Jackfruit Farming Guide:
Introduction of Jackfruit: – In India, Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) mostly considered as wild fruit and not taken up as a commercial crop.However,its one of the most remunerative fruits in India. Jackfruit cultivation is growing day by day due it’s market demand and health benefits. Originally it is native to India, but today it spread across tropical regions. Jackfruit belongs to “Moraceae”. This fruit is grown in Malaysia, Burma and some parts of Brazil. Wild jack fruit is grown in Western Ghats of India. Apart from consuming as fresh fruit, this is also used to prepare some special dishes.
Health Benefits of Jackfruit: – Below are the some of the health benefits of Jackfruit.
- Jackfruit boosts the immune system.
- Jackfruit helps in healthy digestion.
- Jackfruit protects against cancer.
- Jackfruit is good for eye and skin.
- Jackfruit controls the blood pressure.
- Jackfruit controls the asthma.
- Jackfruit maintains healthy thyroid.
- Jackfruit helps in strengthening the bones.
- Jackfruit boosts energy and prevents from anemia.
Jackfruit Local Names in India:- Katahal (Hindi), Phanas (Marathi), Phannasa (Gujarati), Panasa (Telugu), Palaa/ Varukkai (Tamil), Halasu (Kannada), Chakka (Malayalam), Panasa (Oriya).
Major Jackfruit Production States in India:- TamilNadu, Kerala, West Bengal, Bihar, Utter Pradesh, Orissa and Assam.
Major Types/Varieties of Jackfruit in India:- Jackfruit varieties are broadly classified into two categories such as soft flesh and firm flesh. The following cultivars used in commercial cultivation of jackfruit in India.
Singapore (or) Ceylon Jack, Konkan Prolific, Hybrid jack,5 PLR-1(Palur-1),Burliar-1 ( T Nagar selection) and PPI-1( Pechiparai-1).
Climate Requirement in Jackfruit Farming:- Jackfruit best suited to grow in arid & warm humid plains of south India. It thrives well in humid hilly slopes at an elevation of 1400 to 1500 meters. Frost and cold weather damage the tree and fruit growth and areas having these conditions are not suitable for jack fruit farming.
Soil Requirement for Jackfruit Farming:- Jackfruit tree requires fertile and well-drained sandy loam soil with pH value of 6.0 to 7.5.As jackfruit plantation does not tolerate water logging, land should be selected with well drainage. Jackfruit can not tolerate moisture stress, but presence of chlorine and lime is tolerable to some extent. Supplementing the soil with organic fertilizers always help in the growth of the jackfruit tree. Lands nearby river beds are suitable for jackfruit cultivation.
Propagation in Jackfruit Farming:- Jackfruit propagation is done through seeds or grafting method.
Land Preparation and Planting in Jackfruit Farming:- Land should be prepared to make weed free and fine tilth. Soil should be prepared in such a way that water stagnation should not happen in the field.
Pits size of 1 cubic meter should be dug at a distance of 6 meters and filled with top soil mixed with 10 to 12 of farm yard manure (FYM). The grafts should be planted in the centre of the pits during June to Sep period. To avoid any breakage at joint, use proper staking. In order to protect grafts, provide shade with coconut leaves and mulch the basins.
Irrigation in Jackfruit Farming:- Generally Jackfruit is grown under rainfed conditions. There is no specific schedule of irrigation but jackfruit plants need watering regularly during the initial 2 to 3 years. These trees are sensitive to drought conditions; hence irrigation should be given in hot dry weather conditions. Ring system can be adopted in watering this trees.The frequency of irrigation always depends on the soil moisture holding capacity and weather conditions. They don’t need any watering in rainy season. In case of floods or heavy rains, make sure to drain out the water from the soil as water stagnation will impact the tree growth and fruit development.
Weed Control in Jackfruit Farming:- General weeding and mulching should be carried for proper plant growth.
Training in Jackfruit Farming:- Jackfruit trees should be trained to a single stem and early side branches have to be removed for uniform smooth trunk development for a height of 1.5 m – 2 m. Side branches should be allowed grow. The flower buds appear on tree trunk should be kept free of vegetative growth.
Intercropping and Plant Care in Jackfruit Farming:- Farmers can consider to have inter crops like any pulses or vegetables prior to fruit bearing stage. Mulching can be carried out by spreading dry leaves for retaining the moisture and protecting from soil erosion. Once trunk size started increasing, active female buds inflorescence develop from the trunk & scaffold branches, this type of fruit bearing habit is called ‘cauliflorus’. If there is no fence in the land, make sure to protect these fruit buds from any damage caused by cattle (by rubbing the body against trunk).Goats also loves the leaves of jackfruit tree, hence trees should protected from such kind.
Manures and Fertilizers in Jackfruit Farming:- The fertilizers should be applied during the monsoon (Rainy season).In case of irrigated farming, fertilizers should be applied as split doses twice in a year of June to July & Sept to Oct. The fertilizers and manures should be applied in a circular trench taken 50 cm away from the trunk of the tree. The following is the schedule of manures and fertilizers in jackfruit farming.
|Manures/Fertilizers||1 year after planting- Kg/plant||Yearly Increase – Kg/plant||5th year’s onwards-Kg/Plant|
|Farm Yard Manure(FMY)||10||10||50|
Pests and Diseases in Jackfruit Farming:- The common pest found in jackfruit farming is “Brown weevil”, this insect bores into the tender buds, shoots and fruits. To control this pest, first destroy the fallen buds and fruits. To control this pest chemically, spray the trees with monocrotophos (0.035 %).
The common disease found in jackfruit cultivation is “Fruit rot”, this causes premature fall of young and tender fruits. This can be controlled by spraying Bavistin (0.05 %) or Fytolan (0.2 %) or M.45 (0.2 %) at 2 weeks interval during fruit set or growth.
Harvesting in Jackfruit Farming:- Jackfruit will be ready for harvesting after 7 years of planting. Grafted jackfruit plants starts bearing fruits from 4th year itself. In Singapore jackfruit variety, plants that were grown from seedling start bearing fruits in 3rd year. Generally, jackfruits are available from March to June period.
Yield of Jackfruit:- The yield depends on the soil type, weather conditions, variety and farming practices. In jackfruit farming, an average of yield of 25 to 100 fruits per plant can be expected with the weight of 10 to 30 kg each fruit.
For Sheep or Goat Farming Info: Read Here.