Introduction on how to start Fish Farming in Maharashtra: Fish farming is a popular business in India. A well-maintained fish pond can make a beautiful profit. Fish farmers have to take care of the fish and their numbers and also take care that they grow in size so that they can be sold in the market at a profitable price. Also, a fish farm is a business that gives you ten times more profit than startup money.
For increasing productivity, fish farming is the way of producing aquatic organisms in a semi-controlled or commercially controlled environment. It is possible to raise many different types of fish, from table rent to exotic tropical species. India is rich in vast resources in terms of ponds and tanks, rivers and canals, reservoirs, lakes, and other reservoirs with the scope for fisheries development to strengthen food security and earn foreign exchange. Improving the socio-economic status of fishermen and others engaged in this sector. These fish are sold as food and in the present era as far as animal feed production is concerned; fish farming is emerging as a fast-growing sector. Fish from the sea and rivers alone are not enough for human consumption and half of the fish eaten all over the world are raised in these unrealistic environments.
A guide on how to start fish farming in Maharashtra, biofloc fish famring in Maharashtra, subsidy and loan for establishing a fish farm in Maharashtra
Fish farming in Maharashtra has demanded that they be classified as ‘farmers’ and the benefit of lower Goods and Services Tax (GST) rates for exporting seafood and other related products. Commercial fish farming in Maharashtra is considered an economically profitable business and an easy process to start. There are many types of fast-growing species available in Maharashtra. Therefore, this business ensures an immediate return on your investment. The rate of fish consumption is increasing every year. Irresponsible harvesting of fish leads to the extinction of natural species and extinction of some species. Therefore, fish farming is a way to protect species and prevent the depletion of natural resources.
Benefits of fish farming in Maharashtra
- At least 60% of Indians eat fish as part of their regular diet.
- The demand for fish in the market is high; its price is also very high which ensures good income.
- India’s climate and tropical climate are ideal for fish growth and production. Since India has abundant sources of water such as lakes, ponds, streams, streams, etc., it is not very difficult to buy fish and raise them on farms.
- Growing fish in the field is not a difficult task. Furthermore, it can be combined with other types of farming such as poultry, vegetables, and animals, etc. Integrated aquaculture is popular in India.
- According to the demand, the commercial fish farming business allows a large supply of fish.
- You can easily pick up fish in tanks until they are ready for sale or marketing and do not require extensive possession of wild fish. Therefore, commercial fish farming helps preserve the natural ecosystem.
- There are different types of fishes and you can choose the species you want for your fish farming business. We also know that fish is very popular all over the world as food, so there is a pre-established fish market for you.
- Different types of fast-growing fish are available in India. Cultivating fast-growing fish species ensures a quick return on your investment.
- Start a fish farming business with a variety of animals, birds, crops, and vegetables. Integrated fish farming reduces food costs and ensures maximum productivity.
- Fish farming in India is very profitable and has low business risk. This business can create new incomes and employment opportunities. Unemployed educated young people can start a fishing business. This will give them both financial freedom and permanent income opportunities.
- People with other professions or jobs can also start a fishing business. If you have the right land and facilities for fish farming, you can easily start this business.
- There is a lot of demand in several parts of India. One important reason is that more and more people prefer to eat fish and fish products as compared to other meat or animal products.
- Fish is in high demand in the diet due to its vitamins and proteins. The demand for the fish market within the national and international platforms is also increasing at present.
- With the growing demand and shortage of supply chains, it is clear that according to modern traditions, more and more people are moving towards fish farming.
- In modern times, people have started cultivating fish in their fields or small tanks in small rooms. The step is also due to a shortage of edible fish in the oceans, seas, and rivers. This is one of the main reasons why more and more people are moving to fish farms.
Site selection for fish farming in Maharashtra
Select the right location for fish farming is the most important factor that determines success. Before pond construction, soil water retention capacity and soil fertility must be taken into account as these factors affect the reaction of organic and inorganic fertilizers in the field pond. The site selected for pond filling and other uses should have an adequate water supply throughout the year.
The construction of the pond should be based on the topographic area. In swampy and marshy areas, bunds should have more soil storage to build a better size pond. Self-drainage ponds are ideal for high-altitude areas. The selected place should be easily accessible by road or by any type of transport to reach the market for easy disposal of fish. In addition, access to inputs such as feed, seeds, fertilizers, and construction materials should also be available near the site. The site should be free from pollution, industrial waste, household waste, and other harmful activities.
Fish species available in Maharashtra
The selection of fish is an important point you need to consider when starting a fish farm. Select the right fish species plays an important role in business success. The decision should be based on a recovery approach, market demand, management approach, and resource availability.
Maharashtra’s freshwater fish source 6 orders consist of 25 families and 160 species. There are many species like Oriya Chromis, grass carp, common carp, silver carp, and magur, etc., which have been introduced in the inland waters of Maharashtra.
The whole area falls under 4 basins like Narmada, Tapti, Godavari, and Krishna. Species that spend most of their lives in inland freshwater or brackish estuaries are known as freshwater fish.
Diversification of freshwater fish in six major rivers of Raigarh districts like Patal Ganga, Bhogavati, Amba, Kundalika, Mandad, and Sautri is in the North-Western Ghats section of Maharashtra.
The collection of freshwater fish recorded before Maharashtra and by the authors so far represents a wide range of 11 orders, 32 families, 93 breeds, and 216 types of farms. In addition, for the first time from Maharashtra, 9 species were recorded less than 7 generations.
Understand the target market for fish farming
It is important to do business planning and feasibility analysis before starting a fish farming business. Also, we should do thorough market research before starting a fish farming business. Try to understand the demand of the local market. If you are going to start aquaculture for export, talk to the fish processing units in advance. Develop an alternative marketing strategy. Consumer types will depend on the type of fish you are raising.
This requires a large amount of fish. Some consumers may include state or federal organizations that repurchase natural resources. If you are raising fish for pets or aquariums, your customer group will be pet stores and specialty fish dealers. Customers may choose to contact you directly to remove mediators and speed up sales.
Construction of a pond for fish farming in Maharashtra
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The construction of a pond at a selected site involves several steps such as site clearing, construction of a bank or dye, excavation of the pond, construction of internal and outlets, the cover of the dyke, and fencing the pond.
The size and shape of the pond depending on the availability of land and the type of production. For an economically viable project, the minimum size of the pond should not be less than 300 square meters and a depth of 1.5 meters. A common pond should have an indoor space for the entry of water fixed with wire mesh to prevent the entry of unwanted domestic animals and to prevent the discharge of stored material to prevent overflow of excess water with the wire mesh. There should be a drainage pipe and harvesting pit at the bottom of the pond to facilitate harvesting and dry the pond from time to time. The sides of the pond or dykes should be well compacted, muddy, and covered with grass or herbs to prevent erosion. Streets and watershed areas can also be turned into ponds by making mud dams.
Site Cleanup – The site must be cleared of bushes, tree fragments, and other debris. Trees and other vegetation must be cleared within 10 meters of the pond area. In addition, it is important to clear about 30 cm of surface soil as they contain roots and other organic debris that interfere with the growth of the pond.
Digging and Constructing Dyke – An ideal dye should consist of 15-30% silt, 30-35% clay, and 45-55% sand. After digging the dye, the ridge should be in proportion to the slope. It is necessary to collect a mixture of sand and clay in a ratio of 1: 2 to form a layer 15 cm thick to raise the dyke. This is done in the center of the pond. Generally, digging is done in plain areas while in hilly areas, the strip method is followed. Dykes have been erected on the sides as required. However, the backing method cannot be followed for fish culture as it is difficult to obtain standard depth and size according to specifications.
Construction of Inlet and outlet – Ponds should be filled with plenty of water for which feeder canals are built side by side. Inlet and outlets allow water to flow. Entrances are made at the top of the pond while outlets are at the bottom of the pond. Inlet pipes should be designed in such a way that they do not take more than 2 days to fill. Outlets are used to draw fish out of the water. It is also used to extract stagnant water while replacing it with fresh water to maintain water quality.
Types of fish ponds for their development
We have to make different types of ponds based on their development such as;
Nursery Pond – It is used for small types of spawns are raised in this pond as long as they are 3-4 cm. Do not reach meter length and which may take 30-40 days.
Hatchery Fish Farm – Small, newborn fish grow and start feeding them. Since they are very small (fried) food can easily reach them, we have to take care of them until they reach the size of 10-15 cm. This type of shies is called fingerlings.
Storage Pond – Once fingerlings are grown in this tank and the size of the fish arrives in the market. After that, they are ready for sale in the market. It usually takes 9-10 months. In addition to this innovative technique of biofloc fish farming, biofloc is one of the most profitable methods of fish farming.
Nowadays it is becoming very popular all over the world as it is an alternative option for open pond fish farming. Importantly, fish have a lower cost of toxic substances such as ammonia; nitrate and nitrate can be converted into their diet. The main reason for this technique is to recycle nutrients.
Create a fish farming business plan in Maharashtra
If you are looking for a profitable fish, it is important to document your business plan. A business plan is a business document that serves as a roadmap for the company’s future operational activities. In addition, it is the single most important tool for managing funds from investors.
Here are some key issues to solve for your fish farming business;
- Start-up and recurring costs of running a fish far
- Your target customers.
- Pricing plan
- Profit margin
- How and where do you plan to sell the fish
Feeding management for fish farming in Maharashtra
When fishing in ponds, feeding is done to ensure that the fish gains maximum weight according to market standards in the shortest possible time. However, it is important to maintain water pH between 7 and 8 for maximum growth during feeding and rearing. The feed must provide the nutrients needed for growth, maintenance, and reproduction. The feed should contain plenty of essential nutrients such as protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals in addition to fats. It is easy to keep natural food in the fish pond like zooplankton, phytoplankton, and insect larvae, etc. In this way, the natural habitat required for fish development is maintained to some extent. Organic farming can promote the growth of phytoplankton by adding various wastes to the pond such as poultry farming, poultry dropping, and organic compost, etc. Floating pellets can be given to fish feeding from the upper layers while sinking pellets are given to those feeding below.
For full-grown fish, you must make sure that the fish is alive to cope with its development cycle. It is also important that the fish grow naturally. This will help increase the number of fish. So, you must feed the fish the right kind of food. You must make the right choice of fish food. The diet should be chosen according to the species of fish on your farm. You must also maintain proper water hygiene and temperature in the pond. This means that you need to check the salinity and pH regularly.
Learn the skills needed for fish farming
Some skills are needed for starting a fish farming business. Some government-running farms run training programs. You can participate in these types of programs to learn skills. In addition, we can learn skills by working on a successful fish farm. It will teach you how to control diseases, manage water quality, market, feed and process. Some of the important points can be given below;
- Make sure you have consistent quality water.
- Carefully check if your water temperature is suitable for raising fish species.
- Make sure we have easy access to the pond for harvesting and feeding.
- Test the water in which you are cultivating both bacteriological and chemical fish.
- Understand modern technical methods of risk management and risk assessment.
- It is important to find reliable suppliers for fingerlings, fish eggs, and fish feed.
- Learn about the permissions and legal requirements required to start a fishing business in your area.
When running a fish farm, you may need to hire outside labor depending on the size of your business. A trained laborer is an ideal choice who can take care of the fish and the pond. It is also important that the worker take care of the fish and its food. The trained person should be aware of the diseases and conditions of the fish. If the fish does not recover, it is important to use potassium permanganate and common salt (sodium). If left untreated, germs and viruses can spread from one fish pond to another.
What equipment is required for fish farming?
Another important aspect is the purchase of certain types of equipment. The fish farming industry needs fish farming. Supplies can range from feed and feeder, filtration system, hatchery supply, heating and cooling system, lighting, hydroponics equipment, plumbing, hunter control, and tank and water treatment products to just a few names.
Here are some basic tools and equipment needed to fish farming.
- Aeration devices
- Net / Seine Reels
- Handling and grading equipment
- Fish Counters
Fish is one of the main components of animal protein in the diet. Fish farming is growing in popularity as food production around the world has boosted the global fish farming business.
Feeds and Feeders – The quality of feed is important in fish farming and is essential for the health of the fish. Depending on the feed that is given, it can contribute to the desired color, growth, and overall health and well-being. There are different feeds available for different types of aquaculture methods and species.
Water Filtration Systems – Water filtration systems are important when trying to minimize environmental impact. The filtration system mainly involves removing waste products from the water. There are different types of filtering systems that can be used, but it often depends on the state of the filtration process. There must be a staging filtration system to ensure maximum results.
Hatchery Supplies – Hatchery supplies include everything from fish graders, shipping supplies to spinning and container handling.
Predator Control – Predator control tools are used in fish habitats, often involving the use of physical restraints that can include visual and audio barriers.
Water requirement for fish farming in Maharashtra
An adequate amount of water is required to make fish farms. Compared to bore well and well water, natural aquifers such as reservoirs, rivers, and lakes have stable water quality parameters (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, and water hardness). The site should be away from the flooded area. The water should not be acidic or alkaline and if found it should be properly treated with lime or organic fertilizer respectively.
The ideal water temperature for a fish farm is 20-30°C. Salt in water is the amount of salt dissolved in water. Some freshwater fish such as tilapia and catfish also grow in saltwater, but carp can only tolerate freshwater.
Fish harvesting tips
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The fish should be ready for harvesting within 6 to 9 months. Remember that, stop feeding the fish 2 days before harvest. Prepare cutting tools (net, plastic buckets, weight scale) and labor. Harvesting is done early in the morning. During harvesting, handle the fish carefully to avoid damage and post-harvest damage. Always wet your hands/equipment and keep the fish in the water as long as possible. Partially drain the pond on harvest day.
Cage fish culture in Maharashtra
In this method, we are using cages that are placed in lakes, ponds, and oceans that contain fish. This method is also widely known as off-coast cultivation. The fish are kept in cages like skeletons and are “artificially fed” and cut. The fish farming cage method has undergone numerous technological advances over the years, especially with the reduction of diseases and environmental concerns. However, the first concern of the cage method is the escape of the fish and the loosening of the wild fish population.
Cage Culture Project in Maharashtra – Maharashtra is engaged in various activities related to increasing the fish production of the state’s allocated reserves through efficient utilization of fishing resources. The Department of Fisheries has implemented many schemes for the development of fisheries and aquaculture through better use of resources and welfare activities of the fishermen and fishermen of the state. The state has 22597 tanks and water reservoirs with an area of 4.18 lakh hectares in the internal sector out of which 48 reservoirs are more than 1000 hectares. Given the potential in the state of Maharashtra, the NFDB has proposed to implement the Integrated Inland Cage Culture Project in selected aquifers of Maharashtra in collaboration with the Department of Fisheries (DOF), Maharashtra government by inviting interested individuals/agencies/companies in Maharashtra through the Expression of Interest (EoI) process.
Biofloc fish technology in Maharashtra
Biofloc Technology (BFT) is considered the new “blue revolution” because nutrients can be continuously recycled and reused in a culture medium, benefited by the minimum or zero-water exchange. The biosphere is a suspended growth in ponds/tanks that is a combination of living and dead particles, bacteria, organic matter, and bacterial grazing. It is the use of microbial processes inside ponds/tanks that provide food resources for civilized organisms while at the same time acting as a water treatment plant. This is also called an active suspension pond or heterotrophic pond.
How does BFT work?
- BFT has gained importance in aquaculture and it is wastewater treatment.
- The principle of the technique is to maintain a high CN ratio by incorporating carbohydrate sources and to improve water quality through the production of high-quality single-cell microbial proteins.
- Activation of toxic nitrogen species occurs more rapidly in the biofloc because the growth rate and microbial production per unit are ten times higher than that of substrate heterotrophs autotrophic nitrifying bacteria.
- This technology is based on the principle of flocculation within a system.
Calculate the cost of starting a fish farming business
There are two types of capital investment in this farming business. One is fixed capital cost and the other is operating cost.
- Some of the examples for capital costs are land and building, construction of ponds, vehicles for transportation, plumbing arrangements, several tanks, and oxygen meters, etc.
- Operating costs include the purchase of eggs or fingers, fish meal, electricity, fuel, labor, chemicals, medicines, taxes, insurance, telephone, transportation, and other maintenance costs.
Carefully prepare a detailed calculation of the cost of the proposed fish farming project. The calculation will vary depending on the type of fish you are choosing to farm. Also, according to your desired production and total land area.
Challenges for fisheries development in Maharashtra
The following are the challenges for the development of fisheries in India.
- Lack of a reliable database of water and fisheries resources
- Due to the limited number of rearing / cultivating, mainly due to weak links between research and development and the fish farming community
- Weak multi-disciplinary in fisheries and aquaculture
- Inadequate attention to environmental, economic, social, and gender issues in fisheries and aquaculture, insufficient HRD in various fields, and special manpower
- Weak marketing and extension network
- Decreased fishing and lack of natural resources due to over-exploitation of coastal fishing
- Water pollution; unscientific management of aquaculture and contamination of indigenous bacterial resources
- Poor yield correction, harvesting, and post-harvest problems, landing and berthing facilities for fishing vessels, and welfare of fishermen.
Supportive government schemes for fish farming in Maharashtra
The National Horticulture Mission played an important role in popularizing fish farming and it provides several subsidies for digging and lining field ponds. The Maharashtra government is providing subsidies to poor farmers who want to build farm ponds on their land, to encourage them to harvest rainwater. NABARD stands for National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development, a government setup financial institution to promote and support rural development and sustainable agriculture in the country.
How to get a license for fish farming in maharashtra?
- It must be registered in India before starting a business. You must register by submitting a business registration form and being provided with a registration number.
- You must be registered with a government office. You may need to submit all the details related to your information and business information. You can also apply for a public sector subsidy for business.
- If you are interested in starting this business by the sea or by the river, then you need special permission.
Loan and marketing for fish farming in Maharashtra
Access Bank provides Kisan Matsya loans to meet the financial needs of farmers who are in the business of raising fresh/brackish water fish or prawns. The Kisan Matsya loans are available for a flexible loan period of 1 to 5 years and up to Rs. 150 lakhs.
Fish market areas are very common in most parts of India. These are the places where you can sell your fish products. You can export fish products to the international market. You can contact hotels and restaurants.
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