Brinjal is also known as Eggplant. It is a crop grown in warm weather and needs a warm growing season. As Brinjal is a long-term crop, a good amount of fertilizer and fertilizer is required for high yield. Feeding too much nitrogen in Brinjal plants can result in large leafy plants failing to produce fruit. Let’s check out the fertilizer management in Brinjal/Eggplant.
Fertilizer is one of the keys to success in improving Brinjal production. Farmers generally use inorganic fertilizers to increase crop growth and yield. To get the desired change and maximum benefit for the crop, farmers have to use different rates of fertilizers that provide essential nutrients and minerals for a successful production. Therefore, it is necessary for farmers to thoroughly understand various aspects of mineral nutrients, their functions, sources, and their use for better yields.
Fertilizer management in Brinjal/Eggplant
Use organic fertilizers such as blood meal, well-rotted manure, cottonseed meal, or bat guano. They prefer fertile, well-drained soil with plenty of organic matter. It is always good to put compost or well-rotted manure around your plants. When you grow Brinjals, you need to ensure that your plant gets enough nutrients. Organic fertilizers mainly contain natural ingredients that break down and slowly release nutrients into the soil.
This constant flow of nutrients improves the overall structure of the soil and the condition of the soil. Increased availability of organic matter improves water retention, reduces soil erosion, and stimulates plant growth. Organic fertilizer can be more expensive than synthetic; it can reduce pesticides and the overall need for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Due to the scarcity, the cost of organic fertilizer can be neutral and sometimes cost savings. They act as a catalyst for these plants and increase the number of nutrients.
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About six weeks after Brinjal’s planting, they benefit from the extra nutrients when the plants open and bear their first fruit. You can side-dress the plants with organic or composted manure or soak them deep with water-soluble plant food. Fertilize again at the end of summer, when the plants hold a heavy set of fruits.
Large organic manures such as well-rotted crowding or compost should be added evenly to the soil. Prepare the field well by applying 25 tons per hectare of FYM and make ridges and furrows at a distance of 60 cm. Apply 2 kg/hectare of Azospirillum and 2 kg/hectare of Phosphobacteria with 50 kg FYM. Irrigate the furrows and transplant 30-35 days old seedlings at 60 cm intervals.
Brinjal fertilizer selection
Vegetables often require moderate to large amounts of fertilizer to produce their fruits. An inexpensive fertilizer for vegetables includes a granular variety, usually inexpensive but requires soil work and post-use watering to get nutrients to plant roots. Liquid fertilizers are more expensive and need to be diluted and used. In addition, growers can choose between artificial or organic fertilizers. Synthetic fertilizers in Brinjal plants are made from chemical compounds processed to make plant nutrients.
The list of organic fertilizers will include products that contain natural fertilizers with less processing. In general, both types of fertilizers provide the same nutrients. Synthetic fertilizers provide nutrients quickly but can negatively affect the environment. Always use fertilizer as directed on the packaging, and do not use more than recommended for your crop type.
Fertilizer dose depends on the fertility of the soil and the amount of organic fertilizer applied to the crop. 15-20 tons of well-digested FYM is added to the soil for good yield. Brinjal is a heavy feeder crop. Therefore, the balanced use of fertilizers is essential for successful crop production. In addition, Brinjal is a long-term crop and requires a good amount of fertilizer and manure. When preparing the field, add well-decomposed manure or compost (200-250 quintals/hectare).
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The crop requires a high amount of fertilizer with 100-120 kg nitrogen and 50-60 kg phosphorus and potash hybrid. The full dose of phosphorus and potash and half is applied at the time of last field preparation before transplanting, and the remaining amount of N is used as urea in two to three parts in 30, 45, and 60 days after top dressing form.
Brinjal fertilizer types
Fertilizers can be chemically prepared or come from natural sources such as plant matter, animal manure, or rock minerals. Aged manure, leaves, grass clippings, and compost can be helpful for plant growth. Powdered, pelletized, or granular fertilizers can be applied between rows or in Brinjal-based soils as a side dressing. Fertilizer applied in this way should be placed in the dirt to prevent heavy rains from spraying on the plant.
Because plants can absorb nutrients through their leaves, Brinjal is an alternative fertilizer. Use a commercial liquid fertilizer to feed the flowers or make your tea from thin fertilizer. Apply this liquid as a fine spray early in the morning when the ambient temperature is cool.
Soil testing provides an NPK analysis, showing how much nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are needed to balance and modify their soil. Plants use nitrogen to grow green and build chlorophyll. Phosphorus fertilizer benefits the formation of new roots and is used to produce flowers, fruits, and seeds.
The main functions of nitrogen and phosphorous are components of proteins and nucleic acids, which are essential components of plant tissues. Potassium is the only nutrient that is not a component of plant organic compounds but is essentially important in regulating plant processes, such as osmosis and enzyme activity. In Brinjal farming, potassium plays an essential role in the quality of harvested plant products. Potassium helps in stem strength, disease resistance, and growth. At the planting time, apply 2 kg of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria in the main field.
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- Varieties – Basal dose – FYM 25 tonnes / hectare, NPK 50:50:30 kg / hectare.
- Topdressing – 50 kg N / hectare on the 30th day of planting or during earthing up.
- Hybrid – Basal dose – FYM 25 tonnes / hectare, NPK 100: 150: 100 kg / hectare.
- Topdressing – 100 kg N / hectare on the 30th day of planting or during earthing up.
Nitrogen is applied as a basal dressing with a full dose of P and K.
- 50 kg nitrogen (110 kg urea) / hectare.
- 50 kg phosphorus (313 kg superphosphate) / hectare.
- 30 kg potash (80 kg Muriate of potash) / hectare.
Thirty days after transplanting, the remaining 50% nitrogen (N) urea in the form of 110 kg is added to the soil at a distance of 5-10 cm from the plants. Immediately, the Brinjal plants are earthed up and irrigated. A distance of NPK 300: 50: 90 Kg/hectare and 75x 60cm are best found for PLR 1 Brinjal. Anamalai Brinjal responds well to ratooning in 100-110 days and 75:25:30 kg of fertilizer with 63% yield potential of the main crop. In addition to NPK / hectare and Azospirillum and phosphobacteria, each 2Kg / hectare.
Fertilizer application methods
Basal dressings are fertilizers added to the soil just before sowing or planting. Usually, half of the nitrogen, a full dose of P2O5, and a full dose of K2O are applied in most crops as basal dressing. Top dressings are fertilizers used on the soil’s surface but are not added. Such fertilizers should be soluble and not fixed as nutrients reach the roots through soil water. Foliar feeding is a liquid fertilizer that is adequately picked up by the leaves in a thin form. This technique is usually limited to the use of micronutrients. Major nutrients are also provided through foliar feeding if deficiencies are identified in the field.
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Adding fertilizer before planting
Fertilizing the soil before planting helps transplants get off to a good start. Dig up 2 to 4 inches of well-digested manure and compost to add nutrients. Organic fertilizer like dried chicken dung or other manure makes an excellent fertilizer to get Brinjal started. Apply organic fertilizer in planting holes and cover a thin layer of compost or soil before planting.
Applying a side dressing of fertilizer for Brinjal plants
As the Brinjal grows, it will need regular replenishment of soil nutrients. This fertilizer is usually provided by side-dressing, digging a 6-inch trench around each plant, and putting fertilizer on it so that the plant has the nutrients it needs. These nutrients help in fruit production and nutrient uptake. Side dressing fertilizer does not need to work in the soil. Cover the manure with a light layer of soil and let it do its work. Always water well after fertilizing.
How to fertilize Brinjal
Brinjals grow best in composted, fertile soil under full sun. Brinjal plant’s feed during its growing and germination stages improves the overall plant health. Healthy plants produce large quantities of large fruits. In addition, when growing certain varieties of Brinjal, fertilizer can reduce the bitterness caused by plant stress. Growers start the growing season by adding fertilizer to the soil before planting.
It adds nutrients to young Brinjal for a healthy start. Examination of soil determines how much and what type of fertilizer is to be used. Potassium helps in stem strength, disease resistance, and growth. Feeding the Brinjal from time to time during the growing season also helps these heavy feeders to bear fruit and produce.
Composting is reducing vegetable and animal waste (rural or urban) in an increasingly usable condition to improve and maintain soil fertility. Direct use of such non-soluble, low nitrogen organic matter as fertilizer causes temporary depletion of mineral nutrients (especially nitrate and ammonium compounds) in the soil. It stimulates the growth of microorganisms; as a result, crops compete with plants for available nitrogen, phosphorus, and other elements. Therefore, they must be fertilized or partially decomposed before using them as fertilizer.
Nutrient deficiency symptoms in Brinjal
Symptoms of deficiency – Nitrogen is taken as nitrate and, to some extent, as an ammonium ion. Nitrate is converted to ammonium in plants and made to make plant proteins. Used in large quantities by plants and it is associated with vegetative growth. Plants with low nitrogen pressure are smaller than usual and are generally light green, especially in the lower leaves. The fruits are small with thin walls.
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Excess nitrogen fertilizer can cause the burning of leaves and fruits, mainly if used as a formulation of ammonium. Plants remain stunted and without branches and turn light green. The leaves are significantly smaller in size and harder in structure. Older leaves gradually turn inward to yellowish-white color and eventually fall off prematurely. The fruits are small, light in color, and ripen quickly.
Treatment – Apply 100 kg nitrogen as a basal dressing. Spray 2% urea solution (20 grams per liter) to the run-off point for proper growth and development.
Symptoms of deficiency – Leaves on deficient plants are smaller than normal and dark green. The plants stopped growing, but they remained normal green. The leaves are small in size and turn a dirty gray-green, with spots and premature scattering, resulting in bare stems in the lower parts of the plant. The fruits are small, yellow in color, and have mature skin.
Treatment – Spray 1% superphosphate solution (10 grams per liter) on the run-off site to start new growth.
Symptoms of deficiency – Potassium is taken up from the roots as potassium cation and is distributed in inorganic form throughout the plant, where it plays an essential role in plant metabolism. For balanced growth, nitrogen to potassium levels should be 1: 1 for most vegetable crops.
Symptoms of K deficiency start with old leaves and extend to smaller leaves. Bronze and leaf margins burn in plants, and chlorosis can occur. Plants are smaller than usual and bear less fruit. Symptoms of deficiency include stunted plant growth. Brown spots appear on the leaves, and kidney lesions develop along the veins, followed by defoliation.
Treatment – Apply 50 kg of potassium muriate of potash as a basal dressing. When deficient, spray 0.5% (5 g / lt) potassium chloride at the run-off point.
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