 98% of eggs were laid in the morning. The nest box of size 30 cm x 30 cm x 45 cm has been provided for every three ducks. The mating ratio of 6-7 ducks to 1 drake in laying breeds and 4 to 5 ducks to 1 drake in table breeds are allowed. Photoperiod 14 to 16 hours per day is necessary for optimum production. In a free range, 1000 ducks are kept in 0.405 hectares depending upon conditions.
Common Diseases of Ducks: Ducks are resistant to common diseases. Some diseases are common for chicks and ducks. As some infections of chicken are transmitted to ducks, it is important to segregate different species. The common diseases are given below.
It is a viral disease in adult birds.
- Symptoms: Vascular damage with tissue hemorrhages and free blood in the body cavities. The lumina of intestine and gizzard are filled with blood. There is no treatment for this disease.
- Control: The birds can be protected by Duck Plague Vaccine, given at the age of 8-12 weeks.
Prevention: By Vaccination.
Duck viral Hepatitis
Affects ducklings of age 2 to 3 weeks.
- Symptoms: characterized by acute course and primarily hepatitis.
- Control: The day-old ducklings can be protected with attenuated virus vaccines. The disease is not stated to be prevalent in India.
It is an infectious disease, caused by bacterial organism Pasteurella Multocoda in ducks over four weeks of age.
- Symptoms: Loss of appetite, high body temperature, thirst, diarrhea, and sudden death. Most common lesions are peri-carditis, arthritis, petechial and echymotic haemorrhages under the skin (Pink skin), in visceral organs, over the serous surface and intestine (Haemorrhagic enteritis). Liver and spleen are enlarged.
- Control: This disease can be controlled by sulpha drug and vaccination at 4 weeks of age and again at 18 weeks. The above diseases are treated with Enrocin or Erythromycin or Neodox-forte or Mortin vet or Workrin or Kayasol or Rabatran Granules.
Young and adult ducks face a serious problem of food poisoning. It occurred by ingestion of bacteria that grows on decayed plants. It can be prevented by avoiding ducks to feed on decayed plant material. It can be controlled by treating drinking water with Epsom salt.
Ducks are resistant to internal parasites. The infection occurs for ducks which have access to stagnated water, small streams and over-crowded ponds. The parasites are tapeworms, roundworms and flukes. These parasites decrease the nutrient assimilation by the bird and anemia due to toxic material excreted and destroying red cells. The external parasites include fleas, lice, mites, and ticks. They cause irritation and aggravation leading to the loss in egg production. They also transmit disease-producing organisms.
This is a condition caused by aflatoxin produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus in the feedstuffs such as groundnut, maize, rice polish and other tropical feeds on storage. Ducks are very susceptible to aflatoxin content in the feed. Out of four alfatoxins, B1 is the most potent. The minimum toxic dose for ducks is 0.03 mg per kilogram. It produces liver lesions resulting in death when present in high concentration. Lower doses produce chronic effects such as lethargy, unthriftiness, hepatitis, and delayed death. When the source is removed from the feed, birds make a rapid recovery.
Cost and Profits in Duck Farming / Duck Farming Project Report / Economics of Duck Farming
The following table gives the proper information about the Cost of Investment of Duck Farming. This is regarding Small-Scale Duck Farming.
|Capital expenditure||Rate||Estimated cost|
|1||The Cost of Setting of Duck Houses (the Duck Housing depends upon the number of Ducks you are going to rear in your Duck Farm one duck needs 15 square feet area)||90 Rs/Bird||90,000 (for 1000 birds)|
|2||Cost of duck poultry||15 Rs/ Bird||15,000|
|3||The cost of power and labor||2.50 Rs/bird||2,500|
|4||Cost of civil works and electrification 4% on shed cost||4,000|
|Total capital expenditure||1,12,000|
|Recurring expenditure will be|
|1||Cost of recurring expenditure which includes (Rs 30/bird for 1000 birds, cost of feed 0-6 weeks of age and cost of electricity, vaccine, labor etc.,.)||1,05,170|
Total Duck Project Cost:
- Capital expenditure: Rs 1,12,000
- Recurring expenditure: Rs 1, 05,170
Total cost = Capital expenditure plus Recurring expenditure = Rs 2,17,170.
|Duck egg cost in market||4 Rupees (approximately)|
|Number of eggs laid by a duck is per year||250 x 4=1,000|
|Eggs laid by 900 ducks 900 x 250|
Per year (100 males /1000 ducks) (a)
Cost of 2,25,000 eggs
|The cost of meat of 1 duck is about||350|
|Cost of 50 ducks at an average (b)||50 x 350 =17,500.00 Rupees|
|Total (a+b)||9,00,000.00+17,500 = 9,17,500.00 Rupees|
|Total investment cost|
Taken average (c)
|2,17,170 to 2,50,000 approximately|
|Profits (d) = (a+b-c)||9,17,500.00-2,25,000.00=6,92,500.00 Rupees.|
|Damages include loss of ducks and duck Eggs (e)||1,00,000.00 (approximately)|
|Profit (d-e)||6,92,500.00-1,00,000.00=5,92,000.00 (Approximately)|
Read: Rabbit Farming Business Plan.