Introduction on How to start Goat farming in West Bengal, license, loans, and subsidies and business plan: Goat farming is a profitable business. Goat rearing under the intensive and semi-intensive system is gaining momentum for a couple of years due to its good economic prospects. Goat husbandry requires low cost, low investment, simple housing, and low maintenance. Starting commercial goat farming is contributing to the economy of a country in a big way. The goat farming business is growing quickly in this state. The government of West Bengal supports farmer’s to start goat farming businesses and also giving subsidies to the farmers.
The goat is a versatile animal and it is known as a poor man’s cow. Goat meat is popular, both in domestic and international markets. Goat husbandry is mainly enterprised by the people of lower-income groups in the rural regions. The adoption of goat farming mainly depends upon the social acceptability and rearing environment. Therefore, the system of goat management is a function of social acceptance of community to goat, availability of land, pasture, human resource, capital and economic dependence on livestock in general and goats in particular, etc. Depending upon these factors, the systems of goat management change from place to place.
Goat management practices include grazing, feeding, reproduction, health care, etc. The systems of goat management are of different types. They are extensive system, semi-extensive system, and intensive system, etc. Then, these systems involve varying types of goat rearing.
How to start Goat farming in West Bengal, license, loans, and subsidies and business plan
Goat farming is not an acceptable occupation for all classes of people in society. Only the poor and socially disadvantaged household tends to own small ruminants like a goat. Therefore, to understand the goat rearing system in rural areas, it needs to understand the socio-economic status of the rearing households. It has been collected from four villages of two districts, where the concentration of goat population is higher. The goat farming business requires low investment. Shed construction for raising goats can be possible at a low cost.
Advantages of goat farming in West Bengal
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Goat farming has now become a key portion of the rural development program in developing countries. Generally, goat milk and meat are rich in protein compared to other animals.
- Return in a short time – Goats can give birth to more than one kid at a time. Therefore, it generates quicker income in a short time with low investment in comparison to rearing other animals.
- Rearing goats for milk and wool – Generally, raising goats mainly for the meat. But, inappropriate climate conditions, goat farming can be done for milk and wool.
- Goat products are healthy – Goat products like milk and meat are not only nutritious and also easily digestible. It mainly contributes immensely to the rural economy and national income. Goat milk and meat are easily digestible and cholesterol-free. Goat milk is used for making different foods.
- Multipurpose usage – Goats are versatile animals that are raised for different reasons. The benefit of goat farming is its multipurpose usage like its milk, meat, etc.
- Faster growth – Generally, goats have a fast growth rate compared to other animals.
- Easy maintenance and less capital – Goats are easily maintained animals. The grower needs to do some important tasks in goat farming such as feeding, milking and caring. These tasks do not need much equipment, money, labor, or hard work. Their return of investment ratio is also good. Many government and non-government banks are giving loans to starting this business.
- Don’t require a huge area – Goats don’t need a huge area for housing due to their small body size. They can easily share their living place with their owners or other livestock animals.
- Good Breeders – Goats are friendly and lovable, and also excellent breeders. You will be surprised to know that they reach maturity within their 7 to 12 months of age and give birth to kids within a short period. Also, the goat breed produces many kids per kidding.
Importance of commercialization of goat farming in West Bengal
- To make the opportunity of self-employment to human resources, youths, and women, who remain wastage in-country; and to improve their self-respect through appropriate management
- Increase income generation through scientific goat farming in traditional ways
- To reduce a large volume of corers of rupees import of goats from a neighboring country
- Goat’s meat demand is increasing trend in the country to meet with adequate supply through commercialization.
Select profitable breeds for goat farming in West Bengal
Firstly, you should understand that the selection of breed is very important in the goat farming business. You can have only a few breeds on your goat farm which will produce good results.
Few points must be considered before selecting breeds;
- Before purchasing goat breeds, you have to decide what you want from your farming business first; whether milk or meat.
- Pure breeds flourish in particular climatic conditions in West Bengal.
- You should request professional help in selecting goat breeds.
- Visit your nearest goat farm and understand the basics of the selection of goat breeds.
Goat breeds suitable for West Bengal
Some of the goat breeds you can think of for starting goat farming in West Bengal.
Black Bengal goats – These are very popular in West Bengal
The Black Bengal goat produces the world’s tastier goat meat. Most about 80% of goats have black hair. It is of short height. The adult male weighs about 18 to 20 kg, while the female weighs 15 to 18 kg. These are small, the predominant color is black, brown, grey and white are also found. The shoulder and hip are of equal height, the chest is wide, and the ears are upright and short hair. Multiple births are common and skin is of superior quality and is in demand both in India and abroad in the footwear industry.
Black Bengal goat is also the most productive goat breed in the world. It can give multiple births in single gestation. It gives triplets, quadruplets, and sometimes quintuplets (Five). This breed has been recorded to give 6 to 7 kids in single gestation. No other goat breed can give to the number of birth like this. Black Bengal is the best breed for goat farming in west Bengal.
The coat color of this Black Bengal breed is mainly black according to their name but it is also available in Brown color in the Bengal region. It can survive in small roughages. This goat has small and straight ears also have a small height. The eye’s color is brown and the tail moving in the upward direction. The main benefit of this goat breed is that they mature too early in 7 months of age they mature and at 12 months of age, they are ready to give their first kid. The goat farming business in West Bengal is profitable with this breed.
Kota goats are mainly raised or reared for milk, meat, and skin production. Though, mostly this breed is considered as dairy goats. Kota goats are famous for their horns. This is best suitable for stall feeding but for the exercise, you have to provide some open space for their walking and running.
African Boer goats
African Boer goats are in high demand in West Bengal because they grow fast. Due to the limited numbers breeding animals have been expensive. Boer goats have 2 kids at a time. The kids must be fed with mother’s milk for up to 2 to 3 months. Depending on the weight of African Boer goats, prices range from 60,000 to 90,000 per goat.
It is recognized as the highest milk-producing breed. Saanen does are heavy producers of milk and yield 3 to 4% milkfat. It is the largest of the dairy goat breeds. Growing to 130 to 145 pounds, it is one of the best goats for milk.
Assam hill goats
Assam Hill goat breed is mostly white with occasional black color patches on the backline and legs. These are short-legged with small body sizes. These goats are mainly reared for meat. Adult body weight ranges from about 15 to 26 kg. Though, age at first kidding ranges from 337 to 447 days.
It is one of the 22 recognized goat breeds of India. The Ganjam breed is also known as Dalua. It is found in eastern India they are tall, leggy animals. The coat can be black, white, brown color spotted, but black predominates. The hair is short and lustrous. Kidding takes place once a year. The average lactation period of Ganjam goat is about 150 days.
House and Land requirement for goat farming in West Bengal
For housing management, low-cost sheds can be made from locally available resources. The shed must have sufficient floor space, well ventilated, preferably elevated platform with facilities for free fall of urine and faeces. Though, it is advisable to house different groups of animals separately.
The plan for a house changes with the climatic conditions and the type of flock to be sheltered. Three-sided shelters that protect the goats from wind and precipitation are suitable. Goats will require shade and protection from drafts. Greenhouse barns give sufficient shelter for goats. Straw, shredded paper and corn cobs can all be used as bedding for goats.
Goats can be reared usually on small acreage land. Approximately 2 to 10 goats per acre of land are required if you are using an extensive system, depending on the supply of grass and brush.
The important consideration you must first make is location. Apart from temperature level, space is necessary. Goats live in groups, so individual pens are not effective for their growth. A large field is necessary if you want your animals to roam freely. Though, freely roaming goats have better resistance to sickness and infection. Goats are known to eat a lot of grass daily. So food source is highly accessible and not too far from the rearing area.
Feeding characteristics for goat farming in West Bengal
- Goats are sensitive animals compared to other animals. They are fastidious about cleanliness and frequent change in the feed.
- Goat feed must be clean and fresh. Goat is a hardy and sure-footed small ruminant. They mainly prefer to browse a different kind of fodder.
- They can be fed with kitchen wastes such as vegetable tops and spent grains of the kitchen which can save 30 to 40 % of feeding costs.
- Goats prefer nibbling so feed and fodder must be provided in small quantities and at least 3 to 4 times a day.
- To avoid fodder wastage, keep the fodder on a fodder rack and hung it in a small bunch.
- Rotational grazing is advisable for growers who have enough land to spare for grazing.
In the feeding of goats, the traditional practices of tethering and free grazing are still operative. The growers just leave goats or fix goats to browse on the growing grass of indigenous pasture, roadside marginal lands, idle grassland, fallow land, and orchard area, etc. Though, in the case of commercial and semi-commercial farming, goats are raised through intensive that includes controlled movement of goats, stall feeding, separate sheds for shelter, proper care of kidding of does and adequate health care, etc. In the intensive or semi-intensive system of goat rearing, goats are usually kept in full confinement or semi-confinement.
Method of goat farming in West Bengal
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There are three popular methods of goat farming business and they must be select based on your purpose and needs of goat farming.
Extensive management system – In this extensive method of goat farming, the goat is dependent on grazing and the farmer takes their goat outside for 5 to 6 hours for grazing. In this process, no extra feed is given to the goat when they return home. The goat is mainly dependent on grazing. In this system, the weight gain is less compared to another method. The farmer does know nothing about goat farming and doesn’t take the profit as much as they can get because the mortality is more in this method.
Semi-intensive goat farming method – In this Semi-intensive goat farming method, the proper goat housing is provided to the goat. This is a good method for starting goat farming. As every goat farmer knows the major cost spent on goat feed in this business to minimize the feed cost the farmers take outside their goat about 2 to 3 hours for grazing and give a little amount of concentrated feed. This method is accepted by some goat farmers.
Intensive management goat farming method – The intensive management goat farming system is also called commercial goat farming or stall-feed goat farming method. Good revenue can generate by this system. It is growing quickly because land for grazing is getting short day by day.Proper housing is provided to the goats and doesn’t go outside for grazing in this method. This system is mostly used for goat farming in west Bengal.In this system, green, dry fodder, and concentrate feed is provided to the goats. The weight of the goat is gained quickly in this system. This system is the future of goat farming.
Goat farming training in West Bengal
The training is the most important part before starting goat farming in West Bengal. Training from a reputed goat farm business is much required to save from big losses. People should be trained about which type of house should be best for goat farming, goat feed for weight gain, important vaccination of goats breeding schedule, and more important things related to this goat farming business. There are many training centers in West Bengal. Farmers take training for goat farming business that has at least 100 goats in their farm.
Care and management for goat farming in West Bengal
- Remember that always try to take proper care of your goats. Never feed goats with polluted water or contaminated food. Remember that, keep the goat house neat and clean as possible. Do clean their goat house regularly. Then, take extra care to the breeding bucks, kids, and pregnant does. Keep the goat kids with their mother for several weeks after their birth.
- Don’t use the same buck for mating with numerous does on the same day and artificial insemination is also a good way for breeding does. Vaccinate goats on a timely basis, to keep them free from all types of diseases and health problems. Keep a stock of some important vaccines and medicines for growth in goats.
- Easy access to a veterinarian plays an important role in a successful goat farming business. When starting a goat farm business, there are chances your animals to contract diseases. A veterinarian can help in disease control and management to avoid losses in goats. Also, give some vitamins and supplements to keep animals in good health during stressful situations like weaning.
- Proper healthcare and timely vaccination must be provided to the goats for your successful business. Remember that, never keep the bucks and does together, as aggressive bucks can harm the does. Bring them together only for breeding. The best age to dehorn a goat is at week one and keep a stock of essential vaccines and medicines on your farm.
Goat farming business license, loans, and subsidies in India
Contact the local animal husbandry department for licensing other ways to start a commercial goat farming business in India. Several government schemes provide subsidies for goat farming businesses. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) scheme offers several loans and subsidies to set up a goat farm. SBI, ICICI, and HDFC provide loans for the goat farming business in West Bengal.
NABARD offers different subsidy schemes to support their business. It is a highly profitable business and a sustainable kind of business with appreciable returns in the long term. To help the individuals or groups, loans are offered by different financial institutions at attractive rates. In goat farming, the loans offered various purposes such as;
- Purchase of goats
- Purchase of equipment
- To buy land, feed
- To build the shed and more.
Government comes up with different loan and subsidy policies in association with the National bank of Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) for the goat farming business. If you want to start a goat farming business, you can get subsidies from NABARD and other banks. Also, you can avail subsidy amounts from 25% to 35% of the total cost of goats purchase. Many people don’t know about the loan and subsidy schemes provided by the Indian government.
The process to get a loan for the goat farming business
- Visit any local agriculture bank and fill the application form for your business with NABARD.
- To avail of subsidy from the NABARD scheme, it is necessary to present your business plan. The plan contains all the relevant details about the goat farming project.
- To get approval from the NABARD, submit the application form along with the goat farming business plan.
- Before the sanctioning of the loan and subsidy, a technical officer will visit and inquire about the goat farm.
- After that, the loan amount is sanctioned and the money is transferred to the borrower’s account. It is important to underline that the loan amount is only 85% of the project cost. 15% of the cost has to be borne by the borrower.
Tips to get maximum profit in the goat farming business
This is important to secure success in your first goat farm business after collecting goats. So, confirm that every goat breed has some initial treatment. Most people tend to sell their animals when they are sick. Also, keep in mind, if they were reared traditionally. Goats can be affected by some bacterial diseases even deadly virus because it grows in an open place. The initial treatments you need to perform are;
- Firstly, they have to feed wormwood. You can perform external dehydration and intravenous parasites for this purpose.
- Then, for the prevention of dermatitis, each goat has to take bath in 0 to 5% Malathion solution (0.5%). And, 7 days later apply the Botox vaccine for its growth.
- After 7 days of the last vaccination, move these goats to the main farm.
Other management tips for maximum profit in goat farming are;
- The first step is to choose a suitable place to set up a commercial farm business. You must ensure that the selected place has all types of facilities for goats. There should be a good source of clean and fresh water.
- Choose the proper goat breeds for your commercial farm.
- Making a pasture is important for the commercial goat farming business. If you are making a pasture for your goats, then decrease complimentary food costs. Also, browsing in the pasture helps to keep the goats healthy.
- In goat farming, for producing better milk, meat and to keep the goat free from diseases. Goats need sufficient clean water, food, and fresh grasses as per their daily demand.
- Read and do proper research and planning on how to raise goats for your successful business.
- It is important to maintain the good and strong health of your goats.
- Select the right and high productive goat breeds for your business.
- Learn about business from the nearest livestock training center.
- There should be the availability of all equipment which are essential for the goat farm business.
- It is helpful to take extra care of the pregnant doe, breeding buck, and kids.
- Feed the buck extra nutritious food during the mating period.
- To improve a goat’s health contact visit a veterinarian regularly (if it’s possible).
- During the summer season, provide goats with salt and mineral with a lot of water.
- Always take good care of your goats and don’t ever delay or stop caring for your goats. You must provide goats with good care and management tips. Proper care will ensure maximum production and high profit from your business.
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