How To Grow Rambutan Trees and Fruits:
Today, we are going to discuss “How To Grow Rambutan Trees and Fruits”.
Introduction to Growing Rambutan:
This is a fruit, which is from Southeast Asia. The fruit is called Rambutan. This is similar to Litchi / Lychee fruit. This Rambutan is native to Malaysia and Indonesia. These are popularly grown in Southeast Asia, Vietnam, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and The Philippines. The Rambutan is originated from the genus of Nephelium. The Rambutan belongs to the Sapindaceae family. Rambutan is scientifically named Nephelium lappaceum. In India, this fruit is popularly grown in states and places like Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Mangalore, Konkan in the region of Maharashtra and the Kudak region of Karnataka. This fruit is closely related to many other species like mamoncillo, Logan, and Lychee. All these species are tropical fruits. This Rambutan is used in the preparation of jellies, canned, and jams.
Characteristics of Rambutan:
Plant of Rambutan: This tree is an evergreen tree that grows up to a height of 12 cm – 20 cm.
Leaves of Rambutan: The leaves of this plant will be alternated; they are 10 cm – 30 cm in length. They are pinnate, in each leaflet we can find 3 – 11 leaves. The width of the leaf will be 5 cm – 15 cm.
Flowers of Rambutan: The flower of the Rambutan flower will be small in size; the flower will be 2.5 – 5 mm, which has apetalous, discoidal, and borne with panicles of 15 cm – 30 cm.
Fruit of Rambutan: The fruit will be round in shape, it contains a single oval seed, and the fruit will be 3 cm – 6 cm in length and 3 cm – 4 cm in broad. The skin of the fruit will be reddish in colour.
The seed of Rambutan: The seed of the Rambutan will be glossy in appearance and brown in color. The seed will be 1 cm – 1.3 cm.
Properties of Rambutan:
The nutrients that are present in Rambutan are:
- Energy: 64.0 kcal
- Protein: 1.0g
- Carbohydrates: 16.5 g
- The minerals that are enclosed in Rambutan are calcium, Phosphorus, Thiamine, Riboflavin, and Iron.
- Vitamin c is present in Rambutan.
Varieties of Rambutan:
- Chooi Ang
- Peng Thing Bee
- Yaa Tow
- Ayer Mas
- Atjeh koonig
- Lebak Bulus
Soil and Climate requirements for Growing Rambutan:
The soil, which is preferred for growing Rambutan, is deep, clay loam or rich sandy loam soil and which contains rich organic matter. The soil should be capable of well-draining the water. The depth of the soil should be about 2.0 m – 3.0 m.
The climate required for growing Rambutan, the temperature, which is required is 27°C – 30°C. The land elevation should be about 1500 m – 2000 m.
Land preparation and Planting for Growing Rambutan:
All the unwanted weeds, pebbles, stones, and also the unwanted materials of the previous should be removed. Then the land should be ploughed for 2 – 3 times as it will attain the fine tilth and smooth texture following by the ploughing, the harrowing and levelling should be done. For land, we should use 5 kg each pit should be filled with a mixture of soil and also manure.
The pits should be about 60 cm * 60 cm * 60 cm. We need to apply to the mixture of both soil and compost before two weeks of planting. And we should also add coconut husk first.
Propagation method for Growing Rambutan:
The seeds can be used for propagating the seeds. We should first remove the seeds from the fruit and then we should wash the seed thoroughly, then the seed should be planted horizontally with the flattened side. By doing this the seedling will grow at a straight angle and the plant will have a normal and strong root system. The seed germination will take place within 9 – 25 days. If the seed is germinated in two days, then the seed rate will be 87% – 95%. After the seedling is established, then we should transplant the seedling to the main field.
Manure and Fertilization method in Rambutan Cultivation:
- At the time of the plantation, need to apply farmyard manure to the land.
- After plantation, we need to apply organic matter to the plants, we need to apply urea to the plants, and also we need to apply Muriate of Potash to the plants.
- Gradually, the quantity of the fertilizers should be increased year by year. As the tree grows bigger the rate of fertilizers should be increased.
Irrigation methods for Growing Rambutan Trees:
During the growing period, the Rambutan plant requires a lot of water, as it is a drought-sensitive plant. For the first dry season, we need to irrigate the plant, as it is one of the most critical periods of the plant. Even if the plant is bearing and establish we need to irrigate the plant during the dry season.
Intercultural methods in Growing Rambutan:
Weeding: The weeds can be controlled and by using weedicides or by picking the weeds manually. Twice in a year, the weeding should be done. In a radius of 1 cm of the plant, the weeds should be removed.
Pruning: The dead twigs and water shoots. To get a well-balanced canopy we need to irrigate the plant from the young stage.
Mulching: The application of dried weeds, grasses, and other unwanted organic materials can be used in mulching as this mulching will help in conserving the moisture.
Training: The plant should be trained for climbing the wall, the seedlings should be trained.
Intercropping: These Rambutan crops can be intercropped with food crops like beans, leafy vegetables, and also root crops.
Pest and Diseases of Rambutan Trees:
The pests that attack the Rambutan crop are:
- Fruit borer
- Acrosircops crammella
These pests will damage the stem, these can be controlled by using chemical methods.
The disease that attacks the Rambutan crop is:
- Powdery mildew
This will damage the fruit and drop them prematurely. These can be controlled by spraying, sulphur several times during the early stage.
Read this: Frequently Asked Questions About Plant Diseases.
Harvesting Techniques of Rambutan Fruits:
The fruits should be harvested when they are matured and they should be harvested when the color of the fruit changes completely.
- In the mid-country zone, the fruit should be harvested in the month of July and September.
- In some climatic conditions, we can harvest them in the month of December and February.
- Under average conditions, we should harvest, the fruits in the month of June – August.
Post harvesting techniques of Rambutan Fruits
After harvesting, the fruit need to keep them in a container as brunches, the container or the fruits should not expose to the sun. The damaged fruits should be removed.
Cleaning: After harvesting the fruits they should be washed and cleaned.
Storage: These can be kept for 3 – 4 days in normal conditions. The fruits can be sorted in cold storage the temperature should be 18˚C. The low-density polyethylene bags should be enclosed and they should contain ventilating holes.
Packing: These should be packed in coconut leaf baskets or rigid leaves and use rigid ventilation while storing the Rambutan fruits.
Transportation: The ventilating Lorries should be used for transportation. We should not use open Lorries for transportation. The fruit should be protected from the sunlight and rainfall while loading and unloading them.
Marketing: These fruits have high demand in the local and international market.
The yield of Rambutan Fruits:
The average yield of the Rambutan is 100 kg -150 kg per tree. In a year we will get 500 – 1500 fruits.
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