Introduction to Fish Farming in Andhra Pradesh:
Today, let us go through the details of Fish Farming In Andhra Pradesh.
Andhra Pradesh state is the 2nd largest contributor of fisheries in India. Farmers in coastal Andhra Pradesh are responsible for the Aquaculture, and Pulasa fish is the special fish of the Godavari River. A fish farming is a form of aquaculture; fish farming is about raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures for human consumption. Aquaculture is also called “aqua farming,” which relates to the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish. The farming aspect of aqua farming implies aspects of intervention in the natural growing process to enhance production. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, aquaculture has grown 3 times faster than land-based animal agriculture.
Fish farming mainly raises fish commercially in tanks and ponds to produce food. The fish farming business is the only way of earning for several people worldwide, including in India.
Scope and Importance of Fish Farming in Andhra Pradesh:
Fish provides high-quality protein for human consumption. A farmer can often integrate fish farming into the presented form to create additional income and improve water management. The farmers themselves choose the fish species they wish to raise. The fish created in a pond is the owner’s property; they are secure and can be harvested at will. Fish in wild waters are free for all and make an individual share of the regular catch uncertain. Fish in a pond are generally close at hand. Effective use of marginal land, for example, land that is too poor or too costly to drain for agriculture, can be profitably devoted to fish farming provided it is suitably prepared.
Data from the Directorate of Fisheries has revealed that the state has been exporting more fish abroad while depending upon its neighboring state, Andhra Pradesh (AP), to meet its domestic demands. The report comes when there are many hues and cries over the probable presence of formalin, a cancer-causing chemical, in fish brought from Andhra Pradesh. Sources in the directorate claimed that the state has been exporting fish to foreign countries like the USA, the United Kingdom, and Japan.
Most importantly, the export volume from the Andhra Pradesh state has been on a constant rise. According to the data, the Andhra Pradesh state had minted Rs 1,792 crore by exporting fish in the 2015-16 fiscal while the figure was Rs 2,205 crore in 2016-17 and Rs 2,414 crore in 2017-18.
Authorization of the Directorate of Fisheries claimed that fish farmers in Andhra Pradesh are much ahead of their counterparts in Odisha in terms of production volume. “Fish farmers in Andhra Pradesh can produce up to 20 tone fish from a pond, whereas our fish farmers are growing only 10 to 20 quintals,” said the official. It is learned that several fish traders from AP have either purchased land in some coastal districts of Odisha or have taken them for rent for fish farming.
Krishna district has an available top position in shrimp and fisheries production across the state. Kaikaluru, Gudivada, and the Kolleru region of the district, which plays a main role in aqua exports, are now using advanced techniques with the minimal practice of antibiotics and chemical drugs. However, the ban forced by northeastern states alleging traces of formalin in fish is not showing any impact, as most of the exports from the district are live fish.
Advantages of Fish farming in Andhra Pradesh:
There are many advantages to starting a commercial fish farming business, and below are some of the main benefits.
- As per the demand, the commercial fish farming business in Andhra Pradesh allows for vast fish supplies. Catching fish from the wild cannot always fulfill the demand of consumers; hence, in such cases, profitable fish farming can meet this demand.
- You can easily raise the fish in tanks until they are ready for selling, and they don’t need the wide capture of wild fish. So, commercial fish farming helps in preserving natural ecosystems.
- If compared to the wild fish, some of the farm-raised fish species are extra healthy and delicious. Fishes are fed various nutrient and protein-enriched foods or pellets on commercial fish farms. Therefore, farm fish become healthier than wild fish.
- There are indeed different types of fish species all over the world. So you can prefer your desired species for your fish farming business.
- We also know that fish is very popular as a food all around the world; thus, there is already a recognized fish market available for you. You can begin your fish farming business in large or small-scale production; it all depends upon the resources available to you.
Read this: Poultry Farming Loan, Application Process.
Commonly farmed fishes in Andhra Pradesh:
Koramenu (Chana Marulias/Murrel/Snakehead), Bocha (Catla/Katla), Tilapia, Rohu, Tella Chanduva (Pomphret), Pandu Goppa, Vanjaram (Mackeral/Kingfish), Jella. Most of the ponds are cultivated with prawn culture as well.
Fish Farming Methods:
Some typical methods of fish farming in Andhra Pradesh.
1- The 1st method is the “Cage System,” which uses cages that are placed in lakes, ponds, and oceans that contain fish. This method is also extensively referred to as offshore cultivation. Fish are reserved in cage-like structures and are “artificially fed” and harvested. The fish farming cage process has made many technological advances, especially in reducing diseases and environmental concerns. However, the number one concern of the caging process is fish escaping and being loose among the wild fish population.
2- The second method is the “Irrigation Ditch” for raising fish. The basic condition for this method is to have a ditch or a pond that holds water. This is a unique system because, at a small level, fish are unnaturally fed, and the waste produced from the fish is then used to fertilize farmers’ fields. On a better scale, mostly in ponds, the pond is self-sustaining as it grows plants and algae for fish food.
3- The 3rd method of fish farming is called “Composite Fish Culture,” which is a type of fish farming that allows both local and imported fish species to coexist in the same pond. The number of species depends, but sometimes upwards of 6 fish species in a single pond. The fish species are always suspiciously chosen to ensure species can coexist and reduce competition for food.
4- The 4th method of fish farming is called “Integrated Recycling Systems,” the largest-scale method of “pure” fish farming. This approach uses large plastic tanks that are placed within a greenhouse. There are hydroponic beds that are placed close to the plastic tanks. The water in the plastic tanks is circulated to the hydroponic beds, where the fish feed waste goes to supply nutrients to the plant crops grown in the hydroponic beds. The popular types of plants grown in the hydroponic beds are herbs such as parsley and basil.
5- The last type of fish farming method is classic fry farming. This method is also known as the “flow-through system”. This is when sport fish species are raised from eggs and are set in streams and released.
Fish farming requirements:
Fish breeding is a challenge that attracts lots of aquarists. While several species reproduce freely in community tanks, most require special conditions, known as spawning triggers, before they will breed. The bulk of fish lay eggs, known as spawning, and the juvenile fish that emerge are very small and need tiny live food or substitutes to survive. A fair number of popular aquarium fish are Livebearers, which create a small number of relatively large offspring. These regularly take ground flake food straight away.
Fish feed management:
The best and highest-quality fish feed can make the most of the production. The majority of the farmers in our country depend on the natural feeds of the pond. But for commercial production, you must supply the fish with high-quality and nutritious food. You can also apply different types of integrated fish farming systems. Very profitable and most popular integrated fish farming systems are fish-poultry, fish-dairy, fish-duck, fish-pig, fish-paddy, fish-goat, and fish-vegetables.
Fish feed is the main expenditure for fish farmers. Good quality fish feed management can reduce overall culture costs, improve the fish farm environment, and ensure healthy growth of the fish stock. Fish feed management includes choosing the right feed, using the right feeding method, calculating the feeding cost, and ensuring the cost-effectiveness of a fish farm.
How to build the Fish pond?:
Fish farming or pisciculture involves raising fish commercially in tanks such as fish ponds, usually for food. It is the main form of aquaculture, while other methods may fall under mariculture. The pond construction can be the most difficult and expensive part of fish farming. A well-built pond is an excellent investment that can be used for many years.
Read this: Fish Pond Design and Construction Plan.
The steps in building a fish pond are as follows:
- Arrange the site
- Construct a clay core (in the case of contour ponds)
- Dig the pond and make the dikes
- Construct the inlet and outlet
- Care for the pond dikes
- Fertilize the available pond
- Barrier the pond
- Fill up the pond with water
- Store the fish
- When the construction site has been prepared, the fish pond and water management structures can be built. This chapter shows you how to build the fish pond, while the next chapters of this manual deal with water control structures.
- Dikes are the main part of a fish pond, as they keep the necessary volume of water impounded and from the actual pond; their design and construction are mainly important.
The average pond supported 320 pounds of fish per acre. This “standing crop” consisted of 224 pounds of bluegill, 36 pounds of largemouth bass, and 60 pounds of miscellaneous fish per acre. Once you have a pond, it is important to know the correct acreage, maximum depth, average depth, and water volume.
The most Fish farming places in Andhra Pradesh:
Here are some of the most popular places for fish farming in Andhra Pradesh.
- West Godavari – Eluru,
- Krishna district – Gudivada,
- East Godavari – Tallarevu and Kajuluru;
- and Nellore – Indukuripet.
Commercial License for Fish Farming In Andhra Pradesh:
The Coastal Aquaculture Authority (CAA) was recognized under the Coastal Aquaculture Authority Act, 2005 and notified vide Gazette Notification dated 22nd December 2005. The main purpose of the Authority is to regulate coastal aquaculture activities in coastal areas to ensure sustainable development without causing damage to the coastal environment. The Authority is empowered to make regulations for the building and operation of aquaculture farms in coastal areas, an inspection of farms to ascertain their environmental impact, registration of aquaculture farms, fit standards for inputs and effluents, and demolish coastal aquaculture farms that cause pollution, etc.
Read this: Biofloc Technology Aquaculture.
Fish farming Subsidies and loans in Andhra Pradesh:
Fish farming is the act of raising or rearing fish for commercial purposes.
- Any individual aged eighteen years or above at the beginning of the tenure and below 65 years by the end. If the candidate is over 65 years old at the time of maturity of the loan, then his blood relative is to be taken as a co-applicant.
- The farmers in Andhra Pradesh should be cultivating freshwater fish on their own or on leased land with the infrastructure required. In joint ownership of the land (other than leased land), all Co-owners shall be taken as Co candidates.
- The farmer should have a minimum of ten acres of water spread area of the pond under aquaculture farming.
- The borrowers should have a minimum vintage of five crop cycles of aquaculture (fish production). The vintage shall be validated from the Water Tax Receipt / Certificate by the community revenue officer / old lease agreement.
- The farmer should have a formal lease land agreement with the entire landlord for at least three years from the date of sanction. He should already be doing fish cultivation on his land and has taken leased land for development purposes.
- The borrower should not be facing any litigation initiated by other lenders.
- At least two market references for a candidate from a supplier/ trader or any other business associate should be documented.
- The farmer wants to have the registration form from the District Collector for undertaking aquaculture. This quality would apply only to new ponds where fish cultivation will happen for the first time.
Loan Amount for Fish Farming in Andhra Pradesh:
- You can avail of bank loans of Up to 1.5 lakh for individuals and Farmers, depending on the size of the Fish farm.
- Loans are for the cultivation of Freshwater Fishery in obtainable infrastructure.
- It will be a Rupee functioning capital Term Loan/Overdraft Facility.
- The loan amount should be based on the total water extension area and not the total area of the tank.
Disadvantages of Fish farming in Andhra Pradesh:
- Diseases: Maintenance of fish nearby increases the chances of disease.
- Environmental Effects: Fish farms can have dangerous effects on the local environment due to the discharge of pond water into the neighborhood.
- Fish Theft: Some fish farms experience theft, either from employees or external stealing.
- Capital Factor: Aquaculture requires a lot of capital, which has set a space between investors and the business.
In case you are interested in this: Quail Farming Business Plan.
If you live in Andhra Pradesh(AP) and plan to set up a Fish Farm, this article might help you build and run a Fish farming business from scratch.
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