Introduction to Jasmine cultivation Project report:
Let us discuss the Jasmine Cultivation Project report, economics, cost and profits associated with the crop. The actual project report and calculations are provided at the bottom of this article.
The word jasmine has been derived from the Arabic word “Yasmin,” which means fragrant flower. Jasmine mostly has star-shaped flowers that are in yellow or white colors. These grow on vines or as shrubbery. The genus jasmine is named botanically as Jasminum. It is a part of Oleaceae, or olive, family.
Jasmine exists as a true Jasmine and a false Jasmine, and the two are commonly mistaken for each other because of the fragrance of the plants’ release. The true Jasmine is the one belonging to the Oleaceae family. Jasmines are bushy shrubs or climbing vines and are considered as non-poisonous. These have oval, shiny leaves and tubular, waxy-white flowers. On the other hand, the false Jasmine is in a completely different genus, Gelsemium, and belongs to the family of Loganiaceae, which is considered too poisonous for human consumption.
Origin of Jasmine flower:
Jasmines are introduced in the mid-sixteenth century and are the natives of tropical and subtropical regions. Among a large number of species which are existing, only three species have got significance in commercial cultivation. Jasminum sambac is believed to be native of the East Indies. The assumption is that the jasmine name is derived from Yasmin (An arabic word). It is reported that the height of its popularity reached its peak two to five hundred years ago at Canton and the metropolis of southern China.
Areas Cultivating Jasmine in India:
Jasmines are cultivated across the country, but Coimbatore, Madurai, and Dindigul (Tamil Nadu); Bangalore, Bellary, Mysore and Kolar (Karnataka); Kannauj, Jaunpur and Ghazipur (Uttar Pradesh); Udaipur, Jaipur, Ajmer and Kota (Rajasthan); Ranaghat, Kolaghat, Panskura (West Bengal); parts of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra are the places where commercial cultivation of Jasmine takes place.
Major types of Jasmine used for cultivation:
- Jasminum pubescens – Kakada.
- Jasminum grandiflorum – Jathi Malli (or) Spanish jasmine (or) Pitchi.
- Jasminum sambac – Gundumalli / Arabian jasmine Malligai //Tuscan jasmine.
- Jasminum auriculatum – Mullai.
Soil and Climate suitable to cultivate Jasmine:
- Jasmine can be grown on many types of well-drained soils.
- The soil, which is well-drained and rich loamy with a pH level ranging from 6.5-7.5 is ideal for the cultivation of Jasmine.
- It is preferred to grow Jasmine in the climate which is mild and tropical.
- Jasmine is commercially grown under open field conditions.
- For successful cultivation of Jasmine, mild winter, warm summer, moderate rainfall and sunny days are the ideal requirements in terms of temperature.
- Jasmines grow well up to 1200 m. A well-distributed annual rainfall of 800 to 1000 mm is sufficient for growth and development.
Varieties of Jasmine:
- Pari Mullai – This variety of Jasmine belongs to the species Jasminum auriculatum (Jui). It has a round bud which is medium in size and its flowering duration is for about 9 months a year. It is resistant to gall mite. The average yield of this variety of jasmine is 8 tonnes per hectare.
- CO 1 – This variety of Jasmine belongs to the species Jasminum auriculatum (Jui). These flowers have a corolla tube which is long which makes the harvesting easy. The average yield of this variety of Jasmine is 9 tonnes per hectare.
- CO 2 – This variety of Jasmine belongs to the species Jasminum auriculatum (Jui). The flower buds of this variety are bold and consist of a long corolla tube. It is tolerant to diseases like phyllody. The average yield of this variety of Jasmine is 11 tonnes per hectare.
- CO-1 (Pitchi) – This variety of Jasmine belongs to the species Jasminum grandiflorum (Chameli). These species have been released by TNAU, Coimbatore. This variety is suitable for loose flower production and extraction of oil. The average flower yield of this variety of Jasmine is about 10 tonnes per hectare in a year, while the concrete yield estimated is 30 kg per hectare.
- CO 2 – This variety of Jasmine belongs to the species Jasminum grandiflorum (Chameli). They produce bold pink buds with long corolla tube. The average yield is 12 tonnes per hectare.
- Arka Surabhi (Pink pin): This variety of Jasmine belongs to the species Jasminum grandiflorum (Chameli). These species have been released by IIHR, Bangalore. The average flower yield is 10 tonnes per hectare.
- Gundumalli – This variety of Jasmine belongs to the species Jasminum sambac (Mogra). These flowers are round with a very good fragrance. The average yield of flowers is 8 tonnes per hectare and estimated concrete yield is 15 kg per hectare.
- Ramban & Madanban – This variety of Jasmine belongs to the species Jasminum sambac (Mogra). This variety produces higher yields with long flower buds.
- Double Mogra – This belongs to the species of Jasminum sambac (Mogra). The flowers have 10 whorls of petals with great fragrance as that of a white rose.
Read: Rose Plant Pruning Methods.
Propagation of Jasmine Plant:
Jasmine flower is propagated by cuttings, layering, sucker, grafting, budding, and tissue culture.
Layering: In North India, layering is done in the months of June and July and in South India, it is done from June to December. For the layer preparation, shoots which are, well- matured and are a year old should be selected and are buried in the soil at a depth of 10 to15 cm, after making a shallow, slanting cut to be planted. It takes 100 to120 days to form the rooted from the cuttings.
Cutting: This is considered to be the simplest method of propagation of jasmine. J.grandiflorum and J.sambac are the varieties of jasmine which are best propagated by apical cuttings whereas J.auriculatum is propagated by semi-hardwood cuttings. Generally, 20-25 cm long cuttings with 2 to 4 nodes are planted in rooting media. Cuttings made during the months of April to September have the highest percentage of rooting with maximum rooting in the cuttings which are planted in the month of June. Before planting, the base of the softwood cuttings is treated with a growth regulating substances like IBA 400 ppm and IAA @ 1000 ppm. The cuttings are buried at a depth which is greater than 5 cm in the rooting medium and are a space of 7 cms is maintained. After 5 months of planting in the rooting media, the cuttings will be ready for transplanting into the main field.
Pit Digging: Before planting, make sure that the soil is well pulverized and weeds are removed. One month before planting, pits of 45 cm3 are made and are exposed to sunlight. A few days before of planting the seedlings, pits should be filled with well-decomposed farmyard (FYM), fresh soil and coarse sand in the ratio of 2:1:1. The addition of BHC (10grams/pit) to the soil in the pit helps to prevent the attack of termites. Pits are watered to settle the soil-compost mixture.
Planting the Jasmine:
The first thing you need to do is to choose the variety of jasmine to grow. There are approximately 200 species of jasmine with different characteristics. Few species are evergreen, whereas few are deciduous. Few species are so sensitive that they have to be grown only in indoor locations. So considering all the factors, buy the one which suits your needs.
||This type is very popular in many areas which can have white, starry flowers.|
||This variety flowers are yellow on colour, tubular and considered as a evergreen shrub.|
You need to find a spot which is suitable for your jasmine plant. Each species of Jasmine have specific environmental needs, it would be better if you do some research to know about the essential conditions you need to provide for your plant. In order for your jasmine to survive, it is important to provide the right percentage of sunlight and the proper temperature. The following points to be kept in mind while planting jasmines.
Most of the jasmine plants need partial sunlight to full sunlight, although a few species accept full shade.
Check if the jasmine you have selected will survive outdoors or if it would be indoors in a pot, where you can control the temperature and humidity. If you’re planting outside, you have to go with the warmest place.
You need to know about the space your jasmine plant requires. Few species are vines that grow up on walls and fences, whereas others grow along the ground and provide good ground cover, and still others grow as contained shrubs. You should make sure the selected place as per variety requirement that you select to plant.
The next step involves the preparation of soil for plantation. Most species of jasmine grow the best in rich and well-draining soil.
Whatever medium, you choose to plant your jasmine, a ground or a pot, soil should be prepared by working in 2-inch layer of compost. This ensures that the jasmine produces healthy flowers throughout the growing season.
If you’re planting it outdoors, check the spot you’ve selected to make sure it drains well. Dig a hole and fill it with water. For well-drained soils, the water should quickly soak into the hole and leave it empty, the soil there drains well. If the waterlogged and leaves the spot slowly, then you should select a different planting place.
Slide the jasmine plant carefully from its container and water the root ball. Tickle the roots by slowly scratching them all over. A hole must be dug twice the size of the root ball and the jasmine plant should be set inside. The soil around the hole should be a little taller than the level of the soil of your plant. This creates a reservoir for water. Pat the soil around the base of the jasmine plant to hold it in place. You need to water the soil around the base neatly to help the plant settle. Add more soil, if necessary to keep the jasmine straight.
The most common way to plant jasmine is to buy a young jasmine plant. Whereas, it is also possible to start jasmine from seed. These seeds with a germination rate, which is low require special care, according to the species. In most of the scenarios, you can start the seeds indoors in seed pots filled with seed starter mix, then harden off the seedlings and plant them outside once the last frost has passed.
The spacing of Jasmine Plants: In main fields, a planting distance of 1.5 x 1.5m for J. auriculatum and J. sambac is recommended, whereas, for J. grandiflorum, a spacing of 2.0 x 1.5m is required.
Weeding in Jasmin Cultivation:
Generally, weeds compete with the main crop for nutrients. Therefore, it is essential to remove the weeds at the appropriate time and keep jasmine garden weed free. After pruning, make sure to stir the soil (15 to 30 cm) from the main stem around the bushes to a depth of 15 cm. This process should be carried out every 2 to 3 months. Though manual weed control is effective, it is very expensive. Mulching also reduces the weed population considerably. Though chemical control of weeds is not preferred, it is economical and efficient when compared to organic controls.
Intercropping in Jasmine garden:
In the initial years when there is sufficient space between the plants, vegetable crops and ornamental plants can be grown as an intercrop.
Pruning of Jasmine plant:
Pruning is an important activity and influences the plant growth, flower-bud initiation, differentiation and, ultimately, the flower yield in Jasmine farming.
Irrigation must be stopped before pruning and plants are to be pruned to half their original length. All the leaves are stripped off after pruning. All the cut ends are smeared with a Bordeaux paste to prevent entry of pathogens.
Pruning is done at 45 cms from the ground level. Pruning is done during mid-December to mid-January results in the maximum number of branches and higher yield of flowers.
- Add a few inches of pine straw, manure or garden compost around the bases of jasmine plants in order to protect them over the winter. This is done in order to make sure that the root systems do not freeze completely, and your jasmine should begin growing again when the weather warms. You need to repeat the same for the conservation of water and the maintenance of temperature in the soil.
- If your jasmine is being grown outdoors, you can skip mulching by bringing them indoors.
- Jasmine which is grown indoors all around the year does not require mulching.
Spraying of zinc 0.25% and magnesium 0.5% before flowering increases flower yield.
For Fe deficiency, FeSO 4 at 5g/lit. is sprayed at monthly intervals until the chlorotic symptoms disappear.
Watching for Pests:
A large number of insect pests tend to attack the crop of jasmine which causes considerable damage. Among the pests that are the most important ones are;
Budworm – Hendecasis duplifascialis
Budworm larvae cause severe injury to immature buds of Jasmine. The larvae found inside the bud or in a flower cluster feeding on buds. It feeds on the petals which are present inside the closed bud in the initial stages, emerged through a circular hole made on the tubular portion of the Corolla for tunneling into the other buds in the same shoot and pupates in the soil. They make tunnels of silk and excreta within an affected flower cluster. This affects the opening of the flower. Due to this, the flower buds may drop off and change their color to pink.
- Spray Thiacloprid (Alanto) 240SC 1 ml/liter or Spinosad (Tracer) at the rate of 0.5 ml/liter water
- Spray Profenophos 25EC at the rate of 2 ml/liter water.
- 5 % of neem seed kernel extract should be sprayed.
- 2 g per litre of Bacillus thuringiensis should be sprayed.
- Four Helilure sex pheromone traps should be set per an acre.
Leaf Webber – Nausinoe geometralis:
The damage caused by leaf Webber which is an elaborate network of the webbing of leaves built by a caterpillar. This is built into the lower portion of the leaves causing severe damage. Caterpillar scraps the chlorophyll in order to feed on the leaves. The lower parts of plant leaves are infested during the rainy days or with frequent irrigation. You can observe severe infestation in terminal shoots, especially during dry and hot climate.
- Imidacloprid 2ml/lit or Dimethoate 2 ml per lit gives season-long systemic control
- Neem oil @ 3 ml/l of water can be applied.
- To monitor whitefly, you can use yellow-orange sticky traps @ 5 per acre.
- Populations can be reduced by using insecticidal soaps or neem oil.
- You should prevent predators like Chrysoperla oculata, Green lacewings, and Scymnus.
Blossom midge (Contarinia maculipennis):
The buds will have swelling at the base due to these maggots of the blossom midge. Finally, this may result in stunting and drying of plants or leads to slow growth.
- To prevent these pests, you can use a spray Thiamethoxam 2.5% WG @ 0.75 grams per liter.
- You can also use a spray of Rynaxypyr @ 0.5ml per liter of water.
Eriophyid mite – Aceria jasmine:
Intercropping by using host-non-host crops. Usually, the leaf surface, tender stems, and buds are damaged. This can cause hairy growth on the thejasmine leaf surface. The growth of the plant is stunted and flower production is suppressed.
- Use NSKE and other botanicals
- Avoid using synthetic pyrethroids
- Fenazaquin (Magister) 10 EC @ 2 ml/litre
- Abamectin or Exodus 0.5 ml /liter.
Once the plants reach a stage to bloom, you can then start to harvest the buds/ flowers. For ling distance marketing, pluck the buds rather flowers. Morning hours are considred to be good time to harvest.
Jasmine gives an economic yield only from the third year and up to 12 – 15 years and then the yield starts declining. The stage of picking jasmines buds or flowers depends on the usage of the flowers or buds. Pluck the unopened flower buds in the morning for. Picking of flowers after after noon will considerably reduce quality and yield. Damage to flowers during harvest and transit will affect the shelf life of fresh flowers and concrete recovery.
Cost and Profit Analysis/Economics of Jasmine Cultivation/Jasmine Cultivation Project Report:
The estimation of Jasmine production for 1 hectare is described below. The values presented here are approximate and may deviate from the original depending on the location and availability of resources. Mostly variable costs during the farm operations are mentioned here and the fixed costs like land rentals, electricity charges, interest on various factors are not mentioned in the report. These fixed costs are specific to the region of the farm and should be carefully evaluated before actually deploying the project.
|Material and labor||Cost of establishment in Rupees|
|15 days of Machine labor||5,505|
|Planting material of 3432 kgs||30,936|
|Fertilizers for 270 kgs||12,801|
|Plant protection chemicals||8,335|
|Amortized establishment cost||15,161|
|Farmyard manure for 24 cartloads||12,801|
The yield of flowers per hectare in 2500 – 3000 kg and the cost is around Rs 200 per kg.
Income from 2 hecatre farm: total yield x cost per unit – 3000 x 200 = Rs. 6,00,000/-
Net Profit = Income – Total investment = Rs. 6,00,000 – Rs. 1,45,666 = Rs. 4,54,334.
Retruns from 1 acre of Jasmine garden = 4,54,334 / 2.46 = Rs.1,84,689.
Read: Hibiscus Farming.