Guava Farming Project Report:
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – INTRODUCTION
Guava is a small tree native to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. They are considered to have been originated from the Mexico or Central American region and then distributed over to other parts of the world. The crop was initially cultivated for subsistence type farming, but now it has developed into the commercial farming system. Like all the major fruits it is undertaken as a high-density farming technique for more productivity and quality of fruits. In India, it is a very common fruit available in the market throughout the year at moderate prices. The major states producing guava are Maharashtra, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. Generally, guava crop requires little care and assures easy returns. In order of importance, guava is ranked 4th after mango, banana, and citrus. The guava tree is comparatively better than most of the other fruit-bearing trees because it is productive, hard and adaptable. This Guava farming project report describes the farming activities in detail, analyses the cost of investment and the returns on the investment through a sample model structure.
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – FRUIT AND ITS PROPERTIES
The fruit of the guava plant is considered to have broad, but the low-calorie profile of nutrients. The fruit is rich in fiber, vitamin C and folic acid. The vitamin C content of guava is four times that of an orange.
The leaves of guava contain carotenoids and polyphenols which are responsible for the skin and flesh color. Therefore, the fruits which have red-orange color have more polyphenol and carotenoid content.
The oil from the guava seed is a source of beta carotene, vitamin A & C, copper, zinc, selenium, etc. The seed oil consists of some fatty oils such as lauric acid, Myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linolic acid. The total saturated fats in the guava seed oil are 14% and unsaturated fat constitute around 86%.
The guava fruit is used for the following needs:
- It works as an immunity booster.
- Helps lower the risk of cancer.
- The fruit is diabetic-friendly.
- The fruit balances the sodium and potassium levels in the body, thereby regulating heart health and blood pressure.
- As the fruit is rich in dietary fiber it treats constipation problems.
- Due to the presence of vitamin A, the fruit improves eyesight.
- Vitamin B-9 and folic acid help in the development of the nervous system of the fetus, therefore it is recommended for pregnant women.
- Guava has the potential for anti-inflammatory an anti-bacterial action which can help fight infections. So, sometimes the juice of guava leaves is recommended for the treatment of swollen gums, oral ulcers, and toothaches.
- The guava fruit has magnesium, which helps in relaxation of the muscles and nerves.
- The presence of vitamin B compounds makes it a good food for brain health.
- A mix of all the nutrients and fiber make guava a substitute for weight loss.
- Vitamin C helps in the prevention of cold and cough.
- Consuming guava can treat anti-aging problems and also improves skin complexion.
- The decoction of guava leaves works as a skin toner.
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – PRODUCTION AND SCOPE
In India, the production of guava has increased many fold times since its inception. The total contribution of the fruit in the industry is around 18.23 million tonnes i.e. about 4%. The average production is around 9.9 metric tonnes per hectare. Research has suggested that Maharashtra is the largest producer of guava followed by Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – PLANT CHARACTERISTICS
- The maximum height of the tree is 33 ft. It has spread branches, copper-colored bark with smooth, thin, flaky skin. The diameter of the trunk is 25 cm.
- The leaves are oval, oblong or elliptic. They are 7 to 15 cm long and are evergreen in nature. The leaves are leathery and aromatic when crushed.
- The flowers of the tree are white in color with a faint fragrance. They are either single or grow in clusters. The flowers contain about 250 stamens with pale yellow anthers.
- The fruit is strong, sweet and has a musky odor when ripe. The shape of the fruit is either round or ovoid. The maximum fruit length is 5 to 10 cm with 4 or 5 sepals at the apex.
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – VARIETIES OF GUAVA
Some important varieties of guava are listed below:
- Allahabad Safeda.
- Lucknow 49.
- Smooth green.
- Arka mridula.
- Nagpur seedless.
- Dudhe khaja.
- Arka Amulya.
Other than these the classifications can also be made as
- Supreme: variety from Florida produces fruit with thick white flesh.
- Red Indian Rolfs and Ruby: large seeded variety.
- Seedless variety: no seed cavity, but thick and fleshy fruit.
- Goyena Quezo de Bola: it is a developed variety by NSIC.
- Vietnam guava: creamy white flesh with moderate seeds and sweet flavor.
- Hawaiian strains: the taste of guavas is sour.
- Thai variety: mild, sweet fruit with white flesh and pale yellow seeds. They have little fragrance and are crunchy. The fruits appear in 2 or 3 years from planting and are oval in shape. It is basically a grafted variety.
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – SOIL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
Guava plants can grow practically in any type of soil, but the best suitable soil condition is well-drained clay or sandy loam with high organic content. The pH of the soil should be around 5 to 7. The plants can survive at an elevation of 1600 ft above sea level. The climate for guava farming should be dry with distributed rainfall throughout the year. High wind velocity is not suitable for guava trees. Windbreaks are to be planted around the guava trees in areas where the wind velocity ranges from 15 to 24 km per hour. The minimum rainfall should range in between 1000 to 2000 mm and the temperature of the area should be 23 to 28˚C.
Read: Papaya Grafting Methods.
PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES of GUAVA
Guava plants are propagated either by seeds or by vegetative methods. The seeds are obtained from the ripe fruits and are sown in raised soil beds of the nursery in the months of August or February. When the seedlings grow to a height of 10-15 cm they are replanted into the main area.
The scion of length 2.5 cm from one seedling is removed and tied to another exposed rootstock with a polythene strip such that the buds are left uncovered. This patch budding is done in the month of May or June.
When propagating through vegetative parts there are three possibilities such as air layering, cuttings, and mound layering.
One of the best methods of propagation is air layering with the help of growth regulators. Shoots of 1 cm diameter are chosen and a ring of length 2 cm is cut from the area below the bud. The apical side of the ring is treated with IBA 500 ppm solution, and then it is covered with moist sphagnum moss; finally, it is wrapped with a 15 cm wide polythene sheet. Both the ends of the polythene are tied. This is generally done in March. After 35-40 days when the roots would be visible, it is advised to remove the air layers and plant them in the nursery for further growth.
One year shoots are used for obtaining 20 to 25 cm of the cuttings. These cuttings are dipped in 200 ppm of IBA solution for 24 hours and then planted into the soil beds. Moisture in the soil is important for this method.
Mound layering is also done for guava propagation. In this process, the mother plants planted at a distance of 1-meter x 1 meter are headed back in the month of July –August with the help of a stub of 5-8 cm above the ground. When the shoots emerge from the stub, a ring of the bark is removed and a mound of soil is prepared such that it covers the ringed shoots. Within 30 to 40 days the roots develop. Then, they are detached from the mother plant and planted in the nursery.
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – LAND PREPARATION AND PLANTING
For farming guava, rectangular plots are chosen for easy operations. The land is harrowed and ploughed thoroughly and levelled before digging the pits. The dimensions of the pits are 0.6 m x 0.6 m x 0.6 m. 20 kg of organic manure, soil and 500 g of superphosphate is mixed well and filled in the pits after 15 to 20 days. The normal planting density is 112 plants per acre land with a spacing of 6 x 6 m. Planting is done during the monsoon season.
The high-density planting method: apart from the standard planting density, there are other spacing types which deliver early crops with higher productivity. The Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture has recommended the following planting densities depending on the soil and other agroclimatic factors.
- If the spacing between the plants is 1.5 x 1.5 m and row spacing is 3 m, the farm can accommodate 2222 plants per hectare
- If both plant spacing and row spacing is 3 x3 m then 1111 plants per hectare can be planted
- And if the row and plant spacing are further increased to 6 m and 3 m respectively, then the density reduces to 555 plants per hectare.
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – MANURE AND FERTILIZERS
The guava plants respond well to inorganic fertilizers and organic manures. The status of soil and the leaf structure can help us determine the fertilizer requirement of the plants. The total fertilizer quantity is applied in three split doses. 33% of fertilizer is applied in February, another 33% in May or June and the remaining in September. 1 m at the base of the trunk the required fertilizers are spread. For young plants up to 4 years cow dung or organic manure @ 10 kg, 40-200 g of urea, 100-600 g of superphosphate and 40-225 g of muriate of potash are supplied. For plants of 4-7 years FYM @25-50 kg, 200-300 g of urea, 600-1000 g of superphosphate and 225- 350 grams of muriate of potash are supplied. For plants above 7 years age, require 50 kg of FYM, 300 g of urea, 1000 g of superphosphate and 400 g of muriate of potash. Nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers are highly essential to the crops for fruiting. Micronutrients such as ZnSO₄, MgSO₄, MnSO₄, CuSO₄, FeSO₄ and teepol can also be sprayed to control the bronzing of leaves.
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – IRRIGATION REQUIREMENTS
Guava plants are tolerant to dryness, but there should always be a supplementary arrangement for irrigating the crops during long drought periods. Irrigation during the fruit development stage is expected to show signs of increased fruit production. In summer irrigation is required at an interval of 7-10 days and 25 days interval in winters. Drip irrigation practice can help plants yield better and it also gives better water use efficiency. In high density planting, an online drip system is used.
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – INTERCULTURAL ACTIVITIES
The management of the canopy of guava trees is a highly important activity because after some years of planting the trees become huge and unmanageable. Such big trees have less productivity and the interior of the canopy is devoid of fruits. Therefore the trees must be pruned regularly to maintain the quality and yield of fruits. All the unwanted and criss- cross branches are removed. A better canopy structure can be maintained by removing the apical growth in the young plants. New plants are topped to a height of 60 to 70 cm such that it facilitates new growth.
Controlling the weed is essential in the first two years of planting. Mulching the base of the trees with 100 micron black polythene sheet or with organic residues like dry grass, banana leaves and straw can arrest the weeds. The thickness of the organic mulch should be 12 to 15 cm which also facilitates the penetration of water to the roots of the plants.
Guava farms in the initial years of planting can be used for intercropping. Cash crops like vegetables, legumes, root crops, papaya, beans, ginger etc. can be successfully grown. The advantages of intercropping are that it gives extra income, prevent weed growth and loosens the soil. Once the trees grow big, intercropping is stopped.
Heavy yielding varieties bear fruits in such a way that the limbs are either bent or broken, so fruit thinning should be done such that one fruit remains for every 50 leaves.
Fruit bagging is also practiced in guava farming to protect the fruits from pests, birds and other external damage. Brown paper bags are used to bag the fruits such that they grow in proper shape and size.
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL
The most common diseases in guava plants are:
- Anthracnose – 3% of copper oxychloride is sprayed to control the disease.
- Canker – lime or Bordeaux mixture spray is used three or four times with a 15 day interval.
- Phytophthora fruit rot – controlled by spraying 0.2% of diathane Z-78.
- Stylar end rot – spraying 0.3% of copper oxychloride with a 15 day interval.
- Wilt – supplying FYM mixed with Aspergillus Niger strain AN17 @ 5 kg/pit.
- Guava rust – controlled by spraying 0.1% of Bordeaux mixture.
The most common pests attacking the guava plants are:
- Fruit fly – 0.25% of protein hydrolsyate and 0.05% of Malathion sprayed on the trees can control the flies.
- Bark eating caterpillar – 0.40% of naturalis-L is applied to the affected area.
- Pomegranate butterfly and Castor capsule borer – both these pests are controlled by spraying 0.05% of ethophenprox before the fruiting period.
- Stem borer – 5 ml of 0.1% dichlorvos is injected into the infested area.
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – HARVESTING AND YIELD
Plants which are grown through the grafting bear fruit in the 3rd year of planting and the harvesting time is generally during August or September for rainy season crops whereas harvesting is done in January or February for winter season crops. If a guava tree is 10 years old then the yield of the tree is 100 kg. The yield from grafted plants in guava is 350 kg and that of seedling plants is 90 kg per tree. The yield is less in the beginning years, i.e. two year old guava plant yields 4 or 5 kg. In high density planting, the yield is 75 kg per tree. On an average, it is estimated that 1 hectare of land yields 25 tonnes of guava fruit.
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT
Under normal conditions, guava can be stored only for 2 or 3 days, after which it is perishable. Hence it should either be marketed immediately or stored under cool conditions of 8 to 10˚C for about 3 to 5 weeks.
GUAVA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – COST AND PROFIT ANALYSIS
The cost of investment is outlined for 1 acre land of guava farming. The structure indicates the major costs involved in the process and doesn’t include land rent, transport and post harvest charges. Also, it is important to note that the price of materials may vary depending on the location of the market and the size of the area. The electricity charges are also not included in this model which may vary in different states.
The cost of the guava plant: Rs 100.00 / piece (Thai variety may cost more around Rs 140- 200).
1 acre of land can accommodate 112 plants.
The yield of 1 plant in the second year is around: 20-24 kg (the yield increases every subsequent year).
So the total yield from the farm is: 3 tonnes or 2700 kg (approx).
Cost of 1 kg guava: Rs 40.00-100.00.
Cost of insecticides and pesticides: Rs 600/kg.
|FARMING MATERIAL AND LABOUR||INVESTMENT (IN Rs)|
|Manure and fertilizer cost||7000.00|
|Insecticide and pesticide cost||5000.00|
|Labor cost @ Rs 200 per day for 2 persons in 100 days||20,000.00|
|Irrigation pipeline for 1 acre||40,000.00|
|Drip irrigation equipment||35,000.00|
|Fencing the farm area||35,000.00|
|Levelling the soil||8000.00|
Total income on the produce: Rs 2, 70,000.00 (after two years).
Total return on investment: Rs 68,800.00
When high density farming is undertaken with a top grade variety of guava, then the returns are even higher and also the produce is obtained early.
LOANS AND SUBSIDIES for GUAVA FARMING PROJECT
Telangana government is giving subsidy to guava farmers depending on the spacing between the plants and their adopted methods of cultivation which is around 17,600 to 48,000 per hectare of land.
The Gujarat government is giving subsidy to the guava farmers for procuring the saplings (277 for 1 acre of land).
STEPS UNDERTAKEN FOR HDP (High Density Guava plantation) TREE MANAGEMENT
- The high density planting methodology has the following flow of activities during the farming season.
- Field planting with spacing between the plants and rows as (3 x 1.5 m; 3 x 3 m; 6 x 3 m).
- Topping the trees when they are 2 months old.
- Emergence of new shoots below the cut point.
- Retaining 3 or 4 shoots with equal spacing.
- Pruning the shoots after 4 months of emergence, i.e. removing 50% of their length.
- The above two steps are repeated every 3 or 4 months until the tree attains 2 years.
- Desired shape is given to the tree in the second year of planting.
- Pruning is then done twice; once in January of February if the fruiting is in the rainy season else it is done in May or June if the fruiting time is in the winter season.
- Prune the trees every year to maintain a proper growth, quality, and yield.