Greenhouse Growing Problems:
Greenhouse growing problems and their management
Greenhouse growing has a wide range of benefits over open field Growing. The crop remains protected from wind, rain, and even the duration of photosynthesis can be controlled according to the requirement.The main purpose of greenhouse Growing is to provide the required amount of heat to the crop in a colder environment.But still, it faces some problems which can be dealt easily with the good knowledge and right problem management.
Greenhouse growing problems – Seasonal problems: Two things should be considered in making sure your plants’ security — venting and shading. There cannot be a lot of ventilators at a greenhouse, after all, you don’t need to open each one only as they’re there, but if the temperatures actually start to grow, you can certainly do anything about it. Some greenhouse layouts can be somewhat mean in their supply for venting — therefore it’s as good to keep this aspect in mind when picking in the first location.
Greenhouse growing problems – Frost problems: Well, frost is another thing to consider Greenhouse Growing. This depends on climatic conditions. Frost-gourd can be set up to overcome this issue.
Greenhouse growing problems – Condensation problems: Condensation can be a significant issue and it’s, sadly, one that, at least in certain times of the year, is nearly impossible to avoid completely. Damp environment and air supply ideal conditions for several mildews, moulds and other pollutants to grow, particularly the likes of gray mold, so again, assuring good ventilation is an integral part of reducing the chance of a problem developing. Insulating the greenhouse through the warmer weather and seeking to get rid of any apparent causes of condensation – even although this isn’t necessarily simple – can frequently be rewarding.
The problems arise in greenhouse growing can be divided into many categories like –
A – Failure to fulfill some essential requirements such as heat, light, moisture and carbon dioxide in the amount necessary for optimum growth.
B – Deficiency of fertilizers
C – Excess of fertilizers
D – Appearance of some toxic gases
E – Exposure to fungus, bacteria, and viruses
F – Attack by insects, animals, and allied pests
Greenhouse growing problems – Deficiency of Fertilizers in Greenhouse growing
Some known and studied symptoms of the deficiency diseases of fertilizers in greenhouse growing
- Greenhouse growing problems – Chlorosis in greenhouse growing
It is identified by the loss of normal green color from the foliage. It can be older, younger or more mature foliage. The disease can affect the entire leaf or irregular patches of yellow colour shading into the green color can be seen in between the veins. Sometimes only the leaflet or the margins of the leaf are yellow while the rest of the parts of the leaf are green.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Necrosis in greenhouse growing
Necrosis is an advanced form of chlorosis where the affected area of foliage dies. The problem of necrosis can also be caused by other factors which have no link with fertilizers like spray, sunscald or aerosol damage etc.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Nitrogen deficiency in greenhouse growing
The older foliage gets most affected by the nitrogen deficiency. Generally, the colour of the whole plant turns into light green. The problem begins when the oldest leaves gradually lose their green colour and sometimes the whole plant turns yellow. The flowers are also affected by the nitrogen deficiency as they are left smaller and sometimes lack their well-developed colour.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Phosphorus deficiency in greenhouse growing
Phosphorus deficiency is characterized by the purplish colouration which develops on the underside of the petiole or leaf stem first and then spreads to the main veins of the leaf.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Potassium Deficiency in greenhouse growing
Potassium deficiency is identified when the margins of the leaves of the older foliage turn yellow and as the deficiency increases in severity, the progress of the chlorosis towards the mid-portion of the foliage can be seen. Extreme deficiency may lead to dropping off the older leaves. Such symptoms can also be seen because of the fumigants like marginal burning or chlorosis. The droplets of fumigant or spray may also result in spots of chlorotic or necrotic nature.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Calcium Deficiency in greenhouse growing
The typical symptom of calcium deficiency in sand culture is identified when the development and death of the short clubby roots becomes a matter several of weeks. In many cases, the low pH of soil is also associated with the insufficient amount of calcium in the soil.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Iron deficiency in greenhouse growing
Symptoms of Iron deficiency is a common problem seen in plants. But, as the lack of iron becomes intense necrotic areas can be seen on the yellow colored foliage and this may lead to the dropping of affected leaf. Sometimes the deficiency of iron may not be the primary cause. The symptoms can also occur by the injury to the roots through over-watering or over-fertilizing the plants. Soil pests like nematodes can also interfere the root growth and cause iron chlorosis symptoms.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Boron deficiency in greenhouse growing
The cases of boron deficiency are few in number and mostly the symptoms are seen in certain carnation and rose varieties. The newly grown foliage is thick or leathery and rapidly gets chlorotic. The flowers of the rose plant are malformed. A ‘witches broom’ effect can be observed since the stem tip dies resulting in the rise of the shoots immediately below. Boron deficiency should be concluded carefully and after the deep observation because such symptoms can also be the cause of other environmental factor and cultural practice. Therefore soil testing, soil type, fertilizer application and watering practices should be observed carefully before coming to any conclusion.
Greenhouse growing problems – Fertilizer excess in greenhouse growing
Fertilizer deficiency is not the real cause of problems always. It is the common practice to keep adding fertilizers until the plant flourishes. But, an excess of fertilizers can also limit the growth and cause problems.Sometimes the safe nutrient level and injurious level has a very marginal difference. But their result can be very injurious to plants. Therefore, it is advised to determine right fertilizer amount before fertilizer application.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Nitrogen excess in greenhouse growing
The excess of nitrogen is characterized by the large, heavy, dark green leaves which are usually crisp and break feasibly. Additional excessive nitrogen may also cause root action and iron chlorosis can occur. If the root system dies, the plant wilt excessively and never recovers from the damage. The yellowing of top foliage is often seen in chrysanthemums and snapdragons. The unsafe amount of nitrogen is over 75 ppm.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Phosphorus excess in greenhouse growing
The excessive amount of phosphorus leads to the precipitation of iron in the soil. So, the iron becomes insoluble in water unavailable for roots in soil resulting in iron chlorosis. Over 25 ppm is injurious.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Potassium excess in greenhouse growing
Excessive potassium is not injurious up to a certain level but too much potash can cause root action. The problems appeared are root chlorosis, wilting, and immediate death of the plant. Over 60ppm of potassium is injurious to the plants.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Calcium excess in greenhouse growing
Excessive calcium leads to the rise of pH in soil. High pH causes iron chlorosis in plants and it is also known as ‘over liming injury’. Over 300 ppm calcium is high in amount for plant growth.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Iron excess in greenhouse growing
Excessive iron is not dangerous at normal pH because calcium or phosphorus will precipitate it in the soil. But, at pH 5.0 or lower iron becomes very soluble in water in the soil and on hydrangeas, brown dots appear on the leaves showing the precipitation of iron since water vapor is lost through transpiration.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Sulphate excess in greenhouse growing
High sulphate in soil leads to low pH of the soil. Sometimes soils at pH 6.5 are high in sulphate. Sulphate over 600 ppm is injurious to most plants.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Boron excess in greenhouse growing
Boron is trace element and is found in the soil where unleached cinders have been added and also at the places where boric acid has been added indiscriminately. It can also become high in soil because of the water that has a high quantity of boron. In the rose plant, it is observed by the turning the serrations on the margin of the leaflets of the lower leaves black and the remaining part of the leaf turn yellow and drop ultimately.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Aluminium excess in greenhouse growing
Aluminium excess causes hydrangeas to turn blue, roots are burnt and the plants wilt.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Soluble salt excess in greenhouse growing
Soluble salt excess leads to the reduction of plant growth severely. It happens because the excessive amount of fertilizers injures or kills the roots.
Greenhouse growing problems – Injury by toxic gases in greenhouse growing
- Greenhouse growing problems – Natural gas in greenhouse growing
Natural gas is made up of the combination of 95% methane and 4 to 5% ethane. This gas is often responsible for the injury to the greenhouse plants because it gets leaked from corroded or leaky pipelines inside or outside the greenhouse. It is observed mostly in the winters because the ventilators are kept closed and the leaked gas remains inside the greenhouse and cause harm to the plants.
Leaked gas in even very small concentration causes damage to the plants and it is difficult to detect because it’s almost odorless.Only 1 part of natural gas in 10,000 to 100,000 of air can damage many plants, even the exposure of 1 part to 350 of air for 2 hours can cause a headache. It can be easily detected with the use tomato plants. The leaves of tomato plant turn downward because of the influence of this gas, it happens because of epinastic response. The petioles of the leaves grow more rapidly on the upper side because of epinastic response. On the other hand, carnations develop long stigmas in low concentration but it also happens in bright weather in unshaded greenhouses.
If the exposure of natural gas is prolonged even 1 part to 100,000 of air can kill the young buds leading to the failure of flower development.In the case of rose foliage, petiole bends downward and the upper shoots exhibit epinasty. It also causes severe leaf drop and the flower colour gets faded. Bulbous plants tend to develop twisted foliage and the flowers do not bloom properly.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Ethylene gas in greenhouse growing
Ethylene is apparently the by-product of metabolic processes occurring in plants or their parts and is released in very small quantity.Ethylene vapors are thought to be the reason for dropping of flowers from plants after pollination. The carnation flowers get completely closed or the ends of the petals of the flower turn inward which makes them appear sleepy because of ethylene gas.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Sulphur dioxide in greenhouse growing
Even a low concentration of this gas is toxic for plants.It enters into the leaf through open stomata and kills the nearby cells resulting in the patches of dead tissues scattered over the affected leafand it frequently affects the margins. Middle-aged leaves are more vulnerable to this gas than young leaves.
This gas is commonly present in the localitieswherecoal is burnt in big amount.Foggy days are particularly dangerous. Sulphur dioxide is used in rose houses in heating pipes to control mildew is also known to be responsible forleaf drop in some varieties.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Mercury damage in greenhouse growing
Mercury gets released in greenhouse through the breaking of thermometers or the use of bi-chloride of mercury as a disinfectant on beds in greenhouse. Vapours from metallic mercury quickly cause damage to the plants. The damage can be noticed when peduncles of young buds turn yellow and then black. The colour of flowers also get dark and the leaves of the plants are scorched.
The damage from mercury can be controlled by removing all possible traces of mercury and the areas where mercury was spilled should be covered by the iron fillings of thickness at least 2 inches.Paint containing mercury as a fungicide should not be used in rose houses in green house Growing.
- Greenhouse growing problems – 2,4-D in greenhouse growing
2,4-D (2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) and other related compoundsare used as weed killers but they can also damage leaves, stems, and flowersby causing bending, curling, and other malformations. It enters into the greenhouse through doors or side vents when fumes or ‘drift’ from a spray are applied along the sides of a greenhouse. This damage can be prevented by keeping such sources away from the greenhouse, boiler room, or potting shed.
- Greenhouse growing problems – Phenol compounds in greenhouse growing
Phenol compounds and their derivatives are harmful for the plants. Therefore tar, carbolic acid, pentachlorophenol and other such compounds should not be used under glass of the greenhouse. Wooden bench members also should not be treated with preservatives containing phenol.