Steps to start goat farming in India
Goat farming in India is a profitable business with minimum investment. Goat farming in India can be done in small to large industrial scale. What is Goat farming? Goat farming is the raising and breeding of all domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). This farming is a branch of animal husbandry. Goats are raised or formed mainly for their meat, milk, fiber, and skin. Goats are developed by feeding kitchen leftovers and herbs in the front yard. They were grown for getting household consumption of milk and for making ayurvedic medicine from goat milk. There are many types of goat varieties. Some are good for milk remaining goats for meat and also there are breeds exclusively for the hide. Goat farming is the most profitable and it attracts many farmers to these ventures.
Goat farming can be suited to production with other livestock such as sheep and cattle on low-quality grazing land. Goats efficiently convert sub-quality grazing matter that is less desirable for other livestock into quality meat. Furthermore, goats can be farmed with a moderately small area of pasture and limited resources.
Facts about goat farming:
- Goat farming in India is a well-established, antiquated form of farming particularly in places where the dry land farming system is practiced. It is normally practiced by farmers who have a very small area of land for farming. Sometimes landless laborers undertake goat farming since the risk, initial investments, etc. are much lower than other forms of farming. Goats are hence rightly known as “poor man’s cow” since it has promises of good return that can serve as an investment source.
- Usually, goats are reared for milk and meat. Goat is a multifunctional animal and plays a main part in the economy and nutrition of landless, and marginal farmers in the country.
- Place required for goat farming will be, the poor ground may support 2 to 4 goats per acre while better pasture may be able to support 6 to 8 goats per acre.
- A general rule is that 10 goats will clear an acre in about one month. Though, stocking rates as high as 34 goats per acre have been reported.
- Raising meat goats can be more profitable small farm venture.
- Jamunapari breed goats are good milkers and they were originated from India. They are very good milkers and Jamunapari goats milk per day is about 3.5 kg daily during their lactating season. They are a very large sized goat.
- Goat farming business is really very suitable for making profits. Goats create valuable products; they are fast growing and easily managed. They need very less care and maintenance than any other livestock animals.
- The land requirement for goat farming depends on the number of goats to be developed or reared. Usually, ten acres of land is required to raise 500 goats including shed construction area. If you are planning to begin with a minimal quantity of goats, for example, 50 goats, it requires 1 acre of land for rearing these.
- A goat farm is ten times more profitable than sheep farm. Goat meat has high demand, unlike sheep meat. Marketing of goats is easy as opposed to sheep.
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Steps to start goat farming:
- Goat breed selection plays a major role:
Depending on your motive of goat farming you must select the right goat breeds for your farm. Typically, peoples are raising goats for the following mentioned reasons. For the purpose of starting farming which based on Goat or Sheep first and foremost important things are to selection procedure and methods in different stages.
Depending on your purpose, there are breeds that produce more milk while there are those that grow quickly. You can farm both types of goat breeds and you will be harvesting both meat and milk. Different breeds require different levels of care.
Why do you like to raise goats? Raise goats because of the following reasons;
Go to the nearest government livestock association to get some information about profitable goats breeds.
- Raising goat for milk,
- Raising goat for meat,
- Raising goat for hair,
- Raising goat for sale as pets.
It’s really quite important particularly for beginners who want to start initially and farmers should select bulky type goat.
Best goat breeds for milk and meat:
The following are the best goat breeds for milk and meat available in India;
Jamnapari: Jamnapari is the main popular breed for commercial goat farming in India. It is mainly found in Uttar Pradesh. These types of goats are beautiful and have healthy genes. This goat is reared mainly for the purpose of milk.
Surti: Surti Goat breed is one of the best breed in India for dairy. This breed is small and is native of Surat in Gujarat. They are mainly economical to the rear. Surti female goats are bigger than Surti male goats. These goats are generally white in color. They are simply manageable and graze in the open area.
Boer Goat: This Boer goat breed was developed in South Africa and it is the most popular breed in the world for meat. Due to selective breeding, they have superb growth.
Barbari: The Barbari breed is a dual purpose breed, reared for dairy and meat purpose.
Malabari: Malabari goats are a mix of various types of breeds. Malabari breed goats show early maturity and conceive in 8 to 10 months.
Sirohi: They are highly resistant to heat and are mostly found in parts of Rajasthan. Sirohi breed is raised in Uttar Pradesh for meat production. Usually, doe gives birth twice a year, generally 40%singles and 60% twins.
Beetal: It is also called as Lahori Goat. Beetal has a large body size and long ears. These goats are chosen for intensive goat farming.
Osmanabadi: This breed is mostly found in Maharashtra and also found in Western Maharashtra and adjoining parts of Andhra Pradesh. This goat is reared mainly for the purpose of milk.
Jakhrana: This type of goat breed is found mainly in Rajasthan. This is good for both milk and meat purpose. Jakhrana goat hides are very popular in the tanning industry also.
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Location suitable for goat farming:
Common goats normally survive in warm areas that are well drained. Apart from temperature, space is essential. Most of the goats live in groups, so individual pens are not effective. A large field is needed if you want animals to roam freely. Freely roaming goats generally have better resistance to sickness and infection. The best locations for a goat farm are those that are far from towns since urban pollution is dangerous to animal health. Goats are known to eat a lot of grass on a daily source. So make sure their food source is highly available and not too far from the rearing area.
Also, you should check the permission or license related issue of local government before you set up your goat farm. Select suitable farmland or area for goat farming that has the following facilities;
- Clean and dry surface, mud floor is appropriate except where high rainfall or snow is observed.
- Tranquil and open area.
- Great source of fresh and very clean water supply.
- Easily available food source.
- Availability of full-time labor.
- The thing goat like is rain and cold. Keep them in worm and well-built places.
- A market near the farmland so that you can sell products easily and buy necessary commodities.
Housing or shed for goat farming:
With a well-designed housing or shed and good management, you are sure to reap all the profit you want from goat farming.
Suitable goat housing or shelter is important for goat farming business. Because goats also want a house or shed like other animals for staying at night, security, preventing them from adverse climate, cold, sunlight, and, etc.
Your goats will desire a peaceful area to go when a birth is approaching. Covering a shed with straw, hay, wood chips, or sawdust is necessary for depositing the goat farm clean and mucking out.
Besides, a regular mucking out of all dirty areas is efficient for preventing the maximum of the diseases. The popular shade types are- General flock shed type (Ewe / Doe shed), Attendant’s room, Ram or buck shed, Lamb or kid shed, Shearing and storeroom, Lambing shed or kidding shed, Sick animal shed.
Feeding management in goat farming:
Goats are meticulous eaters and can tolerate more quantity of bitterness than other animals. Therefore, they can thrive on the agricultural by-products, waste and other such feed. In addition, they are stronger and thus can withstand all types of weather conditions. Goat tongues are adapted for grazing and their upper lip is mobile. Therefore, they can graze on extremely short grasses, bushes, shrubs, and trees. The goats should be provided with leguminous fodder in addition to grains like pulses, wheat, maize, etc. They normally prefer fodder of leguminous crops than straw or maize silage. In addition, they need feed composed at least 14 to 15% protein along with high mineral composition like iodized salt, bone meal, zinc oxide, ferrous carbonate, high-grade limestone, copper, and vitamins. The growers are given 100 gm per day of concentrate mixture though adult does and bucks are given concentrate ration of 200 to 250 grams per day. On average, each goat consumes 5 to 7 Kg of green fodder and a liter of water per day. Statistically speaking an acre of fodder is enough to feed 35 goats.
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There are different types of food for goats are known as an ideal food for goats which are given below;
- Oats, crash corns and the black seed of sunflower are top mixes and natural process to make bulky.
- Cause it contains so much protein, fiber, carbo hydride, oils, and other main things. This help to get a healthy body. It helps to quick digest in a proper way.
- Barley and field pea can be ideal food but two of that thing should soak at least two days.
- Then it will ready as food and other livestock grasses recognize them as the best food for goat.
- Even minerals are a vital element for Goats, particularly for female’s goat.
Understanding the breeding and maturity:
Every farmer must have the least amount of knowledge about breeding maturity of goats. Seven months is suitable for breeding but the weight should be maintained from 100 to 105 pound but one year is an ideal time for breeding. During gestation pregnant does want 150 days (approx.) to give birth. Normally, two seasons are available for breeding that is April and August and pick-time from October to January.
Within these moments of being born, kids are up and walking around. They generally reduce the dependency on mother’s milk in between 2 months. At the age of two to four months divide the kids from the mother into the teenage compartment. Out of the season can occur it’s quite different. However, sometimes hormone should use for increasing breeding period according to doctor’s consultant.
Why should you understand the goat’s behavior?:
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There are mainly two types of goats:
Domestic goats (Capra hircus) – grown as indoor farm animals; and,
Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), grow freely as steep, Places like American Northwest is appropriate for them.
Here are some tips to understand your goats;
- Goats are aggressive particularly the bulks.
- Aggressiveness is correlated to its horn structure and size.
- Goats are a social animal, they love humans around.
- Goats can be developed as an indoor pet.
- Mother goats can recognize their kids with eyesight and sound. (It develops within four hours of giving birth).
- Scent but the significant approach through which adults and their newborn acquire a bond.
Health care in goat farming:
Proper health care and vaccination in should in this business. Make sure that a veterinarian doctor is obtainable near your farm. If possible stock some essential vaccines and medicines in your farm. And always vaccinate goats timely.
Here are some of the tips for caring goats;
- Never stay the does and bucks together. Because bucks are generally aggressive in nature and they might harm yours does. Bring yours does to the buck for breeding purpose.
- Make sure that the latch on the fence is on the outside.
- You can visit a local agriculture extension office to learn more about goat care.
- If you want to have dehorned goat, then the good age to dehorn is one week. Ask for vet help to dehorn mature goats.
- Never provide goats wasted food from another animal. Also never feed the dog or cat’s food.
- Never let goats go outside the fence.
In a word, always try to take good care of goats and keep them healthy and productive. Thus goat farming business will be more profitable.
Commercial Goat Farming License in India:
Goat farming business is similar to other commercial businesses. One should aware of paying capital gains of goat farming though goats come under agriculture sector. If you are starting a commercial goat farming business in India, you must contact the local animal husbandry department for licensing and other procedures. Regarding taxes for goat farming profits, talk to your tax consultants.
Goat Farming Subsidies and Loans in India:
Well, the good news that there are some government schemes for availing subsidy for goat business. NABARD is the main office to contact for different kinds of subsidies and loans for commercial goat farming. There are some popular banks like SBI, ICICI, HDFC is providing loans to set up the goat farm business in India.
That’s all friends about profitable goat farming business setup in India. Keep raising goats!.