Jasmine Grafting Methods, Pruning Process, Training Guide
The information provided is about Jasmine Grafting, Process of Jasmine Pruning and Training.
Introduction to Jasmine:
Jasmine is a popular flower around the world. Some information about Jasmine:
- The Jasmine is native to tropical & warm or temperate regions of the old world.
- The Jasmine flowers are white in most species, with several species being yellow. The Jasmine is thought to have originated in the Himalayas in western China. Jasmine shrubs reach a height of 10-15 feet, growing around 12 to 24 inches per year.
- Jasmine leaves are evergreen and deciduous. A Jasmine leaf is arranged opposite in species.
- The Jasmine stems are slender, trailing, green, glabrous, angled, & almost 4-sided. Most of the Jasmine species bear white flowers, which are about one inch in size.
- The Jasmine oil, which is popular fragrant oil, contains benzyl acetate, terpineol, benzyl benzoate, Linalool, several alcohols, and other compounds.
- Jasmine can live up to 15 years to 20 years, depending on the condition of the soil and the environment. Jasmine flowers in spring and summer. Jasmines develop well in moist, well-drained, sandy loam to clayey garden soil with a moderate level of fertility.
- Jasmines prefer full sun to partial shade & a warm site. Jasmine bushes must be planted from June to November. The jasmine plant must be kept at least eight feet apart in order to save the later growth of the plant from jamming together. Adding of leaf molds to the soil makes a better development of the plant.
- Whether you’re planting your jasmine in the ground or in a pot, prepare the soil by working in a two-inch layer of compost. This will make sure that the jasmine produces healthy flowers throughout the growing season. The acidity (pH) level of the soil around the jasmine is an important factor in the health of the plant & its leaves. Jasmine grows with a pH level between 4.9 and 8.3.
- Water Jasmine plants instantly after planting. Water weekly or whenever the top inch of soil dries out until the plant is completely established. Leaves may fade to yellow or brown color if the soil is too dry or too moist.
- Jasmine also called as the common white jasmine and poet’s jasmine is one of 150 species of flowering plants that naturally take place in tropical regions of the old world.
- Widely cultivated for their rich, intense scent, jasmines have always been a popular species, not just for gardening purposes but for perfumery as well as medicinal uses.
- Jasmine is considered sacred in India & has strong spiritual significance in the culture as it is believed to be a symbol of divine hope, good luck, & optimism.
In which countries Jasmine is considered as a National flower?
Several countries & states consider jasmines as a national symbol. They are;
Different types of Jasmine:
Common jasmine: It is also known as poet’s jasmine, is one of the most fragrant types of jasmine. The intensely fragrant flowers bloom throughout the summer & into the fall. Expect the plant to develop 12 to 24 inches each year, eventually reaching a height of 10 to 15 feet. Common jasmine is perfect for archways & entryways.
Showy jasmine: It seems misnamed because the little one inch flowers that bloom in spring aren’t very showy at all. It is grown mainly for its foliage, which does a good job of covering a trellis or arbor.
Spanish jasmine: It is also called as royal or Catalonian jasmine has fragrant, white flowers that are about 1 1/2 inches apart. The vine is evergreen in frost-free areas, but semi-evergreen & deciduous in cooler areas. This is one of the main cultivated types of jasmine.
Arabian Jasmine: It is native to a small region in the eastern Himalayas in Bhutan & is popular to Southeast Asia and India, where it is used as a popular evergreen shrub.
White Jasmine: It is also known as Pink Jasmine, this gorgeous flower is native to Myanmar and China. It is a twinning climber that provides fragrant scent all year round. This is a fast-growing evergreen vine grown for its prolific display of fragrant pinkish-white flowers. It is used as a climber over trellis or arbor, as a groundcover, or in containers.
Winter Jasmine: It is an ornamental deciduous shrub widely grown in China as well as naturalized in many parts of the United States & France.
Italian Jasmine: Italian jasmine shrubs are favorites of gardeners in hardiness since they are easy to care for & require little attention. They have glossy green leaves, fragrant buttercup-yellow flowers, and shiny black color berries.
Primrose Jasmine: Although somewhat unusual in the U.S., it really must be used more. This shrub produces yellow color flowers that are larger than those found on most varieties. The flowers begin in early spring & last for a few weeks. This large shrub has an open, sprawling development habit, and is quite tolerant of drought.
Star Jasmine: A type of jasmine quite popular in India, the Star jasmine is also called as Indian jasmine, as well as other names in regional dialects. It is native to Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos, Bhutan, Nepal, & Thailand, but naturalized in other parts of the world as well.
Wild Jasmine: This evergreen (or semi-evergreen in cooler climates) produces clusters of deep yellow blooms from spring during the summer. It makes a low evergreen ground cover or hedge, or it can be used to cascade over a fence or wall. It grows relatively slowly & is resistant to drought and pests.
Stiff Jasmine: Stiff Jasmine is a twining or sprawling vine with glossy leaves. It can be trained onto a trellis or pruned into a hedge.
Sampaguita: Sampaguita is the national flower of both the Philippines & Indonesia. It has a vine-like, climbing, nature but is still fairly thick & shrubby. It has the typical sweet jasmine scent produced by pure white, star-shaped flowers that each are only one inch wide & blooms for 24 hours. Jasmine tea is prepared from the flowers of this species.
Primrose Jasmine: Primrose jasmine is seldom developed in the United States. This shrub produces yellow flowers that are larger than most varieties as much as two inches in diameter.
Asian star Jasmine: Asian Star jasmine is generally grown as a tough ground cover. It has small, pale-yellow flowers & large, dense leaves.
Propagation and Jasmine Grafting Methods:
Jasmine can be propagated by cuttings, layering, sucker, grafting, budding & tissue culture. Let us see the Jasmine Grafting methods in the following sections.
Propagating of Jasmine by seeds:
Start jasmine seeds indoors about 3 months before your outdoor planting date. Soak the jasmine seeds for 24 hours before planting. Fill six-pack cells with potting soil, & soak the soil completely. Allow it to drain previous to planting, then plant one seed in each cell. Cover the six-packs with plastic to help retain moisture & place them in direct sunlight. Stay the soil moist while the seedlings sprout. Seedlings get two pairs of accurate leaves, putting each seedling in a gallon-sized planter. Keep the plants indoors for at least one month after this, or develop your jasmine as a houseplant the first year before transplanting outdoors.
Read: Vegetative Propagation Types.
Layering method used in Jasmine:
Layering is done during June-July in North India & from June to December in South India. For the preparation of layers, well matured, one-year-old shoots are selected & are buried in the soil 10 to 15 cm deep after making a shallow, slanting cut in the portion that is to be buried. The root formation occurs in 90 to 120 days.
Layering has evolved as a regular means of vegetative propagation of numerous species in natural environments. Layering is utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants. Natural layering normally occurs when a branch touches the ground, whereupon it produces adventitious roots.
Air Layering of Jasmine Grafting:
This process is used for thick-stemmed houseplants that have lost their lower leaves and have become leggy. You will need a knife, thick cotton thread, plastic sheet & a saw. To make air layering:
Select Branch: The branch should be healthy & free from any pest attacks. The best time to do air-layering is when the plant starts rising new leaves.
Choose a Spot: Leaf growth will occur above the point of layering, so choose a spot on the stem where want the soil level to be.
Make deep cuts: Make two clean cuts around the branch about one inch separately with a sharp knife.
Peel off the Bark: Peel off the bark among those two cuts.
Surround with the Soil: Make a ball of soil mixed with tree moss or soil mixed with sand & wood ash around the area where the bark has been peeled off.
Wrap: Wrap the soil with a plastic sheet of correct choice.
Tie the ends strongly with cotton thread, so that no water or air can enter. It may take up to 8 to 10 weeks for roots to appear. After that, you can cut the stem just below the bottom of the soil wrap & pot the layer. The new plant will need some pampering until the root system becomes more developed.
Compound Layering is comparable to simple layering with little variation. It is appropriate for plants with long, flexible stem. The stem is bent into the ground every few inches, giving an impression of a serpent. The advantage of this variation is that allows some plants to be produced from a single plant at a time.
Tip layering involves introducing tip of the shoot into the soil. The tip will develop downward first and then it will bend sharply to grow upward. Roots are appearing at the bends. The re-curved tip forms a new plant which can be separated from the parent plant & planted elsewhere.
Propagation Jasmine by Cutting:
It is the simple method of propagation of jasmine J.grandiflorum & J.sambac is best propagated by apical cuttings while J.auriculatum is propagated by semi-hardwood cuttings. Normally 22 to 25 cm long cuttings with 3 to 4 nodes are planted in rooting media. Cuttings taken during April-September month has the highest percentage of rooting with maximum rooting in June planted cuttings. The basal section of softwood cuttings is treated with a growth regulating & before planting. The cuttings are buried more than 5 cm deep in the rooting medium & are spaced 7cm apart. The cuttings are complete for transplanting into the main field after 4 to 5 months of planting in the rooting media.
Take hardwood jasmine cuttings through the spring dormant season prior to bud break by cutting a section of stem that is 6 to 8 inches in length with a pruning clipper. Make an angle cut 3/16 inch above the top bud & a horizontal cut 6 inches below this bud. Dip the bottom stem edge into rooting hormone & gently tap to remove excess. Keep the cutting in a moist position to prevent the cut edges from drying while preparing the rooting tray.
Create a rooting medium by mixing equal parts of water moistened peat moss & perlite. Fill a plastic rooting tray with the moistened medium & carefully stick each cutting into the soil at a depth of one-half to two-thirds the length of the stem. Make sure there are no leaves wedged into the soil. Gently group the soil around the cutting to hold the stem in place. Lightly water the rooting medium to firm the soil about the cutting. Place a clear plastic cover over the rooting tray to keep the humidity & the moisture level high during the rooting process.
Read: Hibiscus Grafting Methods.
Grafting process in Jasmine:
Different tools needed for Jasmine Grafting:
- Pruning shears
- Measuring tape
- Budding knife
- Grafting tape
The jasmine is a deciduous vine that can develop up to 30 feet tall. The jasmine fragrance is a big addition to any flower garden, but some gardeners prefer to develop their own jasmine bushes from cuttings instead of buying them from nurseries. Grafting is a process that joins two parts of a common plant and allows them to grow together as one. Grafting allows growing new jasmine plants without purchasing new bushes from commercial outlets. This process works on jasmine bushes if both parts are used for grafting are healthy and at the same growth stage.
- Choose a mature and healthy shoot to be used for grafting from a one-year-old jasmine bush. Cut the shoot with a sharpened position of pruning shears. Trim the shoot to nine inches.
- Measure the rootstock twelve inches above the ground and mark it. Cut rootstock losing to the 12-inch marking. Prune the rootstock of all its twigs & leaves.
- Hold the budding knife beside the side of the rootstock at an upward angle. Compose an upward-angled cut on the tip of the rootstock. Make an identical upward-angled cut directly across from the first cut, forming a critical tongue that resembles a gear cogs.
- Hold the shoot upright & slice at a downward angle into one side of the shoot’s tip, stopping when the cut meets the middle tip-point of the shoot. Repeat the cut on the adjacent side of the first cut, forming a groove for the tongue of the rootstock to fall into it.
- Position the groove of the stem over the tongue of the rootstock, interlocking the two mutually like gears. Slide the two pieces together to create a tight fit & wrap them with grafting tape. Keep the grafting area moist & check for a calloused section to show that the grafting attempt was successful and remove the tape, generally around eight weeks.
Planting a grafted Jasmine:
The best time for planting in most parts of India is through the monsoon, but one can plant jasmine almost round the year in climates as of Bangalore. Once planted, the jasmine remains in the field for 10 to 15 years. The ideal time for planting in North India is during July-August & from the end of January-February, while in South India planting is done any time between July-December months.
Jasmines have to be planted from June to November months to see it become beautiful from spring onwards i.e. March or April months onwards. Adding leaf molds to the soil makes the plant develop better.
Keep a good distance of at least six feet between plants to allow the vines of the Jasmine flower to grow properly. It is better to seek the advice of an expert gardener to help you plant jasmine flowers in the garden or indoors. Since the plant loves sunshine, it makes a great addition to any landscaped garden & can be used in decorating homes and temples.
Pruning of Jasmine:
Pruning is the main activity as it influences growth, flower-bud initiation, differentiation and, ultimately, the flower production in Jasmine. Usually, irrigation is stopped before pruning & plants are pruned to half their original length. All the jasmine leaves are stripped off after pruning. All the cut ends are smeared with a Bordeaux paste to prevent access of pathogens. Pruning is completed at 45cm from the ground level. Pruning is done during mid of December to mid-January results in a maximum number of branches & higher yield of flowers.
When to Prune Jasmine plants:
Jasmine when young plants begin to put out new growth, start pinching out the top half-inch of the stems by squeezing them between thumbnail and finger. Pinching the tips, especially in the first two years, promotes rapid growth & lush foliage. Pinch lateral stems as well as the major, upright stem. Summer jasmine blooms in the summer & early fall, and winter jasmine blooms in late winter and early spring on vines that developed the previous season.
Prune them immediately after they flower to give the vines time to grow for the next flowering season. If you prune them before they bloom, you will end up cutting off the buds & they won’t be able to flower.
How to Prune Jasmine plants:
Remove any dead, damaged stems. This will keep the vine looking neat & prevent the spread of disease. Remove tangled stems and old stems that no longer create flowers. Keeping the vine free of masses of tangles improves the appearance & makes it easier to take care of the vine. If you encounter a difficult tangle, eliminate the stem in sections rather than trying to jerk it free.
Remove stems that are rising away from the supporting structure. You can manage the direction of new growth by pruning just above a leaf stem that is growing in the direction in which you want the vine to grow. Shorten stems to stay the vine within the bounds of the trellis or arbor.
Pruning and Training in Jasmine:
Prune jasmine immediately after flowering, in late summer or early autumn. Early flower flushes increase on the previous year’s growth, but later flushes develop on the tips of the current year’s growth. Pruning after flowering gives the new growth time to mature & flower early next season.
Prune jasmine in the spring, immediately after flowering. Flowers increase on the previous year’s growth. Pruning after flowering gives the new growth time to mature & flower next season.
For both summer & winter jasmine, cut back flowered stems to a strong side shoot lower down; thin out crowded, crossing branches & remove weak or thin stems.
Both types of jasmine tolerate hard pruning & renovation. If the plant has outgrown its chosen space, cut back hard to within 60cm of the base. Regrowth will be vigorous, so choose strong shoots for training in the new framework, and eliminate unwanted shoots. The plant will obtain two or three years to start flowering again.