Introduction to how to start poultry farming in Karnataka: Poultry farming in Karnataka is a business that can be an additional source of income. This business can be started at a very low cost and earn huge profits. The government provides loans and training facilities at their respective levels to promote poultry farming. The type of livestock which deals with a variety of domestic birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys, and geese such as eggs, meat, and feathers is called poultry farming.
In Karnataka, poultry farming is a major agricultural activity and it provides direct and indirect employment to over 6 million people. Poultry farming has played a pivotal role in energizing the rural economy and providing nutritious food to Indians in the form of chicken and eggs as it is a rich source of protein, vitamins, and minerals at reasonable prices for all sections of the society. It has not only provided nutrition but has also played an important role in overcoming malnutrition. Chickens, Turkeys, Ducks, Geese, etc., are raised on poultry farms for meat and eggs. The chickens that are raised for eggs are called ‘laying hens’ or ‘layers’. The broilers were raised mainly for meat.
The term “poultry farming” has been used mostly in the context of chicken farming because of the high rearing and breeding of chickens. Poultry farming is a part of agriculture and it started from agriculture. In India, although poultry is farmed extensively, the breeding and breeding of different species of birds have been going on for a long time. The poultry sector has come a long way in the state of Karnataka, creating employment opportunities for nearly 500,000 families.
In addition, it is generating an alternative source of income for the state’s agricultural farmers throughout the year and is affecting the state’s agricultural sector financially. The sector is also generating incentives and related businesses and jobs. At the same time, this sector is improving the socio-economic condition not only in rural Karnataka but also in urban areas. The KPFBA also makes recommendations to the Government of Karnataka to consider the implementation of the proposed guidelines on the poultry sector in the state.
Guide on how to start poultry farming in Karnataka, benefits, poultry importance, housing for raising poultry birds, poultry development schemes
Benefits to start poultry farming
Poultry farming is a lucrative business in India and has many advantages. The main benefits are;
- The initial investment required to start a business in poultry farming is not very high. Businesses can start small and grow big over time.
- It is a lucrative business that is full of opportunities and can provide entrepreneurship opportunities to those looking for it. India has a huge market for poultry products which will always grow and never end.
- High-quality and good-quality Indian and exotic bird breeds are available in the market for commercial production.
- Due to the various agricultural schemes available in the country, farmers will have easy access to bank loans for starting poultry farming.
- Poultry farming is a highly productive business. It does not require much capital. It doesn’t need much space.
- High demand for poultry products can lead to an early return on investment. Getting a license is easy. It is not difficult for a poultry farm to get the required loan from financial institutions.
- In addition to job creation, more skilled labor is not required.
- Requires less maintenance.
Poultry importance in Karnataka
- The Karnataka Poultry Farmers and Breeders Association (KPFBA) wants the government to consider all poultry farming activities as ‘agriculture’ under the Indian Income Tax Act.
- According to the board, the poultry sector suffers from all kinds of natural disasters and employs mostly unskilled and rural populations, so it should be brought under ‘Agriculture’ in the Income Tax Act.
- About 60% of the 21 million tonnes of maize produced in the country is used by poultry farming.
- Karnataka is the second-largest producer of maize in the country, contributing approximately 19% of the country’s 4 million metric tons of maize production annually, of which 2.4 million metric tons are being used by poultry producers in Karnataka.
- The state’s maize growers rely directly on poultry farming to sell their produce. 20-25% of total soybean grown in Karnataka is used by poultry farms. It is also a good source of income for soya and soya extraction plants in the state.
- Other agricultural products such as Jowar, Bajra, Broken Rice, Rice Polish, and De-Oiled Rice Bran are also used in poultry feed. Agricultural by-products such as Sunflower, Soybean Oil Cake, and Rice Bran are being converted into high-quality proteins such as chicken and eggs.
- Poultry farming can help in this regard because if the government provides incentives, farmers can take up poultry as a source of income.
Egg and meat production in Karnataka
Karnataka produces 415 million kg of chicken meat and 7 billion eggs annually, accounting for 13% of India’s production, the third-largest in egg production and the fourth largest in broiler production in the world.
Location for poultry farming in Karnataka
The first and most important step in starting your poultry farming is to decide the location. The size of your land will be determined by the number of birds you want to farm. Starting a poultry farm on your land is a better option as there is a risk of snatching rented land. A farm a short distance from the city would be ideal because labor is cheap there. You also need to make sure that the surrounding area is free of predators that could harm poultry farms or your birds. It is recommended that a good method of transportation be used to and from the farm.
For best results, find clean and fresh water as well as a pollution-free environment. Poultry sheds should not be located within 10 meters of the farm. Poultry sheds will be placed at a height of at least 2 meters above the water table and ground level. The entire poultry farm must be fenced to a height of about 1.5 m with barbed wire or linked mesh-up and with a properly secured entrance along with the gate.
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Poultry farm will raise green belt around the farm with at least two rows not exceeding 3 meters in height. The area around the shed and the field should always be kept clean and dry, without any vegetation and weed.
The farm must have a regular pest/rodent control program. No dead birds/feathers/aphids will be openly burned or indiscriminately dumped, unused materials like litter / empty gunnies/containers, etc., will not be adopted inside or outside the farm premises. No obstruction will be created for the passage of water inside the farm or outside the boundaries of the farm.
Sheds should have unproven systems to avoid water loss and loose litter. In open houses, the distance between sheds should be at least 50 feet. Drainage for rainwater should be arranged around the sheds to ensure easy drainage of water from poultry farms and to maintain dry litter. Farm use should cover a maximum of 60% of the available land. In the case of raised platform sheds, a minimum height of 6 feet should be provided for the proper removal of debris and cleaning of sheds.
Housing for raising poultry birds
Once you have decided which breed you want to rear, the next step is to build a poultry shelter. Make sure the coops or shelters you keep the birds in are wide enough for them to run freely. The shelter must have a good ventilation design, as it enables better bird development. If your poultry farm is large and the number of birds is high, it is advisable to build several shelters with enough space between each house. Make sure the shelter is away from rainwater and direct sunlight. Shelters need to be cleaned regularly, and a good drainage and gutter system in the shelter will help in better cleaning.
The best feed for poultry birds
Poultry farm birds should be kept healthy by feeding in large quantities. Proper nutrition is essential for the development of animals. Many poultry feed companies in the market produce food for a variety of poultry and other birds. You can also cook them at home. But it is important to make sure that the food at home has the right amount of nutrients. Proper nutrition for birds as well as clean water is essential.
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All you have to do is take good care of the farm, the birds in it, and keep up the supply-demand in your local market.
Best management practices for poultry farming
The following best management practices that facilitate the control of the production or transmission of contaminants will prevent environmental degradation through poultry farms.
- Effective feed management practices must be followed.
- Do not recycle feed bags.
- Best practices for pest management should be followed.
- General Hygiene and Hygiene
- Disposal of solid waste
- Beneficial use of waste and recovery
What are the things to consider before starting a poultry business?
Poultry farming is a wide industry from which many sub-sectors are selected. Here is a list of the sections you can choose from;
1. Select the sector that suits your interests, including;
- Meat production (through broiler breeding)
- Egg production (layers breeding)
- Poultry feed production
- Equipment in poultry farming
- Egg and Meat Processing
- Chicken Hatching
- Egg and Meat Packing and Marketing
Depending on one’s interest and feasibility, the entrepreneur can choose more than one part to start a business.
2. Choose the type of bird you want to raise on your farm.
It is advisable to select from a limited broiler and layer varieties for meat and egg production. As the business grows, more species of birds can be added based on demand and profit.
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3. Select the location of the poultry farm.
It is advisable not to look for it far from the place of consumption of goods, instead of having a logistic nightmare and increasing the cost of transportation. Finalize the space in advance so that operations can be easily managed.
4. Naming poultry farm
Name your poultry farm and register it under state laws. Creating a logo and website for your business is also important if you want to market your product online and supply it remotely.
5. Manage finances
The poultry business is not capitalist and requires limited capital in the beginning. Funds are required for a variety of purposes, including buying / renting land, equipment, staff, birds, raw materials, managing cash flow, paying salaries, and more including government schemes.
Marketing your product among the target audience is essential. Marketing is difficult, and different ways of communicating can be used to create a buzz about your product.
7. After marketing
After marketing, it is important to supply products to consumers. Consumers can be retailers, shopkeepers, wholesale markets, restaurants, etc.
Karnataka Cooperative Poultry Federation Limited
The main objectives of the Karnataka Cooperative Poultry Federation Limited as outlined in Bylaw.
- Encouraging cooperative-based poultry development.
- Planning and coordinating as a for-profit project and incorporating the principles of cooperation as a movement among the people of rural areas.
- To promote the production, processing, storage, transportation, and marketing of eggs and poultry and their products for the economic development of the farming community and to provide regular income to the unemployed youth in rural areas through poultry farming.
- Performing activities for the development and expansion of other related activities, especially for the genetic improvement of birds and promotion of poultry industries in the field of standard feed production.
- Promote consumer education in favor of eggs, meat, and their products.
- Providing veterinary services and initiating poultry rearing activities to improve poultry health care and disease control and assist member societies in doing so.
- To advise, guide, and assist member societies in all aspects of administrative, supervisory, and audit work.
- In Karnataka, schemes were implemented to provide poultry development subsidies in respect of both Federation members and poultry farmers.
Funds required to start poultry farming in Karnataka
Poultry farming depending on the scale and business with which you want to start, the need for funds may be in the range of Rs. 1.5 lakh to 10 lakh. The funds required are for various purposes, like
- Cost of birds,
- Cost of the place on rent,
- Cost of goods,
- Cost of staff,
- Poultry feed and other raw materials cost
- Marketing, transportation, and miscellaneous cost.
After understanding the needs of business people, all financial institutions offer loans at competitive rates. An entrepreneur can apply for a loan from the government scheme to start poultry farming.
Popular poultry breeds in Karnataka
Developed by the Department of Poultry Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, now Karnataka Veterinary Animal Fisheries University. Swarnadhara breed is mostly suited for mixed and backyard farming. The bird can be raised for its eggs and meat. It matures by 22 to 23 weeks after hatching. The bodyweight of chickens is about 3 kg and the weight of chickens is about 4 kg. Their egg production capacity is about 180 to 190 per annum.
Ghagus is one of the most important indigenous chicken breeds in India. This is a medium-sized bird with good maternal ability. It has red, black, gray, brown, and colorless plumage, pea-shaped and short comb, and light-yellow color and long legs.
Key features of Ghagus breed;
- Attractive colored feather pattern;
- Moderate body weight;
- Produce medium-sized brown shelled eggs
- Good mothering ability (broodiness) and hatch baby chickens on their own.
- Lean/low-fat meat
Giriraja females lay a large number of eggs, 130-150 per year, each egg weighs 52-55 grams. Good hatchability in eggs (80-85%). And enables farmers to raise their stocks. Their shells are brown and thicker than other commercial eggs and are resistant to breakage. The birds grow better than the native species and are suitable for mixed and backyard farming. The Giriraja breed does not need to spend money on a balanced diet or poultry feed as they eat leftover food. It can easily adapt to any area and weather.
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KPFBA (Karnataka Poultry Farmers and Breeders Association)
The Karnataka Poultry Farmers and Breeders Association (KPFBA) has urged the Indian Government to implement the notification titled “Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Laying Hens) Rules 2019″. But it will have an ” adverse effect” on the entire poultry sector with both organized and unorganized poultry farmers, abandoning poultry farming in due course.
According to the rules, the size of poultry cages should not be less than 550 cm2 per bird and 6-8 birds per cage. Use of antibiotics only for treatment and under the supervision of a veterinarian; Poultry farms should be formally inspected by authorized personnel, who should follow biosecurity protocols etc. The poultry sector has been given 5 years to move to new systems.
It is an apex body representing poultry farmers and breeders in Karnataka. KPFBA aims to provide information exchange and feedback facilities to poultry breeding farms and poultry farmers. It believes in the benefits of a united front to achieve goals where individuals will not be in a position to do so on their own. The Karnataka Poultry Farmers and Breeders Association was formed in 1991.
- The main objective is to promote the systematic growth of poultry farming in Karnataka.
- Representing poultry farming requires the central government, state governments, and all agencies that influence poultry farming activities in Karnataka.
- Gathering and maintaining information on poultry farming activities in the state. Share it with your members, government agencies, and state policymakers.
- Liaise between poultry farming community, educational institutions, and research institutes.
- Representing Karnataka poultry farming activity in other national and international associations.
- A few decades ago, poultry farming was an ancient, backyard village activity. Today, this agricultural activity has come a long way in the state of Karnataka, creating employment opportunities for about 500,000 families.
- KPFBA will be a point of contact for its citizens, consumers, its members, the state government, and the central government for information on poultry activities in the state.
Poultry development schemes in Karnataka
Schemes help in setting up 20 egg-laying bird units for unemployed youth. The scheme provides financial assistance to unemployed youth for setting up 20 egg-laying bird units. The cost of this scheme is about Rs. 52,000 where the general category is given a subsidy of Rs. 26,000 and SC / STs are given a subsidy of Rs. 46,800. The rest of the project cost should be provided by nationalized banks / regional cooperative banks etc., or through their funding. In the year 2019-20, the target is to assist 686 units at a financial target of Rs. 199.78 lakhs.
Outcome – Improving the economic status of unemployed rural youth/women by providing support for the establishment of a laying bird unit.
Production of backyard chickens – To promote backyard poultry farming in Karnataka, a KCPF, a regional center, is producing and rearing backyard chickens in Dharwar. Giriraja, Chabro, Swaranadhra chickens are raised and given to farmers for rearing, at the cost fixed by the Animal Husbandry Department.
A KCPF, Regional Center, is also being reared at Kalburgi, where baby chickens are reared for six weeks and distributed to farmers through the Department of AH&VS (Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Services) at rates set by the Department. A target of 1.30 lakh chickens is being set for the year 2019-20.
Outcome – Elimination of malnutrition in rural areas. Promoting egg and meat consumption in rural areas. Providing additional income to rural families.
Loans for starting poultry farming business
How can you get a loan for poultry farming?
A. You can get a loan from any government bank for poultry farming.
B. State Bank of India (SBI) provides loans up to 75% of the total cost for this work and it provides loans up to Rs. 3,00,000 for 5,000 chickens. From here you can get a loan of up to Rs 9 lakh. This loan of SBI has to be repaid in 5 years. If for some reason you are unable to repay the loan in 5 years, an additional period of 6 months is given.
C. This scheme has been termed the ‘Broiler Plus’ scheme by the State Bank of India. Under this scheme, loans are given for making space for poultry farming, purchase of equipment, and purchase of poultry.
Documentation required for loan
- Identity Certificate – Requires driving license, voter ID card, PAN card, or passport.
- Two passport size photos.
- Address proof like ration card, electricity bill, water bill, or lease agreement.
- Poultry project report.
- Photocopy of bank account statement.
This way you can easily start poultry farming with a bank loan.
Health management for poultry farming in Karnataka
The guidelines in the government for health coverage in poultry can be followed.
Safety, Encouragement, and Incentives
New farmers should strictly adhere to the proposed guidelines and the government can encourage such farmers as they can be given adequate compensation in case of subsidies and unforeseen calamities/diseases.
Recommendations regarding Local Administration Authority
In case of closure of farms by local authorities, poultry farmers have to properly dispose of litter/ manure and convert the farms into environmentally controlled sheds.
In case of public complaints about poultry farms which can be referred to the local authorities of the AH department, it gives the farmer ample time (4-6 months) to rectify the defects in the farm. Officers ensure all these conditions. Followed for all new forms and existing forms.
Poultry farm layout permission should be regularized for the old farms from the Animal Husbandry Department with all the above conditions and prior permission should also be sought from the Animal Department for the new farm.
Poultry farming is an agricultural activity and it is a lucrative land so there is no need to get permission from the Panchayat. The feed mill may be exempt from obtaining a license because the prepared feed is for captive use. The consent of the Pollution Control Board is not required as the poultry farm does not emit any hazardous pollutants in the air or water.
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