Growing Vegetables – Planting Guide In India

Growing Vegetables in India

A vegetable garden is also known as a vegetable patch or vegetable plot. The home vegetable garden is to grow vegetables and other plants useful for human consumption. A vegetable plant has the same basic needs as light, food, water, and warmth. The amount of each of these given to a plant will determine the success of the harvest. A vegetable garden is easy to start and needs some care. Make the most of your time and space by growing vegetable plants that produce a high yield. The first step in planning a vegetable garden is to locate where you are going to put it before you take any further steps. If you have limited space, you could want to consider a container garden or putting in small raised beds to take advantage of the space you have. In this article we also covered the below topics about growing vegetables;

  • Starting a vegetable garden at home
  • How to grow container vegetable garden
  • What type of container suitable for growing vegetables
  • Vegetable harvest tips
  • Is it better to grow vegetable plants in raised beds?
  • How much water does a vegetable plant require?
  • The best vegetables for containers
  • Tips to Grow your vegetables on a terrace garden
  • Elements for successful vegetable gardening
  • How to make a terrace vegetable garden
  • How to make a terrace vegetable garden
  • Maintaining the vegetable garden
  • Plants for balcony vegetable gardening
  • Tips for growing balcony vegetable garden
  • Which vegetables can you re-grow from scraps?
  • How to plant a vegetable garden

A Step-by-Step Guide for Growing Vegetables in India

Vegetable Garden
Guide for Growing Vegetables in India (Image credit: pixabay)

The Vegetable Production States in India

Vegetables are an excellent source of vitamins like niacin, riboflavin, Thiamin and vitamins A and C. Also, they supply minerals such as calcium and iron besides proteins and carbohydrates. Major vegetables grown in India are Potato, Onion, Tomato, Cabbage, Bean, Egg Plants, Cauliflower, Cucumber and Garkin, Frozen Peas, Garlic, and okra.

The major areas producing vegetables in India are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Orissa, Karnataka, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, and Jharkhand.

Starting vegetable gardening requires some important steps like selecting a site, planning the garden, preparing the soil, choosing the vegetable seeds and plants, planting a crop, and nurturing the plants until they are ready for harvest. Then, the result is fresh produce to eat, share, or sell vegetables.

Best Soil for Growing Vegetables in India

Healthy soil is the key factor for growing healthy plants and a healthy environment. If your vegetable garden soil tests significantly above that, you will need to lower the pH level of the soil. If the soils in the vegetable garden test significantly lower than 6, you will need to raise the pH of your vegetable garden soil.

For growing vegetables, organic soil is rich in humus, the result of decaying materials like leaves, grass clippings, and compost. It holds moisture but drains well. Plants need some nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and micronutrients. These nutrients are present naturally in soil however amending your soil regularly with compost and other organic matter will give you better results.

The best soil suitable for growing vegetables in lots of compost and organic matter. This soil is full of living microorganisms that help feed your vegetable plants. Plant vegetables in moist, well-drained soil. Wet soil means wet roots, which can turn into rotted plant roots. Healthy soil means healthy vegetable plants that are better able to resist pests and disease, reducing the need for harmful pesticides.

Pick the Right Vegetables to Plant in the Garden

New growers may want to consider some of the easier crops to grow, like carrots, beans, cucumbers, peppers, and lettuce. It is best to start small when deciding what to plant in a vegetable garden. Firstly, think about how much you and your family will eat. Some vegetables grow and produce throughout the growing season like tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and summer squash.

Selecting the Best Location for Growing Vegetables

Most vegetable plants do best in full sun. Then, find a location that gets at least 6 hours of it each day if possible. The best site for a vegetable garden at least 6 hours of sunlight daily, good drainage and air circulation, and a level location with loose, rich soil. The selected garden should be a nearby source of water, and ideally, convenient access to tool storage and equipment.

Sunlight Requirement for Growing Vegetables in India

Vegetable plants have basic requirements like food, water, light, and heat. Different vegetable plants require a different amount of sunlight. When it comes to light, vegetable plants need about 6 hours of direct or partial sunlight a day.

In case if you miss this: Growing Organic Sweet potatoes.

Leafy Vegetable Garden
Sunlight Requirement for Growing Vegetables (pic source: pixabay)

Light is one of the important elements in growing vegetable plants. When growing vegetables consider the amount of light your location will be getting. Most vegetable plants need 6 hours of sunlight. Do not be too concerned if the garden plot is in a shady area as leaf and root vegetables like Lettuce, Peas, Carrots, Kale, and Swiss chard will tolerate some shade. Vegetables that produce fruit like tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and squash are needed full sun. These can be easily grown in containers on a sunny patio. Container gardening is a wonderful way to grow your vegetable plants.

Tips to Watering Your Vegetable Garden the Right Way

  • Along with soil and sunlight, water is an extremely vital part of your vegetable garden’s success. But, watering your vegetable plants can be tricky.
  • If your plants are getting too little water, some vegetables like onions won’t grow to their full size and you’ll end up with a puny harvest.
  • Watering incorrectly can cause a lot of unnecessary problems in the vegetable garden.
  • Vegetable plants need 1 to 2 inches of water each week especially from mid-June to mid-August.
  • Too little water will not let plant roots grow deep and strong enough to gather nutrients for good plant growth.
  • The efficient method to irrigate is by using soaker hoses and drip lines. Wet foliage for extended periods can promote diseases.
  • Too much water will saturate the soil, not allowing the plant air and space required to grow. For best results, it is important to know how much water your vegetable plants are getting. Observe your vegetables, get to know soil conditions, keep an eye on the weather and learn which plants need more water than others.
  • Regular watering is crucial for a plant’s growth and successful fruiting.

Fertilizer Requirement for Growing Vegetables

Regular fertilizer applications will keep vegetable plants vigorous and productive. When vegetable plants grow reluctantly or start turning yellow, fertilizer may help to solve this problem. Too much fertilizer can burn your plants. Tomatoes and beans are given too much fertilizer grow lots of foliage but little fruit.

Too much fertilizer mainly nitrogen (the first number on the fertilizer package) can promote plenty of lush green growth at the expense of less fruit and a smaller harvest. Excessive fertilizer can also be harmful to vegetable plants. Instead, add as much organic compost as possible, up to 20% of the total soil makeup. Incorporate it into the rest of the soil and you will be supplying your plants with the nutrients they need to thrive naturally. In other words, feed the soil and let the soil feed the vegetable plants.

Pest and Disease Control in Growing Vegetables

Maintenance is very important for vegetable gardening. The inability to properly maintain a vegetable garden leads to poor growth of crops as well as an unkempt appearance. Pests and diseases in vegetables include weeds, insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes. A garden cannot grow properly if any of these are present and must be alleviated quickly once a discovery is made.

Various insects and mites can damage vegetable plants in home gardens at all stages of growth. Plant diseases can be a problem in the home garden, especially during warm, wet weather. Root rot, leaf spots, and fruit rots are common vegetable disease problems.

Insect pests of vegetables are Aphids, Caterpillars, Cutworms, Grasshoppers and locusts, Thrips, Weevils, Whiteflies, and Mites. Some tips for controlling vegetable pests and diseases are;

  • Proper plant spacing can reduce the occurrence of many vegetable foliar diseases, especially fungal and bacterial diseases that thrive in extended wet periods. Space vegetable plants properly to allow good air circulation. Wet conditions are prolonged if vegetable plants are crowded and unable to dry quickly.
  • Proper water management is important for keeping vegetable plants healthy.
  • Planting dates can be an effective tool for vegetable disease management. Carefully follow the recommended planting dates for the particular vegetable being grown. Warm-season crops are most susceptible to damage from cold temperature levels and cool-season seed may not germinate if temperatures are hot.
  • Planting resistant varieties are an efficient way of managing troublesome vegetable diseases. Make an effort to buy resistant plant varieties when they are available.
  • Adequate fertilization helps prevent some vegetable diseases. Test soil 3 to 6 months before the growing season, and follow the recommendations to supply appropriate nutrients and to adjust soil pH level. Most vegetables prefer soil pH levels in the range of 6.5 to 7.0.

Growing Vegetables at Home in Pots in India

Growing vegetable plants in containers are easy, especially for beginners. Container gardening is an easy way to grow vegetable plants. Firstly, find a sunny spot to place the container and choose a few different vegetables that you and your family like to eat.

Many vegetables do well in containers. By choosing the right vegetable plants, you can grow a fair amount of food. Large vegetable plants need lots of space, and most roots need room to grow. And, avoid small size containers as they can’t store enough water to get through hot days. Also, the bigger your container, the more plants you can grow. Just make sure that it has drainage holes in the bottom. Black color pots absorb heat when they are sitting in the sun.

Many vegetable plants grown in pots must be watered as often as twice a day. To keep vegetable plants adequately cool and moist during hot summer days, double-pot. When watering the vegetable plant, also soak the filler between the pots. Generally, vegetable plants in terra cotta or clay need more attention to watering than other types of pots. If you plan on moving the vegetable garden around, try to choose a lightweight container; once it’s planted, it can get pretty heavy, especially after watering. Dark colors absorb heat, so they can make the soil too warm for some vegetable crops in summer, especially in hot-summer areas.

Container vegetable plants need the best possible soil, aeration, and drainage for healthy root development and optimum harvest. Then, you need a good container, the right soil mix, and appropriate seed (or transplant) varieties. As mentioned above, you need to water daily or twice daily; in hot weather, the soil can dry out quickly.

Harvest vegetables are the most satisfying step, and it doesn’t take much to get it right. Pick your plants as soon as they reach a size where you will enjoy them. And when harvesting vegetables, it’s a good idea to use pruners, scissors, or a knife.

Growing Vegetables in Balcony in India

Many vegetable plants grow well in containers on a patio, porch, balcony, or windowsill. Growing your vegetable plants is rewarding, healthy, and fun. Like most other container gardens, vegetables will do best in potting mixes made for containers. Then, fill the containers so the soil is at least 2 to 3 inches below the rim and water the soil just before planting.

Almost any vegetable plant to grow in a backyard garden will also thrive in a balcony vegetable garden under the right conditions, including Tomatoes, Eggplant, Peppers, Green onions, Radishes, Beans. When you are planting vegetables in containers on balcony gardens, you need to make sure to use synthetic soils. These are best suited for container plants. Synthetic soils are made of wood chips, peat moss, vermiculite, perlite, or other type of synthetic planting media. You can fill the bottom of the container with coarse gravel before putting the soil in and this will improve drainage for your plants.

Watering one time a day is necessary for the vegetable garden. If your balcony has direct sunlight and no roof, you will not have to water on the days it rains. Any vegetable plant that is easy to transplant is great for container growing. Though, you can also germinate seed indoors as you would if you were going to plant them in the backyard, and then transplant them to containers on your balcony vegetable garden when they are ready. If vegetables get a peak of ripeness then it is time to harvest vegetables and this will give you the best-tasting vegetables from the balcony garden.

Growing Vegetables on Terrace in India

You can plant almost any vegetable in terrace garden containers.

Plan a Layout for Terrace Vegetable Garden – Firstly, start by planning a garden layout to decide and then place your pots on the terrace. This needs to be done carefully, keeping the drainage system in mind. Also, you need to check shaded and sunny areas and design the layout accordingly.

Choose the Right Space – Go to the terrace; take a good look for growing plants. Then, select a place that is shady and also gets direct sunlight for some part of the day. You’ve to ensure that the plants get at least 6 hours of sunlight daily.

Preparing the Soil – Do not use normal garden soil for the vegetable plants. Instead, use a good quality potting mix for vegetable plants that are properly nourished. Choose an organic mixture of soil instead of chemically treated soil as chemically treated soil kills beneficial bacteria and reduces the nourishment of the vegetable.

Choose the Planting Containers – You can use almost anything as a planter from wooden crates to plastic bottles. But, you can explore options like metal planters, recycled plastic planters, fiber planters, or even grow bags.

Choosing the Vegetables – Firstly, you can start with just one or two vegetables. Make sure to pick good quality vegetable seeds, so the vegetable plants are grown healthy and happy. The best suitable vegetables for a terrace garden are Tomato, Radish, Beetroot, Carrots, Onions, Potato, Capsicum, and Chilies.

Watering is the key factor – Water the vegetable plants regularly is very important. Excess water causes damage and decay to plant roots, and it also washes away the nutrients of the soil.

Create Raised Beds on Terrace – The raised bed on the terrace does not differ from those you see in a regular garden. If you fill the raised bed with soil, consider preventing pests from entering the bed. To make soil for vegetables, mix quality garden soil, ripe compost, and manure. The main advantage of a raised bed garden is the height and width of the terrace. Gardening can hardly be more convenient.

How to Grow Vegetables in Backyard

Successful vegetable gardening in the backyard requires a little bit of effort and some knowledge.  You can grow your vegetable plants in a container or the backyard.

Garden Size – The size of the vegetable garden will be determined by the amount of available space and the amount of energy you wish to commit to the project. Even a 100 square foot garden can produce some vegetables for a family.

For example, a backyard garden is 20′ x 25′ (500 sq. ft.), and this is an ideal size that provides different vegetables for a family of four, with enough extra to share with neighbors.

Benefits of growing your vegetables at home in the backyard;

  • Lowers the cost of providing your family with healthy and organic vegetables
  • Reduces the environmental impact of transporting
  • Makes your meals personal, tasty, and interesting
  • Cultivates mindfulness and provides healthy outdoor exercise

How to Grow Vegetables At Home without Seeds

  • There are some vegetables that you can “regrow.” Leafy vegetables that grow in heads like Celery, Romaine, and Bok Choy, are some of the easiest scraps to grow. Just cut off the plant’s base, which you wouldn’t eat, so you have a piece 1 inch tall. Then, place it cut side up in a shallow saucer, and then add 1/2 inch of water. Refresh the water regularly, and get ready for harvestable vegetable greens.
  • Leafy scraps will grow in the water on a sunny windowsill year-round.  
  • There are many vegetables (and herbs) that you can re-grow from scraps. Some examples are Lettuce, Bok Choy and Cabbage, Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes, Onions, Garlic, Leeks and Shallots, Celery, Bulb Fennel, Carrots, Turnips, Parsnips, Beets and Other Root Crops, and Leafy Greens.
  • Re-grow vegetables from cuttings are Lettuce, Celery, Cabbage, Green onions, Avocado, Ginger, Garlic, Fennel, Kohlrabi, Leeks, and Basil.
  • Root Vegetables to Regrow for Leafy Tops are Beets, Carrots, Parsnips, Radishes, Rutabagas, and Turnips.

Best Vegetables to Grow At Home in India

Potatoes, Chard, Lettuce, Cherry and Bush Tomatoes, Peppers, Eggplants, Summer Squash, Asian Greens, Pole Beans, Cole Crops like Cauliflower, Broccoli, and Cabbage; these are the easiest vegetables to grow in containers.

Other vegetables for growing at home are Beans, Beets, Chard, Chili Peppers, Kale, Onions, Radishes, Spinach, Sweet Peppers, Carrots, Cucumbers, and Lettuce, etc.

How to Grow Vegetables in Raised Beds

Raised beds are a great way of growing different plants and are particularly popular for growing vegetables. Firstly, fill a raised bed with good quality raised bed soil, which can be a mix of native soil, compost, and lightweight amendments such as peat and perlite that improve drainage.

Almost any vegetables can be grown in raised beds. Some of the vegetables suitable for raised beds are Lettuce, Radishes, Carrots, Tomatoes, Garlic, Beetroot, French Beans, Peas, Courgettes, Peppers, Squash and Melons, Cucumbers, Onions, and Eggplant, etc.



Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here