Jersey Cow Dairy Project Report, and Economics

Jersey Cow Dairy Project Report:

The following information is about Jersey cow dairy project report and investment and income details of dairy farming. The actual calculation of dairy farming  is provided at the bottom of this article.

Jersey cattle are one of the breeds of cows which are raised for milk production on a primary purpose. This breed is well known for its milk production, which is very high. It is also famous for its high butterfat content in the milk it produces. The place from which this breed originated in Jersey as the name suggests.

Characteristics of Jersey Cow:

  • Jersey breed is very adaptable to different environments and geographic conditions.
  • The cows of this breed are well known for their grazing capabilities.
  • Cows of Jersey breed can tolerate more heat when compared to cows of other breeds.
  • On an average, the weight of Jersey cow is 400 to 440 kgs and this breed produced more amount of milk calculated for each pound of the body weight.
  • They produce 13 times greater milk than the weight of their body.
  • Most of the cows of this breed are light brown in colour, whereas some are grey.
  • This breed of cows is less prone to lameness as they have black feet which are also very hard.

Advantages of Jersey Cow:

  • Unlike other major breeds, Jerseys produce major milk components on a lower budget.
  • These cows have minute calving problems. In a few cases, there would be zero calving problems. Even the interval of calving for Jerseys is also small.
  • The fertility of Jerseys is greater when compared to other breeds and they also have very good efficiency.
  • The price of the Jersey milk in the market is also high as it is considered to be the premium milk.
  • The Jerseys are well known for their efficiency of high feed conversion
  • The milk of the Jerseys has 17% more protein, 19% more calcium and 26% more butterfat than the milk of other major breeds.

Read: Dairy Farming FAQ.

Feed Requirements for Jersey cows:

  • Jerseys are well known for their efficiency of converting feed when compared to other breeds. They have a very good capacity to use the energy in the feed they take for the production of milk.
  • Moreover, Jerseys are the cow breeds which save 15-20% of expenses of feed for the dairy farmers.
  • As Jersey cows need less feed requirement when compared to other breeds, this will lead to the decrease in the cropland for feed, lessons 25% of manure storage. This decreases the cost of harvest and feed storage. You can add less amount of phosphorous to the manure which is a major benefit for the environment.
  • When the Jersey cow is in the production stage, 5% of her body weight will be ingested into the dry matter. For a Jersey cow which has a weight of 460 kgs, the dry matter intake would be 22 kgs per day.
  • But when coming to the milk is produced per kg of Jersey cow weight, a Jersey cow which is of weight 460 kgs will produce 1.5 solids per kilogram, whereas the other major breed cow which is of weight 750 kgs will produce only 1 solid per kilogram.
  • Feeding of Jersey cows is done similar to the feeding of other breeds of cows. Even though Jersey cows have fewer requirements for maintenance, you need to take care in order to maintain good energy levels of the cow.
  • In the feed which you offer to Jersey cow, you need to make sure that you are offering less level of crude oil fats. It is better to give up to less than 4.3% of crude oil fats to Jersey cows.
  • The copper levels in the feed offered to Jersey cows should be 18 ppm, which is considerably less than other breeds.
  • It is very important to balance the food sources as overfeeding is dangerous.
  • Feeding a Newborn Jersey whose age is just 3 days: For a newborn Jersey, a feed which you give for the first 11 hours is very important. In this stage, at least 4 litres of colostrum should be fed to the calf. Colostrum helps the calf in getting rid of all the antibodies which help it to fight the diseases it is prone to. It is suggested to give colostrum to the calf for the first 3 days. It is recommended to add water to the Jersey milk to decrease the levels of sugar of the milk.
  • Feeding a calf of 1-3 months age: Whole milk is used as a feed to the calf. 3.5 liters of milk should be given to the calf for two times a day. Feeding for the third time can also be considered if the calves are leaving in a temperature of -23 degrees or if they are being grown in hutches. The calved should be stopped giving whole milk once they begin eating 1.6 kg’s of calf starter per day. You need to make sure that the calf is given a hay which is having a high quality that is a hay which is taken from 2nd cutting or 3rd cutting.
  • Feeding a calf of 4-9 months age: When the calf reaches the age of 4 months, then the feeding system changes. You need to start feeding the calf with grass hay and raise the calf starter to 1.5 kg’s per day. If the calf eats a large amount of grass hay which is fed to it, then it means that the rumen of the calf is in a good condition and has a deep and open rib. The grain present in the grass hay helps the calf for their growth.
  • Feeding a calf of 10-16 months age: When the calf reaches 10 months of age, it should be fed with approximately 2.5 kgs of the ration. It should also be fed with the grass hay until it calves. At this age, the calves start gaining weight. If you observe the heifers growing their weight uncontrollably, make sure that you are reducing the quantity of grain given to them or put them with the older group of cows. If you do not do this, then the heifers become fat, which does not allow them to grow in terms of height and starts depositing fat in their udder. This, in turn, decreases the production of milk and the texture of the udder.
  • Feeding a cow of 17-24 months of age: When the cow reaches this age, the main factor you need to take care of is maintenance. As it is better to give the diet, which contains hay or pasture of free choice which has sufficient energy that helps the cow in the maintenance of reasonable body condition.
  • Feeding a Dry Cow: When compared to other major breeds, feeding a Jersey dry cow is very much important. Because feeding reduces the risk of metabolic disorders. For a dry cow, the grass hay, which has a heavy ration is the best. Grains should not be fed to the dry cows until two weeks before calving. The ration for milking should be introduced slowly before two weeks of calving. You need to make sure that the dry cow has access to minerals and supplements which it needs.

Read: How To Make Silage For Dairy Cattle.

Important points to remember in when feeding Jersey cows:

  • Jersey heifers should not be mixed or fed with other breeds of cows as there is a chance of Jersey cows gaining more weight and becoming heavy which reduces its potential to grow in terms of height. This also reduces the production of milk of the cows.
  • The Jersey heifers should have a good exercise for maintaining proper body conditions. For this, the heifers should be provided with lots of space to exercise. 

Diseases that occur in Jersey Cows: 

Bloating:

Symptoms: When we touch the left flank of the cow, then there would be a feel like we are touching a rubber ball which is inflated. The cow will have less appetite, it stops ruminating, becomes nervous and even slobber when affected by bloating.

Treatment:

  1. You need to put a catheter into the rumen which releases the air inside. The catheter should be put through the oesophagus.
  2. You can also use your hand to remove the feces. Then the water should be pumped so that it can be stool easily.
  3. You need to make the cow drink 3 litres of bittern mixed with 3 litres of beer or permanganate.
  4. Then 220 grams of magnesium should be given by mixing it with 3.2 liters of pure water.
  5. In order to release air, you need to inject a troca from the left flank.
  6. After doing all this, care should be taken such that the cow does not get prone to some other disease again.

 Heat Stroke: 

Symptoms:

  1. The cow will have a fever with a temperature around 41 degrees centigrade.
  2. The skin of the cow becomes drier and more over there would be bloody eye mucus membrane.
  3. The pulse of the cow raises along with the rate of respiration.

Treatment:

  1. The cattle should be kept in cool temperature or in a place which is windy. After that, you need to continuously send cool water into the rectum.
  2. By using a fan, start spraying cool water on the body of the cow.
  3. If you find the cow to be nervous, there is a chance for the cow to get affected by lung edema or congestion. So it is mandatory to remove the blood from the jugular vein of the cow.
  4. If you want to go to a medical treatment, you need to infuse 500 ml of NaHCO3. During the summer season, you need to give drinking water by mixing NaHCO3 in it. You can also give Vitamin C and B-complex to the cow.
  5. For the cows to recover rapidly, you need to provide green tea water, which is a mixture if 120 grams green tea which is dried with 1.2 litres of hot water. You can also add 520 grams of sugar and 5 liters of pure water.

Read: Dairy Farming Courses, Fees in India.

Diseases, which are poisones:

Symptoms:

  1. For poisoned diseases of acute type
    • There would be tearing, slobbering in the cow.
    • There is a chance of diarrhea in some cases.
    • If the poisonous toxic effects the nervous system of the cow, then the cow starts behaving crazily by moving around due to mental imbalance.
    • If the poisonous toxic affects the respiratory system, then the cow suffers with rapid pulse rate leading to cardiac arrest and dies within 3 to 5 hours.
  2. For poisonous diseases of chronic type:
    • The toxic chemical taken by the cow long ago will slowly gets accumulated in the body because of which it would be difficult to identify the symptoms of this type of disease. The most affected part in this type of disease would be liver by leading to chronic diarrhea.

Treatment:

  1. The first step you need to do in the process of treatment to know the cause in order to stop the poisoning of the cow.
  2. If it is summer, then the cow should be moved to a place where the temperature is cool where as if winter, then the cow should be moved to a warm place.
  3. After successful movement, the cow has to be injected with caffeine or camphor, Anti Anxiety pills, Vitamin K and Vitamin C.
  4. For Anti Toxic, you need to prepare a salty serum solution or isotonic glucose in a quantity of 1 litre for 50 kgs of weight.
  5. For drinking purposes, you need to give the a solution of Orezon. You need to mix 10 grams of orezon to 5 litres of water and make the cow drink as much as possible.

Traumatic Pericarditis:

Symptoms:

  1. The cow’s jugular vein gets swollen.
  2. The pulse rate of the cow gets faster and sounds like there is water inside.
  3. The cow will have fever slightly.
  4. The cow’s appetite turns low and it gets curved.

Treatment:

  • The magnet should be given to fix foreign body and to stop injuring omasum and peritoneum.
  • At the same time, the cow should be treated with antibiotic which includes penicillin at 7 per 0.5 kgs of weight and streptomycin 5 mg per 0.5 kg weight. This should be given to the cow continuously for a week.

Trypanosoma Theileri:

Symptoms:

  1. The cow will get fever at a specific period of time, i.e., only in the morning or in the afternoon. This fever also exists for two days and after a gap of other two days, it again occurs.
  2. Trypanosoma Theileri is a blood parasite and secretes toxin. This toxin causes nerve problems in the cow causing shivering and whirling.
  3. This parasite makes the cow, thin, causes anemia, which leads to decrease in the yield of milk.

Treatment:

An injection for muscle is preferred. This injection involves 16 grams of azidin mixed in distilled water of 6 ml in a tube. One tube should be given to 180-200 kgs of weight. This should be given once a day and the treatment should be continued for a maximum of 3 days.

Anaplasmosis:

Symptoms:

  1. This blood parasite is the one which uses the nutrition offered to the cow and destroys the red blood cells.
  2. This parasite causes anaemia in the cow and makes the cow thin.
  3. Eye and vagina mucus membrane will trun into pale color.
  4. The Anaplasmosis secretes a toxin which directly affects the central nervous system of the cow.

Treatment:

  1. For this, you need to mix Rivanol of 2 grams in 70 ml of water, boil it and filter the solution.
  2. Now, let the solution cool down to 45 degrees celsius and mix it with 35 ml of surgical spirit. When the temperature of this solution turns 35 degrees centigrade, Infuse it into the vein.
  3. For every two days, transfuse 2 liters of blood for 4 times.

Fasciolosis:

Symptoms:

  1. The primary symptom would be an injury in hepatitis and liver.
  2. The cow gets thin with a fat tissue.
  3. The appetite of the cow decreases, leading to reduced digestion levels and crushed feces.Treatment:
  1. When coming to the medication for this disease, Han deptil B should be given. This should be mixed with water. 1 tablet should be given to 45 kgs weight of the cow.
  2. Tolzan F is another tablet which should be given as 1 tablet per 95 kgs weight of a cow.

Diseases that occur in Jersey Calves:

Diarrhea:

Symptoms:

  1. The calves start drinking lots of water which reduces the appetite. Food gets stuck in the stomach, which in turn results in the bloating.
  2. If the diarrhea is caused by E. Coli, then the cow suffers watery feces, which are yellowish in color and has a very bad odor.
  3. If the diarrhea is caused by Coccidiosis, then the cow suffers with thick feces, which have intestine mucous membrane with a bad smell.
  4. If the diarrhea is caused by Ascaris, the calf suffers with roach feces, which are whitish in color and have a bad odor. This basically occurs in the calf which are just 30-60 days old.
  5. If the diarrhea is caused by Ell – worms, then the calf suffers from rapid dehydration and skin becomes shriveled. The calf may also suffer from depression if the treatment is delayed.

Treatment:

  1. Stop feeding the calf as a part of the treatment. You can also reduce the amount of feed if you do not want to stop. The important thing here is to avoid the food which is rich in terms of protein.
  2. You need to give isotonic glucose and orezon as many times as possible.
  3. If it is caused by bacteria, then the calf should be treated by giving antibiotic like kanamycin, tetracycline, neomycin, sulfonamides or you can also go with any kind of treatment available in the market for diarrhea.
  4. If the diarrhea is caused by parasite, then the deworming process should be done by giving 1 ml of levamisole for 8 kgs of weight. Or 1 ml of hanmectin for 12 kgs of weight.

Ascarid:

Symptoms:

  1. If the calf is affected by Ascaris, the calf sits on its back and will keep her back legs into her belly and moves like it is swimming.
  2. The abdomen gets enlarged, leading to less appetite and sluggish actions.
  3. There are also chances of diarrhea.
  4. There would be watery feces, which are whitish in color with bad odor.

Treatment:

  1. This would be solved through medication only.
  2. The calf should be made to drink 2 grams of Tayzu for 10 kg weight.
  3. Han mectin is an injection, which should be given to the calf affected by Ascaris. 2ml of Han mectin should be given to 25 kgs of weight.

Jersey Cow Dairy Project Report / Economics of  10 Jersey Dairy Cow Farming:

Assumed number of Jeresy cows: 10.

ItemAmount(Rupees)
Cattle shed for adult cows4,00,000
Cattle shed for calves1,20,000
Cattle shed for Heifers2,00,000
Storage area construction2,20,000
Animals6,00,000
Equipment20,000
Miscellaneous30,000
Silage bunker35,000
Total cost16,25,000

 

Fixed cost:

  1. In the first year,

Cost of depreciation of cattle shed     :    Rs. 1,00,000

Cost of depreciation of equipment     :    Rs. 1,500

Changes in the cost of herd                  :    Rs. -8000

Interest on capital investment            :    Rs. 2,00,000

Total         :    Rs. 2,93,500

 

  1. In the second year,

Cost of depreciation of cattle shed    :    Rs. 1,00,000

Cost of depreciation of equipment   :     Rs. 1,500

Changes in the cost of herd                :     Rs. -60,000

Interest on capital investment          :     Rs. 2,00,000

Total          :     Rs. 2,41,500

 

  1. In the Third year,

Cost of depreciation of cattle shed    :    Rs. 1,00,000

Cost of depreciation of equipment    :    Rs. 1,500

Changes in the cost of herd        :      Rs. -13,000

Interest on capital investment     :    Rs. 2,00,000

Total       :    Rs. 2,88,500

 

  1. In the Fourth year,

Cost of depreciation of cattle shed   :    Rs. 1,00,000

Cost of depreciation of equipment   :    Rs. 1,500

Changes in the cost of herd               :     Rs. 16,000

Interest on capital investment          :     Rs. 2,00,000

Total        :     Rs. 3,17,500

 

  1. In the Fifth year,

Cost of depreciation of cattle shed     :    Rs. 1,00,000

Cost of depreciation of equipment     :    Rs. 1,500

Changes in the cost of herd                 :     Rs. 70,000

Interest on capital investment           :     Rs. 2,00,000

Total        :       Rs. 3,71,500

  1. In the Sixth year,

Cost of depreciation of cattle shed    :     Rs. 1,00,000

Cost of depreciation of equipment    :    Rs. 1,500

Changes in the cost of herd                :     Rs. 0

Interest on capital investment          :     Rs. 2,00,000

Total    :       Rs. 3,01,500

 

  1. In the Seventh year,

Cost of depreciation of cattle shed     :    Rs. 1,00,000

Cost of depreciation of equipment     :    Rs. 1,500

Changes in the cost of herd                  :    Rs. 0

Interest on capital investment            :    Rs. 2,00,000

Total      :         Rs. 3,01,500

 

———————————————————————————-

Variable cost:

  1. In the first year,

Cost of Green fodder cultivation   : Rs. 50,000

Cost of Green fodder           :    Rs.0

Cost of dry fodder                :    Rs. 1,40,000

Cost of concentrates            :     Rs. 1,75,000

Cost of Minerals                   :     Rs.14,800

Charges for labour               :     Rs. 58,000

Electricity                              :       Rs. 16,000

Breeding expenses               :      Rs. 16,000

Insurance                               :      Rs. 25,000

Interest on working capital     :      Rs. 7,000

Transport cost for selling milk     :      Rs. 1,200

Building repairs       :        Rs. 4,500

Total    :       Rs. 5,07,500

 

  1. In the second year,

Cost of Green fodder cultivation    :    Rs. 50,000

Cost of Green fodder      :       Rs.0

Cost of dry fodder      :      Rs. 2,05,000

Cost of concentrates       :       Rs. 2,45,000

Cost of Minerals      :       Rs.14,800

Charges for labour     :       Rs. 58,000

Electricity    :         Rs. 16,000

Breeding expenses     :         Rs. 16,000

Insurance     :       Rs. 25,000

Interest on working capital        :       Rs. 7,300

Transport cost for selling milk  :       Rs. 1,200

Building repairs       :      Rs. 4,500

Total      :      Rs. 6,42,800

 

  1. In the Third year,

Cost of Green fodder cultivation      :   Rs. 50,000

Cost of Green fodder        :         Rs.0

Cost of dry fodder            :        Rs. 2,42,000

Cost of concentrates       :         Rs. 2,60,300

Cost of Minerals         :        Rs.14,800

Charges for labour     :        Rs. 58,000

Electricity                    :         Rs. 16,000

Breeding expenses     :         Rs. 16,000

Insurance                    :        Rs. 25,000

Interest on working capital      :        Rs. 7,600

Transport cost for selling milk    :       Rs. 1,200

Building repairs         :        Rs. 4,500

Total     :         Rs. 6,95,400

 

  1. In the Fourth year,

Cost of Green fodder cultivation   :       Rs. 50,000

Cost of Green fodder         :       Rs.0

Cost of dry fodder       :      Rs. 2,73,000

Cost of concentrates        :       Rs. 2,79,825

Cost of Minerals       :      Rs.14,800

Charges for labour        :      Rs. 58,000

Electricity      :      Rs. 16,000

Breeding expenses         :      Rs. 16,000

Insurance         :     Rs. 25,000

Interest on working capital   :     Rs. 7,900

Transport cost for selling milk   :     Rs. 1,200

Building repairs    :     Rs. 4,500

Total   :     Rs. 7,46,425.

 

  1. In the Fifth year,

Cost of Green fodder cultivation   :   Rs. 50,000

Cost of Green fodder       :      Rs.0

Cost of dry fodder           :      Rs. 2,73,200

Cost of concentrates      :      Rs. 2,79,825

Cost of Minerals            :       Rs.14,800

Charges for labour        :       Rs. 58,000

Electricity                       :       Rs. 16,000

Breeding expenses        :       Rs. 16,000

Insurance        :       Rs. 25,000

Interest on working capital     :    Rs. 7,900

Transport cost for selling milk    :    Rs. 1,200

Building repairs        :        Rs. 4,500

Total   :        Rs. 7,46,425

 

  1. In the Sixth year,

Cost of Green fodder cultivation   :   Rs. 50,000

Cost of Green fodder        :     Rs.0

Cost of dry fodder             :     Rs. 2,73,200

Cost of concentrates         :     Rs. 2,79,825

Cost of Minerals                :     Rs.14,800

Charges for labour            :     Rs. 58,000

Electricity           :     Rs. 16,000

Breeding expenses      :   Rs. 16,000

Insurance      :     Rs. 25,000

Interest on working capital      :    Rs. 7,900

Transport cost for selling milk    :     Rs. 1,200

Building repairs     :     Rs. 4,500

Total   :      Rs. 7,46,425

 

  1. In the Seventh year,

Cost of Green fodder cultivation   :   Rs. 50,000

Cost of Green fodder   :     Rs.0

Cost of dry fodder       :     Rs. 2,73,200

Cost of concentrates   :     Rs. 2,79,825

Cost of Minerals         :      Rs.14,800

Charges for labour       :    Rs. 58,000

Electricity      :     Rs. 16,000

Breeding expenses   :      Rs. 16,000

Insurance            :      Rs. 25,000

Interest on working capital       :     Rs. 7,900

Transport cost for selling milk    :     Rs. 1,200

Building repairs      :     Rs. 4,500

Total   :     Rs. 7,46,425

———————————————————————-

Income:

 

  1. In the first year,

Sale of milk    :     Rs. 8,45,000

Sale of Gunny bags   :   Rs. 2,350

Sale of manure       :      Rs. 2,020

Sale of cows            :     Rs. 12,200

Total   :       Rs. 8,61,570

 

  1. In the second year,

Sale of milk    :      Rs. 12,50,500

Sale of Gunny bags      :     Rs. 3,200

Sale of manure      :    Rs. 2,020

Sale of cows        :       Rs. 16,500

Total  :     Rs. 12,72,220

 

  1. In the Third year,

Sale of milk         :   Rs. 11,00,150

Sale of Gunny bags      :   Rs. 3,590

Sale of manure     :     Rs. 2,020

Sale of cows          :     Rs. 16,500

Total  :      Rs. 11,22,260

 

  1. In the Fourth year,

Sale of milk    :      Rs. 10,22,850

Sale of Gunny bags    :      Rs. 4,000

Sale of manure     :       Rs. 64,000

Sale of cows     :      Rs. 16,500

Total   :          Rs. 11,75,350

 

  1. In the Fifth year,

Sale of milk       :       Rs.10,58,038

Sale of Gunny bags      :        Rs. 4,000

Sale of manure      :       Rs. 1,32,000

Sale of cows  :        Rs. 16,500

Total   :        Rs. 12,10,538

 

  1. In the Sixth year,

Sale of milk      :     Rs.11,70,300

Sale of Gunny bags   :     Rs. 4,000

Sale of manure      :       Rs. 1,18,000

Sale of cows      :     Rs. 16,500

Total  :     Rs. 13,08,800

 

  1. In the Seventh year,

Sale of milk     :      Rs.11,70,300

Sale of Gunny bags   :       Rs. 4,000

Sale of manure      :      Rs. 2,26,000

Sale of cows   :     Rs. 16,500

Total :      Rs. 14,16,800

 

Operating profit : (Income – Variable cost)

  1. In the first year         =     3,54,070/-
  2. In the second year    =     6,29,420/-
  3. In the third year        =     4,26,860/-
  4. In the fourth year      =     4,28,925/-
  5. In the fifth year          =     4,64,113/-
  6. In the sixth year         =     5,62,375/-
  7. In the seventh year    =     6,70,375/-

Net Profit:(Operating Profit – Fixed cost)

  1. In the first year         =         60,570/-
  2. In the second year    =         3,22,498/-
  3. In the Third year      =         1,38,360/-
  4. In the fourth year     =         1,11,425/-
  5. In the fifth year         =         92,613/-
  6. In the sixth year        =         2,60,878/-
  7. In the seventh year   =         3,68,875/-


NABARD Subsidy and Loan for Jersey Cow Dairy  Farming Project In India:

There are state wide dairy farming subsidies and loans available for eligible farmers through NABARD approved banks. For more details, contact your local NABARD office.

Read: NABARD Subsidy Schemes and Eligibility.

Read: Fish Farming Business Plan
.

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