Introduction to Ginger Cultivation Project Report:
Let us discuss today about “How To Grow Ginger” and Ginger Cultivation Project Report.
Ginger is called as “spice bowl of the world” for its production of superior and various quality spices. The botanical name of Ginger is ‘Zingiber officinale’ belongs to the family ‘Zingiberaceae’. Ginger is a perennial, grows annually. The Chinese philosopher Confucius celebrated its healing powers and to the Romans. It was a strong symbol of wealth and fertility. Ginger root was discovered and cultivated in South Asia before being exported. Ginger occurs in different forms such as fresh, dried, pickled, preserved, candied or crystallized and ground powdered forms. It is originated in the tropical rainforests from the Indian subcontinent to Southern Asia. It is a stifling plant with a long growing season and the seed is pre-sprouted indoors early in the year to insure a harvest before the weather turn cold. In the global market, India is the principal source for supply of spices, even though there are a number of other countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Australia, Spain, Egypt, Tanzania, etc., producing and exporting Ginger to the international market.Almost all the states in India are growing Ginger. But the leading states are Meghalaya, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim. It is a good source of calcium, phosphorous, iron and vitamins. The root of Ginger used as a tonic to treat common ailments. There are many varieties of Ginger root.
Verities of Ginger:
There are many varieties of Ginger are grown in India. The few are Suprabha, Suruchi, Suravi, Himgiri, Mahima, Rejatha, Karthika, Athira and Aswathy are named according to the locality.
Properties of Ginger:
Ginger is a popular spice. It is rich in gingirol, a bioactive compound having antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. The anti-oxidant properties of Ginger and its compounds have been explored in various vitro and vivo tests.
Uses of Ginger:
The fresh green Ginger is consumed in north eastern states after harvesting. The different products like Ginger oil, Gingeroleresin are prepared and exported. Dried Ginger also be prepared and sold in the form of white to very light brown powder. The Ginger powder is generally used in manufacturing of Ginger brandy, wine and beer in many western countries. Ginger oil is used as a flavoring agent. It is used as a confectionery for soft drinks. The Ginger is also used for several medicinal purposes.
Propagation Methods of Ginger Cultivation:
Planting: Planting is done from February to April depending on rainfall and altitude. Sikkim as it escapes from hailstorms, early planting leads to high yield. The rhizomes are planted in 2-3 rows of the beds and covered with soil. The spacing between the plants is 15 centimeters. During planting, each seed is broken into 2-4 sprouts. Heavy weed growth has been influenced by heavy rainfall. After a month, the beds are weeded and disposed off.
Mulching of Ginger Crop:
After planting, the beds are covered with mulches. The mulches consisting of forest litters, grasses, straw and plant residues up to 8-10 centimeters thick. Mulching protects seedlings from rain, prevents weed growth and keeps soil soft and moist and accelerates growth. Mulches are prepared by putting grasses in a cattle shed for a few days and it mixes with cattle dung and urine. Mulching increases germination, weed growth and soft rot.
Planting Ginger in Containers:
Well drained and soilless media in containers can be used. Better to use good quality and low salt coir (coconut fiber) has been used. Bendable grow bags or large pots can be used for rhizomes to grow up and enough room for filling. For planting, the bag has been filled with soilless media mixed with fertilizer, gypsum. It has been covered with media approximately 2 inches.
Temperature required for Ginger crop:
Ginger enjoys morning sunlight and stippled shade. It can be grown in temperature not exceeding 32.5°C in summer.
Drip irrigation can be applied to maintain moisture in the Ginger farm. Improved heavy clay soil allows good drainage. Enough water is watered to the plants to keep the soil moist evenly. Water should not be stagnated.
Fertilizers and Manures for Ginger Farming:
Organic and inorganic fertilizers have been used. Compost manure is preferable. Liquid fertilizer is preferable for rhizome. Fertilizing with seaweeds and fish emulsion for every 6-8 weeks give best results. At planting time, mild and balanced fertilizer has been used at each hilling. The compost has been used, but restrict to add materials that decomposes actively. The decomposed materials use the soil nutrients and may cause heating of soil. Poultry based manure has been used. Ginger takes more nitrogen to support the growth of the leaf. Potassium has been added after the rhizome formation in the months of August and September respectively. The recommended dosage for Ginger is 75 kilograms of nitrogen, 50 kilograms of phosphorous Pentoxide, 50 kilograms of potassium dioxide, 6 kilograms of zinc and 30 grams of zinc sulfate per hectare.
We need to check the base of the Ginger shoot after 4 to 6 weeks. After observing the bright pink color at the stem base, hill the plant with 4 inches of soil and fertilizer have to be applied.
Hilling and fertilizing has been done for every 2 to 4 weeks, repeat the hilling process.
Harvesting of Ginger:
Harvesting has been done by the demand of the market. Ginger takes 8-9 months to attain maturity for harvesting. Rhizomes have been harvested for baby Ginger by loosening the soil approximately 12 inches from the base of the plant with a shovel or with a garden fork. Then grasp the stems near the ground and entire plant has been pulled from the container by the stalks. The rhizomes which are left in the ground forms a thick brown skin. The harvested yield depends on fertility, water, hilling, weeds and temperature. Seed harvesting ratio ranges from 1:8 to 1:12 approximately.
Post- Harvest Management of Ginger:
Pre cooling conditions for Ginger is 12 to 14°C. The Ginger is sold in the market need not require cleaning. Ginger which has to be exported needs further cleaning before packing. The Ginger for long time storage need to be washed immediately after harvesting and cured. Cleaning has to be done in clean water by adding hydro-chlorous acid. Care should be taken to avoid breakage of bulb which leads to shrinking and decaying of Ginger. Export Ginger should be arranged uniformly and the internal flesh has been fresh and no appearance dark spots and sprouting. Fiberboard cartons have been used with good ventilation for exporting.
Pests, Diseases and Disorder Management in Ginger Cultivation:
- Bacterial Wilt: This is the most common disease of Ginger. The leaf margins turn into brown and curl back -wards. The rhizome gives foul smell.
Management: Healthy rhizomes have been obtained. Treating the seed with 20 grams of Streptocyclin in 100 litres of water and 0.2% of copper oxychloride has been applied for soil cleaning.
- Soft rot: It is a seed as well as soil borne disease. Yellowing of leaves is noticed. The rhizome has become rotten and show brown coloration. It spreads fast during rainy season.
Management: Water logging has been avoided. Treating of rhizome with 1% Bordeaux mixture and 8-10 grams of Trichoderma in 1 liter water.
- Dry rot: It is fungus nematode. The rhizome becomes rot, appears as small patches and spread slowly.
Management: By applying mustard oil cake at the rate of 40 kilograms per hectare before sowing in furrows and hot water treatment followed by seed treatment with Bordeaux mixture effectively can check the problem.
- Leaf spot: Small spindle shaped spots appear on younger leaves. It gradually increases and reduces the photosynthetic area.
Management: Bordeaux mixture has been sprayed about 3-4 times at 15 days interval.
- Whitgrub: It is a sporadic pest, causing damage sometimes. It feeds on roots and young rhizomes.
Management: The entamophagus fungus and Metarrhizium anisophilae can be mixed with fine cow dung and applied in the field and 40 grams of neem cake per hectare has been applied before sowing.
- Shoot borer: The larva feeds on the internal tissue resulting in yellowing and drying of the stem.
Management: 2-5milli liter per one liter of Beauveria bassiana has been sprayed.
- Field hygiene is very important. Water stagnation has been avoided. Adequate drainage has been provided. Weeds have to be removed periodically. Soil application of biocontrol agents like T.harzianum during planting time gives effective control of diseases.
- Taking good quality of the rhizome into consideration.
- Hot water treatment of rhizome before sowing.
- Once the disease is spotted, affected clumps have been removed.
- Treatment of rhizome with bio-inoculants to reduce rotting.
- Proper identification of diseased plants from the field.
- After mother rhizome extraction, disease spreads at a faster rate. Drenching of soil with fungicide immediately after extraction.
Training and Pruning of Ginger Plants:
- Ginger plants have been trimmed at ground level in early spring. Ginger bloom in 2 year old canes.
- Frost damaged Ginger has been cut to the ground in spring after temperature is warm, no chance of frost recurring.
- Removing dead leaves from canes.
- Prune back of the flowers as they fade on all varieties.
- Cut back of red Ginger after the flower and can have withered.
Cost and Profit Analysis of Ginger Cultivation / Ginger Cultivation Project Report:
Cost of Cultivation of Ginger crop per hectare in farm.
|Sl. No||Particulars of Farm Operations per Hectare||Approximate cost /Hectare In Rs/-|
|1||Hired Labour Charges 23men /hectare @ 350Rs||8,050.00|
|2||Machinery Labour Charges||3,910.00|
|3||Cost of Seeds and Seedlings|
1800 Kg /1hectare@ Rs.60 per Kg
|4||Cost of Farm Yard Manure||14,658.00|
|5||Cost of Chemical Fertilizers|
|6||Cost of Irrigation charges||18,966.00|
|7||Cost of Plant Protection charges||7,811.00|
|10||Deprecation on Fixed Resources||4,846.00|
|Total Cost of Cultivation / Hectare|| |
Profits of Ginger From 1 Hectare Land:
The production of Ginger in 1 hectare = 15 to 25 tons (depends on soil conditions, variety and climate). This yield is of non-irrigated crop. However, Irrigated crop (Like drip irrigation) can yield up to 30 to 40 tonnes / hectare.
The 1 kg Ginger cost is around Rs.45 to 55 approximately when sold at bulk in the market. This cost may fluctuate depending on market conditions. (Remember this price is NOT same price at which you buy in retails grocery stores.)
1 hectare will give a yield of 20 tons of Ginger at an average = (20 x 1000= 20,000 Kg).
Total profit of Ginger from 1 hectare land = 20,000 x 50 = Rs.10, 00,000
Net profit from one hectare ginger cultivation = Rs. 10,00,000 –Rs.1, 82,029 = Rs.8, 17,971.00
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Net Profit from 1 acre of Ginger cultivation is about: 8, 17,971 / 2.47 = Rs. 3,31,162
(Note : 1 hectare = 2.47 acres).
Read: Growing Herbs and Spices.