Jamun Farming Information Guide:
Introduction of Jamun: – Jamun is known to be an indigenous and important minor commercial crop to India. Its tree is very tall and evergreen, so this is usually grown as wind breaker or shade purpose. Jamun is cultivated all across India and this fruits is said to be very good for diabetic patients. This fruit is sold at higher prices in the market compared to other fruits. Jamun is called with different names in various parts of India, for example: “Ram Jamun”, Indian black cherry” and “Indian black plum”. Jamun is cultivated in both tropical and subtropical areas. Even small farmers can go for Jamun plantation and expect decent profits.
Health Benefits of Jamun:- Some of the health benefits of Jamun fruit are given below.
- Jamun is good for controlling sugars in diabetic patients.
- Jamun is a natural blood purifier.
- Jamun is good for eye and skin health.
- Jamun helps in curing the digestive disorders.
- Jamun helps in curing kidney stones.
- Jamun helps in treating infections.
- Jamun leaves of the tree are good for oral health.
- Jamun may help in preventing cancer.
Major Jamun production states in India:- India ranks 2nd in production of Jamun in the world. In India, Maharashtra is major Jamun producer followed by Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Assam and others.
Local Names of Jamun in India:- Indian Black Plum/Indian Blackbery (English), Jamun/Jamoon (Hindi), Jambhul (Marathi), Jambu (Gujarati), Nerale Hannu (Kannada), Naga pazham(Tamil), Neredupandu (Telugu) Naval pazham (Malayalam), Jam (Bengali).
Commercial-hybrid varieties of Jamun:- There are no specific commercial (or) improved varieties developed in Jamun cultivation. The most common variety cultivated in north India is “Ram Jamun” (or) “Raja Jamun”. This type of fruit has small seed with good amount of pulp and bigger in size. This fruit is very juicy and sweet. This variety generally ripens before monsoon starts i.e. June – July. There is another type found in Varanasi, U.P. has no seed. There is a late maturing Jamun variety which is small in size with little bigger seed and these types of fruits comes to maturity in the month of august.
Agro-climatic requirement for Jamun Farming:- Jamun is a hardy fruit and grows well in tropical and subtropical climatic conditions. It prefers dry weather at the time of flowering and fruit setting. Early rains in subtropical areas are considered to be beneficial for proper fruit growth. Young Jamun plants are susceptible to frost conditions.
Soil Requirement for Jamun Farming:- The Jamun trees can be grown on a wide variety of soils. However, loamy and well-drained soils are best suited for good yield and plant growth. Jamun thrives well under waterlogged and salinity conditions as well but these plants does not like very heavy and light sandy soils. Field should be selected such a way that soil should retain good moisture content for better fruit growth. These trees grow well with soil pH range of 6.5 to 7.5.
Propagation in Jamun Farming:- The Jamun is propagated in both methods such as by seed and vegetative method. Seed propagation results in late fruit bearing, therefore, vegetative method propagation is preferred for improved or selected types. The seeds have no dormancy; hence fresh seeds can be sown (within 10-15 days) 4-5 cm deep at a distance of 25 cm x 15 cm. The seeds normally germinate in 11 to 15 days after sowing. The seedlings become ready for transplanting in main field in spring (Feb to Mar) or next monsoon (Aug to Sep).Budding is most successful. This is performed on 1 year old rootstock having about 10 to 15 mm thickness. The ideal time for budding is July – August in low rainfall regions. Patch, shield& forkert methods of budding give more than 75% success, if performed in the month of march.
Plantation in Jamun Farming:- Jamun trees can be planted in both spring (from Feb-Mar) and monsoon season (July-August). Trees planted during spring season should be provided enough irrigations to survive in dry hot summer weather. Before planning the plantation, Main field should be cleared and thourghly ploughed. 1 x 1 x 1m size pits should be dug @ 10 m apart for seedling plants and @ 8 m apart for budded plants. Complete this process of pits digging before the onset of the spring or monsoon season. The pits should be filled with mixture top soil and well rotten farm yard manure (F.M.Y) or compost in 3:1 ratio which is 75% of top soil and 25% manure or compost. About 125 -160 plants can be accommodated in a 1 hectare land.
Manures and Fertilizers in Jamun Farming:- Generally, seedling Jamun trees start bearing fruits @ age of 8 – 10 years while budded and grafted trees start bearing in 6 – 7 years. In Pre-bearing stage, about 30 kg of well rotten farm yard manure (F.M.Y) (or) compost per plant per year should be applied. For bearing Jamun trees, about 70 kg of F.M.Y per plant and per year should be applied. Organic manures should be applied just a month before flowering starts. Other in-organic fertilizers like 500 kg of “N”,600 grams & 300 grams of “K”/plant/year should be applied. This should be applied near the canopy of the tree & mixed in field soil by hoeing.
Irrigation in Jamun Farming:- Young Jamun plants in early stages requires frequent watering but subsequently, irrigations should be reduced, initial stages of plants requires about 12 irrigation per year (monthly once). Mature trees require once in 2 months in a year, this is important at the fruit ripening stage, occasional irrigation may be carried out when the soil becomes dry and to keep the soil in moist condition.
Training and Pruning in Jamun Farming:- Regular pruning in Jamun is not needed. However, young plants need training for the development, should keep the main stem or trunk clean up to a height of 60 to 100 cm from the ground level. Remove the diseased, dry and crisscross twigs on the plant.
Inter-cropping in Jamun Farming:- In Jamun Farming, Inter crops like pulses and vegetables can be cultivated In the initial years of planting.
Pests and Diseases in Jamun Farming:- Major pests in Jamun Farming are leaf eating caterpillar and white fly.
- How to control leaf eating caterpillar?: This caterpillar is only found in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, to control this, spray malathion @ 0.1 % (or) rogor 30 EC.
- How to control white fly?: Remove and destroy all effected fruits and Should maintain cleanliness around the plants.
- Other damages in Jamun Farming: There are other external things that damage the Jamun crop is seriously like birds and squirrels These have to be frightened away by beating the drums or scaring them by throwing stones.
Major disease in Jamun Farming is the fungal disease “anthracnose”.
Control of Anthracnose: This disease causes leaf spot and fruit rots. This can be controlled by spraying Bordeaux mixture at : 4:4:50 concentration (or) Dithane Z- 78 @ 0.2 percent.
Harvesting of Jamun:- The seedling Jamun trees start bearing after 9 to 10 years of planting. Grafted or Budded trees start bearing in 5 to 7 years. The Jamun plant can bear for the life span of 60 years. Generally Jamun fruits come to ripening stage in June-July. After full bloom, It takes about 4 to 5 months to ripen the fruits. Fully ripen Jamun fruits should be harvested daily by shaking the tree branches (or) hand picking & collect the fruits on a polythene sheet. As all fruits do not ripen at the same time, hence it requires number of pickings.
Yield of Jamun:- 90 to 100 kg per year yield can be expected from a full grown seedling tree and 65 to 75 kg/year from a grafted (or) budded tree.
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