Kidney Beans Farming Guide:
Introduction of Red Kidney Beans: – Kidney beans have become popular all over the world due to its health benefits as well as their savory texture. Kidney beans are termed as “King of Nutrition”. Brazil is top producer of kidney beans in the world. Red kidney beans are popularly known as “Rajma” in northern India. Various healthy dishes can be prepared using this bean in India. These beans are grown in most of the states northern and southern parts of India. Kidney beans are also called as “common bean”, “haricot bean”, “navy bean or snap bean”.
Health Benefits of Red Kidney Beans:- Some of the health benefits of kidney beans are as follows.
- Kidney beans may help in preventing cancer.
- Kidney beans may improve brain function.
- Kidney beans may control blood sugar levels and may prevent diabetes.
- Kidney beans are high source of protein.
- Kidney beans may help in bone strength/prevent osteoporosis
- Kidney beans may help in preventing bad cholesterol (LDL).
- Kidney beans help in maintaining healthy skin.
- Kidney beans are rich in fiber.
- Kidney beans may help in preventing irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
- Kidney beans are heart healthy.
- Kidney beans help weight loss due to its high fiber content.
Major Red Kidney Beans Grown States in India:- Maharashtra, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand ,West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh ,Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka.
Local Names of Red Kidney Beans in India:- Kidney Beans (English), Rajma (Hindi, Marathi,Punjabi,Gujarati,Konkani,Malayalam), Barbati Beej / Raajma (Bengali), Baragudi Chhuin / Rajma (Oriya), Capparadavare (Kannada), Chikkuduginjalu / Nallachikkudu (Telugu).
High Yielding Hybrid Varieties of Red Kidney Beans in India:- Some of the improved varieties of Rajma beans are, VL Rajma 125,VL Rajma 63,. PDR‐14, HUR‐15 (Malviya Rajma 15),HUR‐137 (Malviya Rajma 137), Amber, Utkarsh, Arun.
Climate Required for Red Kidney Beans Farming:- This crop grows well in tropical and temperate areas receiving 60 to 150 cm of rainfall annually. Ideal temperature for better yield is 15°C to 25°C.
Soil Requirement in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- Red kidney beans thrives on a wide variety of soils. However, well drained loamy soils are the best for its cultivation. This crop is very sensitive to salinity and soil pH should be 5.5 to 6.0 to obtain better yields. Soil with high organic matter/FMY promotes more vegetative growth. This crop requires fine seedbed and good moisture in the soil for better germination of the seeds. A deep ploughing should be followed by 3 to 4 harrowing will get to the fine tilth of the soil.
Land Preparation in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- 2 to 3 ploughing should be given by tractor or local desi plough in the main field and the soil must be pulverized with levelled field which makes the soil to fine tilth. Apply Farm Yard Manure (F.M.Y) or any organic compost to make the soil rich in fertility. Field must have good internal drainage, so the water stagnation could be avoided.
Seed Rate in Red Kidney Beans Farming:– The seed rate required in Red Kidney Beans Farming is about 50 kg/ha.
Seed Treatment in Red Kidney Beans Farming:-The Red Kidney Beans seeds to be treated with Captaf (or) Thiram @ 4 grams/per Kg of seeds. The bio-fertilizer is 200 grams for every 30 Kg of seed mixed with about 1300 ml of water or cooled off boiled rice starch. The seeds need to be dried in shade for 30 to 45 minutes before sowing.
Growing Season of Red Kidney Beans:- Red kidney beans are cultivated in both Rabi and Kharif season in various parts of India. Sowing season of kidney beans varies from state to state.
For Up and Bihar regions–> 1st and 2nd fortnight of Nov month.
For Maharashtra – Mid of October
Early varieties can be sown in October end where as late varieties can be sown till November mid.
For Kharif season crop, Middle of May to Middle of June is best sowing season.
For spring season crop, Feb to 1st week of March is best for sowing.
Propagation in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- Propagation should be done by seed.
Spacing in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- Row-to-Row spacing is about 30 cm and Plant-to-Plant spacing is about 10 cm to 15 cm. Seeds should be sown @ depth of 6 cm to 7 cm to absorb moisture in the soil.
Manures and Fertilizers in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- This crop lack biological Nitrogen fixation due to poor nodulation. Therefore it needs good amount of Nitrogen about 100 to 125 kg/ha. This crop also requires 60 to 70 kg of P2O5/ha and adding potassium hardly effects the yield.
Irrigation in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- This crop requires pre-sowing irrigation for better germination of the seed and critical stage for irrigation is about 3 weeks to 4 weeks after sowing. Four irrigations @ 25, 50, 75 & 100 days after sowing the seed are required for optimal yield. This crop does not require frequent irrigations in rainy season. In case of heavy rains and make sure the soil has excellent drainage to avoid the water logging.
Weed Control in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- Initial stages plantation, this crop suffers from weeds. first 1 month period is critical stage to control the weeds. One hand weeding can be carried out after 1 month of sowing seeds. Pre-emergence of pendimethalin @ 1 kg per hectare (or) 1 kg/ha of fluchloralin should be incorporated as part of pre-plantation process.
Pests and Diseases in Red Kidney Beans Farming:- To protect the plants from anthracnose or any leaf diseases, spray Captaf (or) Diathene M-45 every 9 to 14 days interval. Captaf, 1 gram/liter of water (or) Diathene M-45, 2 grams/liter of water should be sprayed.
To control the Pod borer pest, spray Endisulfan @ 1.5 to 2 liters/500 liters of water per hectare.
Harvesting of Red Kidney Beans:- Red Kidney Beans crop will be read for cutting when the pod turns to brown colour and the harvesting to be done after 120 to 130 days for maturity. Harvested plants should be kept on sun for 3 to 4 days and threshing can be done by bullocks or with sticks/sickle. Use seed bins for storing the clean Red Kidney Bean seeds.
Yield of Red Kidney Beans: – Yield of any crop mainly depends on three factors: i) Type of Soil ii) Farm Management Practices iii) Variety of Seed. In Red Kidney Beans farming, an average yield is about 10 to 12 quintals/ hectare.
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