Goat Farming in the Philippines
Hello friends, today we are with a new topic called ” Goat Farming in the Philippines”. In the Philippines, more and more people are raising Goats in their farms, in their backyards, and even in their ranches. Goats require less feed than cows and carabaos. Goats have always been considered useful animals. Goat’s success mostly depends on its excellent adaptability to the difficult mountain conditions, extreme weather conditions, versatile habits, and high production considering its size. The Goat is considered a vital livelihood component among the smallholder and the landless or marginal farmers in the Philippines. Economic and social benefits are also attached to the animal. Though, records from the PCARRD (Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development) showed the number of Goats will increase consistently in the Philippines.
In the Philippines, Goat has always a place in most of the farming systems. It could have a minor role, but their importance in rural life had long been recognized so that the condition in which they are kept must be assessed.
Philippine farmers raise native Goats because the farmers believed they are cheaper to raise compared to purebreds. About 10 native Goats can be fed on the feedstuffs sufficient for 1 cattle. And about 6 to 7 purebred dairy Goats can be fed on the feedstuffs adequate for one dairy cow. Although a Goat is small, she can produce as much as 4 liters of milk a day if she is purebred and is given a ration to meet all of her nutritional requirements.
There are many advantages of raising Goats on the farm or backyard. To begin with, you need a small starting capital to start a Goat project. More Goats can be raised per hectare compared to cattle, and also they multiply faster than cattle or carabaos. Goat farming in the Philippines requires low initial investment and small risks compared to other livestock animals and it is an attractive undertaking among resource-poor families.
A Step-by-Step Guide to Goat Farming In The Philippines, Goat Breeds, and Business Plan
Most efforts to improve dairy Goat management designed to provide more and better milk. These efforts include;
1. Breeding and selecting to produce more milk.
2. Better feeding and pasturing practices.
3. Better housing for extremes of weather and climate conditions.
4. Improved sanitation of milk and milk products.
5. Control of internal parasitic diseases in Goats that lead to poor health and decreased milk production.
6. Improved marketing of dairy Goat products.
7. Development of information and research services.
Advantages of Goat Farming in the Philippines
- Compare to other livestock farming, Goat farming doesn’t require massive investment. You don’t have given much effort to the Goat farming business.
- Goats need smaller capital investment than cattle.
- Goats multiply faster than cattle or carabaos. Before a Goat is 3 years old, she can give birth to as many as five kids.
- Usually, they are multiplied fast by breeding, which helps you not buy Goats in the future.
- The most valuable part of the Goat farming business is its food. Goats are eating almost everything and Goat eats all kinds of grass, including weeds.
- Also, Goats help us to destroy natural weed and produce natural manure. This is mostly used in organic farming, and by selling this fertilizer, you can earn extra income.
- Goats are a low maintenance animal, you have to raise Goats with less effort compared to other animals.
- Although a Goat is small, she can produce as much as 4 liters of milk every day if she is pure-bred and is given a ration to meet all of the nutritional requirements.
- Goats require fewer feds compared to cows and carabaos. About 10 native Goats can be feed on the feedstuffs sufficient for one cow. And about 6 to 7 purebred dairy Goats can be fed on the feedstuff sufficient for one dairy cow.
- Goat is usually docile and can be raised by anyone.
- Goats are friendly and intelligent.
- Goats are clean animals. Goats do not thrive in filthy places and they do not eat rotten or spoiled feeds.
- Also, Goats provide manure for fishponds, farms, and gardens.
- A family milk Goat can provide the right amount of milk for the farm family at an economic price.
Philippine Goat Breeds
Usually, there are two varieties of Philippine goats raised for meat production. Then, the coarse-haired type is a cream, tan, or light brown color and generally polled. The fine hair variety is black or brown color and has a white belt. The fine hair variety Goats are thought to have originated from the Katjang breed.
The Goat population in the Philippines consists of native and exotic breeds.
- Some of the native Goat breeds in the Philippines are the Dadiangas strain and the common Goats (found all over the country).
- Exotic breeds of Goats in the Philippines include the Anglo Nubian, Boer, Saanen, French Alpine, and Toggenburg, all of which are found in commercial and institutional farms, and the La Mancha, available in a very limited population. Crosses and upgrades of native Goats are widely available in the country. In the Philippines, both the native and exotic breeds of Goats are raised primarily for meat. However, few dairy-type Goats are also used for milk production in some institutional and private commercial farms.
Breeds of Goats
1. Anglo Nubians = 70-90 kgs (and 1 to 21 liters of milk daily)
2. Boer = 80-90 kgs average
3. Saanen = 60-70 kgs it gives 1.8 liters of milk daily
4. Toggenburg = 50-60 kgs it gives 1.5 liters of mild daily
5. Alpine = 50-60 kgs it gives 1.5 liters of mild daily
6. Common Goat or Philippine Goat = 20-30 kgs
7. Didiangas Goat = 40-50 kgs
Some Available Breeds to Raise in the Philippines
There are many Goat breeds worldwide but the available Goat breeds in the Philippines are;
Anglo Nubians – It is a tropical breed that was successfully adapted in western countries. Its distinguishing features are drooping and pendulous ears, and brown color hair or a combination of brown and black. It has a long body that usually weighs about 70 to 90 kilograms at a mature age and produces about 1 to 2 liters of milk daily.
Boer – It is a meat-type breed with distinct white body color and black or reddish-brown color from rear legs to the head. The Goat weighs an average of about 90 kilograms at a mature age.
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Saanen – It is originated from Switzerland, is pure white to off-white. And, it holds the distinction as the highest milk producer about 1.8 liters daily. That weighs an average of about 70 kilograms.
Toggenburg – It is from Switzerland, has distinct white markings on the face, legs, and tail, and erects ears like the Saanen. Milk production averages about 1.5 liters daily.
Alpine – Alpine is a European breed that has a color that ranges from off-white to red, to black. It weighs about 70 kilograms at a mature age. It poses upright ears and a straight face, the Alpine breed produces about 1.5 liters of milk daily.
Native – The Native breed is small, stocky, and low-set. It has different colors range from red, white or black or a combination of these colors. Milk production is just enough for its kids and it weighs about 20 to 30 kilograms at a mature age.
Housing Requirement for Goat Farming in the Philippines
Adequate housing provides conditions for good health and comfort of animal’s high reproduction and efficient management. A good housing system is cheap, and it can protect from strong winds, heavy rains, and attacks by predatory animals. Also, it must be well ventilated, well-drained, and easy to clean.
For a good drainage system, locate a Goat-house on a slight slope or sandy soils and near the feed source. The Goat housing must be oriented that the greatest amount of sunshine enters the house.
A Goat house must be built to provide shelter. Goathouse must be well ventilated and drained, and easy to clean. Flooring must be provided and elevated at least 15 degrees to facilitate cleaning and drainage. Separate pens must be provided for lactating and dry does, kids, growers, and bucks.
The flooring of the area should be cemented to facilitate drying. The majority of pneumonia cases can be traced to excessively warm and humid interior and sudden changes in temperature levels. Allow a 0.5 to 1 ft clearance between floor to wall and wall to beam to make an adequate circulation and to lower draft. It is desirable to maintain an interior temperature level of 28 to 30°C. Then, it has been established that above 30°C ruminants are inhibited from eating. Lighting may be provided in the barns during the night. Goats consume up to about 30% of the day’s intake during the night when light is provided.
Nine-eye hog wire is the cheapest and effective fencing available locally. Posts should be staked every 2 meters. Barbwire fencing needs a minimum of four strands so it becomes more costly besides making Goats prone to wounds.
Backyard Goat Production in the Philippines
In the Philippines, backyard Goat farming accounts for more than 99% of the animal inventory. Goat is a popular farm animal as it requires simple management as compared to swine and poultry. Goat subsists on crop residues, agro-industrial by-products, or any locally obtainable forage sources.
About 99% of the country’s total small ruminants are raised in small hold or backyard farm units. Goats raised under this system are normally tethered near or around vacant croplands. Tethering of Goats under coconuts and other types of plantation tree crops is also common. Backyard Goat farmers with access to grazing areas either open grasslands or under coconut allow their animals to graze. At night, Goats that are tethered during the day are secured near or underneath the farmer’s house, though those that are allowed to graze are provided with a shed where these animals are confined at night.
Feed supplementation is rarely practiced. Occasionally, some farmers would give legumes and farm by-products. In recent years, deworming is gaining popularity among small-hold Goat raisers. Goats are raised for home consumption especially during holidays and other special occasions, as well as a source of additional income. Also, it provides the small rural farmer with cash in cases of emergency. Goats from backyard farms are sold for slaughter to roving traders or in open flea markets in the locality. Some Goat raisers keep Goats for religious and/or cultural ceremonies. Goats raised in backyard production are of native breeds or their upgrades. Unlike Goats, sheep are kept as a status symbol.
Limitations to Goat Farming
Cultural constraints and traditional beliefs, i.e. the Goat contribute to land desertification, destroys plants, and compacts the soil, etc., need enlightenment. The sociological and cultural implications of Goat development must be examined so that there shall be no dislocation of cultural, traditional, or sociological development.
Nutrition and Feeding
There are different nutritional requirements of native, upgrade, and purebred Goats in the country. Similarly, needs feeding materials, feeding behavior, and grazing habits of Goats.
Goat production thrust should be coupled with a marketing program. Lack of market infrastructures, market information, market facilities, and also product processing establishments serves to stall efforts on production.
Management and Husbandry
There is inadequate data on the most profitable economies of scale from the smallholder to the highly commercial operation. Similarly, different management levels of production from grazing to pure confinement need further evaluation.
Advantages of Nubian Goats in the Philippines
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Nubian Goat is a dual-purpose breed for meat and dairy purposes. Unlike other dairy-type Goat breeds such as Saanen, Toggenburg, and Alpine which are temperate (cold climate) breeds; and the Nubian breed has Asian, Middle Eastern, and Western blood in them. Perhaps, this is the main reason why Nubian is the most adaptable dairy-type Goat in the Philippines. Philippines Goat raisers who were raising purebred Saanen Goats for milk production are now crossing them to purebred Nubians.
The average mature weight of a Nubian doe (female) is about 65 kilograms, while the buck (male) is 80 kilograms. Their meat to bone ratio is higher (more meat) compared to other types of dairy- breeds. They are bigger than native and cross, and milkier compared to Boers. Not all purebred Nubian Goats are equal, genetics and selection are very important. Nubian is becoming popular in the Philippines nowadays.
Feeding and Water Selection for Goat Farming in the Philippines
Like other animals, Goats require easy access to clean water. Besides that, Goats eat many things, but it is a myth that they eat everything. You should keep in mind these two aspects before you planning to start a Goat farm. The feeding process is a crucial part and 4 times a day would be the ideal time to gain proper muscle for the Goat. And the place of food serving must be a minimum of about 1.5 inches higher from the main floor. On the other hand, during feeding, food must be used properly.
Supplementary food helps to gain more weight. Farmers should use natural food to work as a cure for several diseases and not so much costly. It takes a little bit of time to gain weight than feeding supplementary food, but the feeding procedure is different for pregnant Goats. As Goats eat almost everything, you must ensure no harmful plants or poisonous vines on your Goat farm. Food management suggests giving food for the expected and desired growth in several ages and different seasons.
Different types of food are ideal food for Goats, which are given below;
- Oats, crash corns, and the black seed of sunflower are the best mixes and natural processes to make weight gain. Because it contains so much protein, fiber, carbo hydride, oils, and other essential things.
- That helps to get a healthy shape. It accommodates to digest appropriately and quickly.
- Barley and field pea can be ideal food, but two of those things should soak at least 2 days.
- Then it will ready as food, and livestock grasses know them as the best food for Goats.
- Even minerals are a vital element for Goats mainly for female Goats.
Classification of Common Feed Ingredients for Goats
1. Roughages – These feeds containing large amounts of fiber or digestible material.
2. Concentrates – These feeds have a comparatively high digestibility.
3. Feed Additives – These feeds are chemical compounds that are included in animal rations but do not supply nutrients to the animals.
4. Minerals Supplements – The function of mineral elements in Goats is to give structural support for the body.
5. Vitamins Supplements – The dietary vitamin requirements of ruminants like Goats are simple due to the nature of feeds they ordinarily consume.
Importance of Goat Farming in the Philippines
Goats in the Philippines have generated considerable interest as a potentially profitable component of one-commodity and multi-commodity fanning systems. Though, the government, through the Bureau of Animal Husbandry, has investigated small ruminant development as a source of meat and milk, a livelihood activity, and possible export potential and dollar earner. The Goat is a small ruminant with a high reproductive rate and several uses, finds its place best in the present farming systems of the smallholder (1-3 ha) economy in the Philippines.
The vast majority of Goats are raised by small farmers or people who own no land, As people are not able to develop the industry nor to stimulate improved production and living standards, government policy is directed to research priorities that emphasize;
(a) Improved breeding, nutrition, health, housing, and management;
(b) Development of technology packages at the farmer level;
(c) Integration of Goat raising with use of crops;
(d) Improvement of processing Goat products; and
(e) Studies of socioeconomic aspects of Goat raising.
To service these general needs, six project areas have been identified, they are breeding; herd management, nutrition and health; product utilization and marketing; socioeconomic studies on-farm trials; and Goat farm modular system.
Commercial Goat production is accomplished either by semi- or by complete confinement in elevated sheds or Goat houses. Under the semi-confinement system, the animals are allowed to graze in either open grasslands, bushlands, or under plantation crops. Goats raised under complete confinement, on the other hand, are kept in sheds or barns (generally elevated with slotted floors) all the time. Completely confined Goats are stall-fed with a combination of grasses, legumes, and feed concentrates. Also, appropriate health care and biosecurity measures are provided to maintain the good health status of these animals.
In farms where Goats are being raised, both species are allowed to graze together in open grasslands and under plantation tree crops during the day. At night, Goats are confined separately in different sheds. Goats raised in commercial farms are sold mainly as breeders. Though, culled animals are also sold for slaughter in local public markets. Goats are also utilized commercially as dairy animals, while milk from Goats represents only about 1% of the country’s total milk production. A large majority of Goats raised in commercial farms are of exotic breeds, while upgraded native Goats may be found in commercial farms.
Veterinarian Importance in Goat farming
Easy access to a veterinarian plays an important role in Goat farming. When starting a Goat farm, there are chances animal’s contract diseases. Therefore, a veterinarian can help in disease control and management to avoid losses. They also help you diagnose diseases or recommend vitamins and supplements to keep animals in good health especially during stressful situations like weaning.
Prevention and Control of Disease in Goat Farming in the Philippines
Health problems have become a major impediment to Goat production. Mortality rates in confined and semi-confined rearing reached a high level of about 40%. The mortality rate is similarly high in smallholder Goat production. Identified predominant diseases in Goats are internal or external parasitism, pneumonia, blood parasitism, and haemorrhagic septicacmia.
Although considered one of the healthiest of all domesticated animals, Goats are susceptible to the same diseases that affect cattle and sheep. The disease occurrence can be affected by locality, amount of space given to each Goat, the feeding program, and housing, as well as the health of the individual Goats and the amount of exposure to infected animals.
In many parts of the tropics vaccinations against Goat pox, rinderpest, and foot-and-mouth disease are advised. In addition, Goats are tested routinely for brucellosis, tuberculosis, and mastitis. Diarrhea is caused by bacterial infections, viruses, or coccidia, which can also be troublesome. In addition to infectious diseases, Goats sometimes suffer from such noncontagious ailments as pneumonia, wound infections, milk fever (parturient paresis), bloat, external and internal parasites, and plant poisoning.
Ideally, the diagnosis and treatment of Goat diseases must be left to a veterinarian. Then, the importance of an accurate diagnosis cannot be over-emphasized as the treatment is determined by the cause of the ailment. Though, veterinary services are often too costly for people who keep Goats, except in the most urgent cases. Fortunately, most Goat keepers can acquire enough basic knowledge to cope with basic problems.
It is always better to prevent Goat disease than to have to treat infected animals. Some important precautions required to maintain Goat health are listed below;
- Avoid involvement in Goat trading or trafficking.
- Isolate a Goat that becomes sick.
- Get an accurate diagnosis from a qualified veterinarian.
- Use medications only when necessary.
- Also, keep the Goatherd separated from sheep and cattle.
- Use good business ethics and do not sell diseased Goats to an unsuspecting buyer and keep the Goat-house clean and dry.
- Trim hooves at least four times yearly. Brush Goats when required to remove loose hair and dirt that might contaminate the milk.
- Keep feces out of the feed and water and keep Goats’ feet out of hay racks and keep feed and water containers above tail level.
- Keep fresh water available and uncontaminated.
Goat Farming Programs in the Philippines
Commodity Loan or Dispersal
This is a regular program and it involves the selection and screening of interested village farmers having feed resources, housing, and the labor required for Goat production. About 1 to 3 female Goats is loaned to the farmer after completion of training. The farmer is obligated to give 2 heads of offspring to the government after which the original animal becomes his property. A pocket of 10-30 heads does usually go to a village (barangay).
Supporting the dispersal program is the Barangay Buck Loan Scheme whereby a purebred buck is loaned for 3 to 12 months. The buck loan is for 3 months, with a condition of renewal. A minimal fee is charged for maintaining the buck, and for the caretaker.
Village Goat Program
The program is a package scheme through the rural banking system in the countryside with support services for animal health, pasture development, training, and other technical needs.
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