Mango Farming Guide for Beginners
Mango Farming is the leading fruit crop farming of India and considered to be the king of fruits. Besides the delicious taste, excellent flavor and attractive fragrance, it is rich in vitamin A&C. The tree is hardy in nature and requires comparatively low maintenance costs.
Mango fruit is utilized at all stages of its development both in its immature and mature state. Raw fruits are used for making chutney, pickles, and juices. The ripe fruits besides being used for dessert are also utilized for preparing several products like squashes, syrups, nectar, jams, and jellies. The mango kernel also contains 8-10 percent good quality fat which can be used for soap and also as a substitute for cola in confectionery.
Mango occupies 22% of the total under fruits comprising of 1.2 million hectares, with a total production of 11 million tonnes. Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh, Telangana are having the largest area under mango each with around 25% of the total area followed by Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.
You may be interested in reading the A Step By Step Guide for Goat Farming.
Fresh mangoes and mango pulp are important items of agro-exports from India. India’s main export destinations for mango are the USA and other Middle East countries with a limited quantity being shipped to the European market. Although India is the largest mango producing country, accounting about 60% of world production, the export of fresh fruit is limited to Alphonso and Dashehari varieties. India’s share in the world mango market is about 15 percent. Mango accounts for 40 percent of the total fruit exports from the country. There is good scope for increasing the area and productivity of mango in the country.
Planting Materials for Mango plantation:
The best planting season for Mango trees:
Planting is usually done in the month of July-August in rainfed areas and during February-March in irrigated areas. In case of heavy rainfall zones, planting is taken up at the end of the rainy season.
You may be interested in reading Mango Cultivation Project Report.
The spacing of Mango trees:
The planting distance is 10m. x 10m. and 12m. x 12m. in dry and moist zones respectively. In the model scheme, a spacing of 8 meters x 8 meters with a population of 63 plants per acre has been considered which was observed to be common in areas covered during a field study.
Training of Mango plants:
Training of plants as part of Mango Farming in the initial stages of growth is very important to give them a proper shape especially in cases where the graft has branched too low.
Nutrients required for Mango trees:
Fertilizers may be applied in two split doses, one half immediately after the harvesting of fruits in June/July and the other half in October, in both young and old orchards followed by irrigation if there are no rains. Foliar application of 3 % urea in sandy soils is recommended before flowering.
The following table gives the details of fertilizer applied (depending upon the age of the plants) in Mango Farming :
|Age of the plant(in years)||Fertilizer applied|
|1*||100g. N, 50g. P2O5, 100g of K2O|
|10||1kg of N, 500g. P2O5, 1kg of K2O|
|11||Same as above|
*The doses applied in the subsequent years should be increased every year up to
10 years in the multiple of the first year’s dose.
Well decomposed farm-yard manure may be applied every year. For trench application of fertilizers, 400g. each of N and K2O and 200g. of P2O5 per plant should be provided. Micro-nutrients may be applied as per the requirement in the form of foliar sprays.
Irrigation requirements for Mango plants :
Young plants are watered frequently for proper establishment. In the case of grown-up trees, irrigation at 10 to 15 days interval from fruit set to maturity is beneficial for improving yield. However, irrigation is not recommended for 2-3 months prior to flowering as it is likely to promote vegetative growth at the expense of flowering.
Intercropping in Mango orchard:
Intercrops such as vegetables, legumes, short duration and dwarf fruit crops like papaya, guava, peach, plum, etc. depending on the agro-climatic factors of the region can be grown. The water and nutrient requirements of the intercrops must be met separately.
Harvesting and the yield of Mango crop:
The yield of mango varies greatly, depending upon the variety and agro-climatic conditions prevailing in a region.
Grafted mango trees start bearing from the fifth year onward. However, seedling trees may take 8-10 years.
At the start of bearing at the age of 3 – 4 years the yield may be as low as 10-20 fruits (2-3 kg) per tree, rising to 50-75 fruits (10-15 kg) in the subsequent years, and to about 500 fruits (100 kg) in its tenth year. In the age group-20- 40 years, a tree bears 1,000-3,000 fruits (200-600 kg) in an ”on” year. The productive age of a grafted mango tree is usually 40-50 years, after which the yield declines.
Post-Harvest management of Mango crop:
Storage of mangoes:
The shelf life of mangoes being short (2 to 3 weeks) they are cooled as soon as possible to a storage temperature of 13 degree Celsius. A few varieties can withstand storage temperature of 10 degree Celsius. Steps involved in post-harvest handling include preparation, grading, washing, drying, waxing, packing, pre-cooling, palletization and transportation.
Packaging of mangoes:
Mangoes are generally packed in corrugated fiberboard boxes 40 cm x 30 cm x 20 cm in size. Fruits are packed in single layer 8 to 20 fruits per carton. The boxes should have a sufficient number of air holes (about 8% of the surface area) to allow good ventilation.
Financial institutions have also formulated mango financing schemes in potential areas for expansion of area under mango. Individual mango development schemes with farm infrastructure facilities like well, pump set, fencing, and drip irrigation system, etc. have also been considered.
Read: How to Grow Strawberries in Hydroponics.