Aguide to Jasmine farming in polyhouse (mallepulu/chameli)
Are you planning for gowing Jasmine flowers commercially? here is the complete guide to Jasmine farming in polyhouse. Jasmine is an important flower crop which is grown throughout India on a commercial scale. The name Jasmine is of Arabic origin and it is believed to have been derived from Yasmin. Jasmine flowers are native of tropical and subtropical regions and introduced in the mid-sixteenth century.
Jasmine is a popular flower plant around the world mainly in the tropics because of its unique fragrance and it attains the height of 10 to 15 feet. The Jasmine plant is native to tropical and warm or temperate regions of the old world. It has evergreen leaves which are two and a half inches long, green and slender stems and it bears white flowers. The flowers generally bloom from March to June. Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Hyderabad are the Jasmine growing states in India.
Popular varieties of Jasmine with their yield:
Main popular verities of jasmine are;
- CO 1 (Jui)
- CO 2 (Jui)
- CO-1 (Chameli)
- CO-2 (Chameli)
- Ramban and Madanban
- Double Mogra
- Arka Surabhi
Requirements of Jasmine farming in polyhouse:
Polyhouse is a house or a structure made of translucent material like polyethylene where the plants grow and develop under controlled climatic conditions. The size of the polyhouse structure can differ from small shacks to big-size buildings as per the need. The jasmine plants inside the polyhouse farming are hale and hearty. Fertilizer application is easier and is controlled automatically with the help of a drip irrigation system. Polyhouse gives the right environmental facilities to plants in any season. Jasmine plants are grown under controlled temperature thus there are fewer chances of crop loss or damage.
Polyhouse also increases yield for about 5 to 10 times. Polyhouse farming provides an optimum environmental medium for better crop growth to gain maximum yield and high-quality products.
Soil and climate requirements of Jasmine farming:
Jasmine plants can be grown on a wide range of soils. Well-drained, rich loamy soil with a pH level from 6.5-7.5 is ideal for Jasmine cultivation.
Nowadays, growing this Jasmine crop under the polyhouse conditions is more opted by the farmers because of the higher yield of quality flowers.
Daily variations of maximum and minimum temperature in polyhouse farming and for open field condition were recorded from November to February for consecutive two years. The temperature of polyhouse showed that the use of polyethylene exerted an influence on temperature. Interception of air within the structure increases the daily maximum temperature and minimum temperature compare to the outside environment.
Jasmine plants prefer mild and tropical climate. Jasmine plants are commercially grown in India under open field conditions. Jasmine plants grow well up to 1200 m. Jasmine plants are grown in a variety of soil types ranging from well-drained clayey soil to sandy loam soils which is rich in organic matter. However, it gives the best effect when grown in rich sandy loam soil having a good drainage system. For best results mix Farmyard Manure (FYM) in the soil in adequate quantity. The Jasmine plants thrive it best under tropical and mild climate conditions
Providing water for Jasmine plants
The irrigation system is one of the main important components affecting the yield and quality of agricultural produce from the polyhouse farming system. Water must be given in proper amount and accurate time application.
Irrigation at the proper interval of time is essential for proper growth and development of the flowers. In summer months, a flooded irrigation system is done once in a week. After flowering, no irrigation is required until next manuring and pruning.
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Method of Jasmine planting:
- Well-rooted, healthy and strong seedlings obtained from cutting or layering are planted in each pit.
- The best time for planting in most parts of India is during the monsoon but one can plant Jasmine almost round the year in polyhouse. Once planted, the Jasmine remains in the field for 10 to 15 years. A hole is dug in the center of the pit sufficient to accommodate the soil ball of the seedling. The soil ball is placed in the center of the pit and the soil is firmly pressed around the Jasmine seedlings. The Jasmine plants are then immediately watered.
- In polyhouse, Jasmines grow well in moist, well-drained, sandy loam to clayey soil with a moderate level of fertility. Jasmine plants prefer full sun to partial shade and a warm site.
- Jasmine bushes must be planted from June to November. Jasmine plant should be kept at least 8 feet apart to save the later growth of the plant from jamming together. Adding of leaf molds to the soil makes a better growth of the Jasmine plant.
- Mild fertilizer should be applied during spring and plenty of water should be given during summer.
The best time of Jasmine sowing:
In polyhouse, Jasmine can be sown any time of the year provided there is enough water facility..
Weed growth within the Jasmine crop competes with the major crop for nutrients. Therefore it is necessary to remove the weeds at the appropriate time. After pruning, the soil 15 to 30 cm from the main stem around the bushes is stirred to a depth of 15 cm. This must be repeated every two to three months. Though manual weed control is very effective, it is very expensive. Mulching reduces the weed population considerably. Chemical weed control in polyhouse is comparatively economical, convenient and efficient in eradicating weeds with one or two applications.
Weeding is required for good growth and development of the crop. First weeding must be done after 3-4 weeks of planting and then subsequent weedings are done once in every 2-3 months.
How to prune Jasmine plants
Plants pruning encourages the growth of new healthy shoots. It is advisable to prune the Jasmine plants during the last week of November to get increased yield and quality flowers.
Pruning is a very important activity as it influences plant growth, flower-bud initiation, differentiation and, ultimately, the flower production in Jasmine plants. Usually, irrigation is stopped before pruning and Jasmine plants are pruned to half their original length. All the Jasmine leaves are stripped off after pruning. Moderate watering is good for Jasmine plant. You can stop watering totally until pruning and fertilizer application.
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Pests and diseases of Jasmine plants:
Pests: Several insect pest attack Jasmine plant and cause considerable damage. Among them, the main important ones are the budworm, leaf Webber, and the blossom midge and recently the mite attack due to prevailing drought and hot weather. Among the different insect pests recorded, budworm is known to pose a serious threat to Jasmine flower production.
Diseases: The main common diseases of Jasmine are blight, rust and Fusarium wilt, all of which affect numerous other varieties of plants. These are primarily diseases of the Jasmine leaves and stems which leave necrotic areas, discolored halos or patches, wilted leaves, streaked stems and occasionally spread to young vegetation. Treating Jasmine crop diseases from fungal issues requires a fungicide or baking soda and water spray. Prevention is more crucial because once the fungal spores are active; they are not easy to get rid of. Avoid overhead watering and allow plenty of circulation around the plant to help decrease the chances of fungal issues.
The stage of Jasmine harvest depends on the purpose of flowers to be harvested. For fresh Jasmine flowers, fully developed unopened flower buds are picked in the early morning time. Picking of Jasmine flowers after 11 a.m. will considerably reduce the yield and quality of the concrete. Damage to flowers during harvest and transit will change the shelf life of fresh flowers and concrete recovery.
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