Greenhouse Farming Information:
Greenhouse Farming Information- Introduction: – What is Greenhouse? A greenhouse is a framed or inflated structure covered with a transparent or translucent material in which fruit or vegetable or flower crops can be grown under the controlled climatic conditions of at least partially controlled environment. Greenhouse is an area in which it permits a person to work and carry out regular cultural operations.
Greenhouse Farming Information – Advantages :- The greenhouse farming is picking vary rapidly due it’s advantages. The following are some of the Greenhouse benefits.
- Crop cultivation can be carried out under controlled environment.
- Greenhouse provides an excellent opportunity to grow high quality crops for export markets.
- Greenhouse environment is suitable for cultivating crops year round to meet the market demands
- Greenhouse provides best opportunity within the limited land resources
- Greenhouse provides successful nurseries from by vegetative or seeds propagation
- In Greenhouse farming, high yielding is possible with low area of cultivation
- Farming in Greenhouse can provide local employment for educated youth.
- Greenhouse also provides an opportunity to learn about high yielding cultivation
- Greenhouse is the best place for evolution of new varieties and production of seeds
Greenhouse Farming Information -Types of Greenhouses:- Greenhouse type is categorized based on covering material, environmental control, shape and structure and cost.
Let us get into details of Greenhouse types.
Greenhouse types based on covering material: The following are the types of Greenhouse based on covering material.
- Fibre reinforced plastic house
Greenhouse types based on cost: The following are the Greenhouse types based on the cost.
- Low cost: Up to Rs. 500/sq.meter
- Medium cost: From Rs. 500 to 1000 /sq.meter
- High cost: Above Rs. 1000/sq.meter.
Greenhouse types based on shape & structure: The following are the Greenhouse types based on the shape and structure.
- Gothic arch
- Even span
- Double-span (or) multi-span.
Greenhouse types based on environmental control: The following are the Greenhouse types based on the environmental control.
- Naturally ventilated greenhouses
- Evaporatively cooled greenhouses
- High-tech greenhouses.
Greenhouse Farming Information – Site Selection:- Selecting a perfect site is most important part of the Greenhouse farming:
- The Greenhouse should be well connected with roads and local markets.
- Greenhouse should not be built in water logged areas
- Avoid the areas where heavy winds are possible to prevent or minimize the wind damage
- Make sure the site is a well-drained in case of heavy rains or floods.
- Avoid constructing a Greenhouse near an industry to prevent from possible pollution effects on Greenhouse crops.
- Make sure to have sufficient room for future site expansion
- As labour is integral part of the greenhouse, make sure to have availability of labour.
- Site should have communication facilities like telephone, fax, and internet.
Greenhouse Farming Information – Orientation of Greenhouse:- The following is the preferred orientation of the Greenhouse.
- In naturally ventilated greenhouse, the ventilators should open on the leeward side
- In a free standing greenhouse, it should have its long axis perpendicular to the wind direction
- In a multi plan greenhouses, the gutter should be oriented north south direction
- In free-standing greenhouse, more sunlight is available in winter in an east-west direction
Greenhouse Farming Information – Environmental Control:- The following are the means of controlling environment in the Greenhouse.
- Sprinkling water on the cover
- Natural ventilation can be provided by using ventilation nets & ridge openings
- Mechanical ventilation can be provided by exhaust fans and mixing fans
- Air conditioners can be used in hi-tech Greenhouse for very high value crops
- For Shade control, shade nets or thermal screens can be used
- Overhead misting or fogging system can be used
- In dry climates, fan-pad cooling can be used.
Greenhouse Farming Information – Maintenance :- Maintenance in a Greenhouse farming is very important and little expensive too.
- Because of the dust, biofilm reduces the transmittance of covers. Hence the covers should be washed periodically
- The PE covers lose their transmittivity within five years period so they need to be replaced
- Greenhouse should be fumigated & the soil should be solarized by mulching every year
- In a Greenhouse, fertigation should be used for fertilizer application and irrigation
- UV stabilized insect nets over all vents and openings, Insect traps /biological control is mandatory
- Drip irrigation system should be flushed & cleaned periodically
- Providing insect proof net to facilitate ventilation by keeping inside greenhouse door open is essential.
Difference between Greenhouse and Polyhouse:- Green house is a broad term and polyhouse is one type of green house made out of polyethylene, it can also be with wood called Lath house & with glass it is called Green house.
Greenhouse Farming Information – Subsidy:- Most of the state governments encouraging greenhouse cultivation by providing subsidies. For subsidy information on greenhouse, contact local horticulture department.
For a complete cost & profits of the greenhouse farming Information: Read here.
For a complete low cost greenhouse farming Information : Read here.