Intorductioin: Well guys today we are here with Maize cultivation income per acre and Maize project report. Maize (Zea mays) is most important field crop belongs to the family Poaceae. Maize is the third most important cereal after rice and wheat which contributes nearly 9% in national food basket in India. In addition to staple food for human being and quality feed for poultry and animals, Maize also serves as a basic raw material for the industry for production of starch for textile, pharmaceutical, high quality corn oil, food sweeteners, cosmetic industries, protein, and alcoholic beverages etc.
Maize cultivation Income,project report, yield, profits
Maize is used as an ingredient in around more than 3000 products. It has shown a satisfactory growth rate (4.5%) which is highest among the all food grains. Maize seeds contain antioxidants and flavonoids which help in improving the health of the skin and also stimulate the growth of new cells.
Inspite of food and feed maize has potential demand in the development of various products in different industries viz. textile, processing, paper, pharma, film, tyre, packaging and biofuel, etc.
Soil and climate for Maize cultivation:
In India its cultivation mainly take before monsoon start and it is the Kharif season crop. It generally, grows under temperatures between 22°C to 30°C and it maximum tolerates as 35°C temperatures. In a year this crop requires at least 50 to 90 cm of rainfall.
Soils with rich in organic matter are mostly suitable for maize cultivation. Required pH for maize cultivation is 5.5 to 7.0. Clay loam sandy loam along with black cotton soils are suitable for maize cultivation. Soils with good drainage facility are necessary for maize cultivation. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Orissa, Punjab are the main maize growing states in India. Duration of this crop is around 105 to 110 days normally. However duration of crop will change depending on the variety.
Maize popular varieties:
- Ganga -5
- Ganga -9
- Deccan -103
- Diara -3
- Other Maize hybrid varities
Cost of cultivation for 1-acre Maize cultivation
Cost of seed material:
Around 8 kilograms seeds are required for one acre maize cultivation. Cost of one kilogram maize is Rs.400. So, for total 8 kilograms it costs around Rs.3200. Seed treatment should be done if necessary.
Cost of land preparation:
Land preparation done by ploughing the soil to fine tilth. Add 8-10 tonnes of farmyard manure per acre. Furrows and ridges can be made which save irrigation water. Land preparation requires a tractor and 4 labor, totally for land preparation it costs around Rs.2600.
Cost of sowing:
Sowing can be done in all seasons i.e rainy season, rabi season, spring season. Recommended spacing is 60-75 cm between rows and 18-20 cm between rows. For kharif sowing should be done before monsoon, for rabi it is October to mid of November and for spring crop it was between January to end of February. Sowing expenses will be around Rs.1,200.
Cost of weeding:
Weeds become serious problem in maize cultivation mainly during kharif season they compete with crops for resources and cause yield losses. Hence, timely weeding is necessary for getting higher yields. Simazine or Atrazine at 0.5kg/ha in 240 liter of water per acre can be sprayed as pre emergence herbicide.one to two hoeings are recommended for better aeration. Weeding operation requires Rs.2,300.
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Fertilizer cost for 1 acre Maize cultivation:
Maize is highly responsive to the fertilizer application, it requires nutrients supply during all its growth, particularly it requires nitrogen throughtout growing season. It requires 48-60 kilograms nitrogen per acre it should be applied in three splits. 16-24 kilograms of phosphorus per acre and 12-16 kilograms of potash per acre. It also requires 8-10 tonnes of farmyard manure per acre. For all these it costs around Rs. 3000.
Cost of pesticides:
Main diseases in maize are seedling blight, soft rot, common rust and smut. Coming to pests stem borer, shoot fly, aphids and cut worms are the major pests. To manage all these pest and diseases at timely intervals it requires around Rs.1000.
Cost of miscellaneous activities:
Interest on working capital, rental cost of land, irrigation cost, electricity cost and cost of family labor are included under this cost. Miscellanrous cost is Rs. 2500.
Cost of harvesting and grain shelling:
Cob color turns in to brownish color, grains becomes hard and moisture content become less than 20 percent. These are the harvesting indications in maize. Duration of crop is 110 days averagely. Yield 10 to 20 quintals per acre. With hybrids we can get yield up to 40 quintals per acre. Harvesting and shelling requires around 12 labor and machinery charges Rs.500. Therefore, labor cost Rs.1500 and machinery charges Rs.500 is the total cost of harvesting.
The farmer has to spend Rs.1000 for the transportation of produce to market.
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Total cost of 1-acre Maize farming in India:
Cost of seed material – Rs. 2,500
Cost of land preparation – Rs. 1,500
Cost of sowing – Rs. 1,200
Cost of weeding – Rs. 1,000
Cost of Pesticides – Rs. 1,000
Fertilizer cost – Rs. 3,000
Cost of miscellaneous activities – Rs. 2,500
Cost of harvesting and shelling – Rs. 2,000
Cost of transportation – Rs. 500
Total cost of 1 acre Maize farming – Rs. 15,200
Total cost incurred in 1-acre Maize cultivation:
It costs around Rs.15,200 for cultivating maize in one acre land. However, slight changes may happened in total cost of cultivation depending upon various factors.
Total income from 1-acre Maize cultivation:
Average market price for one quintal maize is Rs.1200/qt at regional cereals market on 04-09-2019. We can get 30 quintals of yield averagely in one acre. Then totals returns will be Rs.36,000.
Net profit from 1-acre Maize farming:
It is the result of the difference between total returns and the total cost incurred in Maize cultivation. Then it will be like this
Rs. 36000 – Rs. 15200 = Rs. 20,800
Therefore, the farmer can get a net income of Rs. 20,800 from 1 acre Maize cultivation in a period of 3 to 4 months, if crop was maintained properly. There might be little differences in costs depending upon the various factors like variety, market, labor demand, climatic conditions, and incidence of various pests and diseases, etc.
Conclusion: In this article, we have seen the cost involved in 1 acre Maize cultivation income. Hence, maize cultivation yielding good returns. Its cultivation is suggestible.
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