Introduction: Hello farmers and gareners, we are here today to discuss the Kidney beans farming in polyhouse for maximum profits. Kidney beans are also called as the chilli bean because of its dark red color and the visual resemblance the shape of a kidney. It is having full of folic acid, vitamin B6, magnesium and antioxidant properties. The kidney bean seeds are large and dark red, and they look like human kidneys according to the name itself. The kidney bean is a variety of the common bean and its scientific name is Phaseolus vulgaris.
Large dark and red kidney beans are normally used as soup and vegetables. The large dark and red kidney beans are reddish-brown and have a kidney like a shape. They have a strong taste and are used in both hot and cold recipes. It is most generally in Mexican and Indian cuisine to make curries.
Maharashtra, Jammu, and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka are main kidney bean growing states in India.
A step by step guide to Kidney beans farming in polyhouse
Classification of a kidney bean
There are different classifications of kidney beans, for example;
- Red kidney bean also called as common kidney bean and Rajma in India.
- Light speckled kidney bean
- Red speckled kidney bean
- White kidney bean (also known as cannellini in Italy, lobia in India, or safaid (white) lobia in Pakistan).
Other varieties of kidney beans are;
VL Rajma 125 – suitable for timely sown of Uttarakhand Hills.
RBL 6 – suitable for irrigated areas of Punjab state. 6 to 8 seeds per pod and seeds are of light green color.
Other state varieties are;
Other high yielding kidney bean varieties grown in India are HUR 15, HUR-137, Amber and Arun. Also Arka Komal, Arka Suvidha, Pusa Parvathi, Pusa Himalatha, VL Boni 1, Ooty 1.
Requirements for Kidney bean farming in polyhouse:
It thrives in polyhouse and is easy to grow by simply following these steps;
Polyhouse is one kind of greenhouse where polyethylene is used as the cover. In India, polyhouse farming is the popular greenhouse technology for its low cost of construction. Poly houses are mostly naturally ventilated climate controlled. In polyhouse, fertilizer application is easier and is controlled automatically with the help of a drip irrigation system. Polyhouse gives the right environmental facilities to plants in any season.
Polyhouse farming is a new and widely accepted process of farming in present days. Polyhouse farming is a tunnel used with polyethylene in a semicircular shape. Polyethylene sheets stabilize the ultraviolet rays and help in good photosynthesis in crops.
In Polyhouse farming, we can protect crops from any adverse environment such as high humidity or high temperature.
Soil requirement and pH level for Kidney beans farming in polyhouse
These Kidney beans flourish well in any dry and loose soil. Moderate loam soil is most appropriate for Rajma farming. If soil is heavy soil, then use organic manure or sand to improve the soil. The pH level of the soil is 6.0 to 7.0 are the best for Kidney bean cultivation. A Kidney bean likes the position of full sun.
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Good soil amendments contain manure and compost. Either option will help loosen the overall density of the soil while providing plenty of nutrition for the plant as it starts.
For commercial Kidney bean production, add both Nitrogen and Phosphorus into the soil. The Rajma or Kidney bean lacks biological Nitrogen fixation due to poor nodulation. So, you have to apply chemical fertilizers for having good crop yield. Add 80-100 kg Nitrogen and 50-60 kg Phosphorus into the soil while preparing.
The seed rate for Kidney beans farming in polyhouse
The actual amount can vary depending on the chosen bean variety and also product type. On average, for early sown varieties use seed rate of 30-35kg/acre. For pole-type varieties sown with a seed rate of 10-12kg/acre.
The seed treatment of Kidney beans
Before sowing treat Kidney bean seeds with Thiram@4gm per Kg of seeds. Dried seed in shade and then seed sown immediately.
Planting Kidney bean seeds in polyhouse
Kidney beans generally do not respond well to transplanting and are usually direct sown around or just after the last spring frost. The most important point about the cultivation of Kidney beans is not to plant them too early. The Kidney beans will rot in cool, damp soil. Even so, many Kidney beans require a long growing season of 80 days or more. To obtain an earlier start, you can put down black plastic, to warm the soil.
Additionally, Kidney bean plants should be well-ventilated to promote proper development and deter mildew or mold that can trouble plants. In polyhouse, Kidney beans should not be framed in the same spot more than once every four years and can be mutually beneficial with corn, strawberries, and cucumber. Avoid planting Kidney beans near onion or fennel.
Plant Kidney beans in either rows or blocks in polyhouse, with 4-6 inches between each seed. Plant the seeds 1 to 2 inches deep and be sure to water the soil immediately and regularly, until it sprouts. Kidney beans will need some type of support to grow on. Be sure the trellis, teepee, fence or whatever is in place before you planting Kidney seed. Plant seeds at a rate of about 3 to 6 seeds per teepee or every 6 inches apart.
Water requirement for growing Kidney beans in polyhouse
After the sowing of the first irrigation of Kidney beans after about 25 days, after four more irrigation. Never dig deep irrigation in the ground, water must not stop. Do not create deep irrigation while making flowers and legumes; it can be a cause for low yield.
For improved germination of seed give pre-sowing irrigation. 6-7 irrigations are necessary during the growing season. Irrigation on 25th day after sowing and three irrigation at 25 days interval is necessary to obtain optimum yield. Give irrigation before blooming, during flowering and at the pod development phase, water stress at this stage will lead to yield loss.
When watering, try to avoid getting the plant leaves wet as this can promote fungus or other damaging conditions that beans can be susceptible to. Most types of Kidney beans are somewhat drought resistant but check the surface of the soil frequently and water when the top layer has become dried out.
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How to control weeds in Kideny bean plants
Initial growth period is crucial for Kidney bean crop growth. Avoid weed infestation at this phase. Complete weeding operations synchronized along with fertilizer and irrigation process. Utilize Fluchloralin@ 800ml/acre or Pendimethalin@1ltr per acre as pre-emergence weedicide.
Fertilizer and manure requirement for Kidney bean crop
After 2-3 weeks planting, give it organic fertilizer (rotten dung manure) of its plant, in the desired soil. Half amount of nitrogen and the full amount of phosphorus in the row below the seed during the planting process. You can give the remaining amount of nitrogen after the first irrigation after 30 to 35 days of planting.
Avoid high-nitrogen fertilizers during the planting stage. Even though nitrogen-based fertilizers will make Kidney bean plants look vibrant and leafy, these fertilizers do more harm than good since they encourage the plant to send its energy to its leaves rather than its fruits. Large doses of nitrogen will create an impressively leafy plant that bears very few edible beans.
After the plant gets started, Kidney beans generate their nitrogen inside their roots. High levels of nitrogen fertilizer will inevitably end up feeding the plant too much nitrogen. If plants are suffering and in need of more nutrition, use a small amount of organic fertilizer that does not supply a hearty amount of nitrogen.
Once established, Kidney beans generally will not require fertilizing and will generate their nitrogen. Though, if the leaves of young plants are pale this is an indication of nitrogen deficiency and starts can be fertilized with fish emulsion or other natural nitrogen-rich fertilizer.
Bush beans start producing before pole beans and often come in all at once. Staggered planting, every 2 weeks, will keep bush beans going longer. Pole beans require time to grow their vines before they start setting beans. The pole bean crop will continue to generate for a month or two.
Pole beans may require some initial help in climbing. Maintain the bean plants well watered. Mulch helps maintain their shallow roots moistly. Long producing pole beans will advantage from a feeding or a side dressing of compost or manure about halfway through their growing season.
Pests and diseases of Kideny beans
Like many other commercial crops, Kidney bean crops are susceptible to some common pests and diseases. Aphid, thrips, and mites are some of the pests for the Kidney bean plants. And wilt, yellow mosaic, and powdery mildew are some of the common diseases for the kidney bean plants.
When and how to harvest Kidney beans
Harvest Kidney beans when pods are full-grown and ripe and their color turn to yellow. Also leaves turn yellow color and majority of leaves drop. Depending upon bean variety use pods are ready to harvest 7-12 days after flowering. The overall crop is ready to harvest in 120 to 130 days. Do harvesting Kidney bean at the right time as delay cause shattering. Keep harvested plant for 3-4 days in the sun. After good drying of the crop, threshing is done with the help of bullocks or with sticks.
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