Mango Farming, Cultivation (Aam) Guide for Beginners

Mango Farming Guide for Beginners

Today, we learn step by step guide of mango farming techniques, ideas, and tips. we can also cover cultivation practices of Aam fruit.

Mango Farming
Mango Farming.

Introduction:

Mango Farming is the leading fruit crop farming of India and considered to be the king of fruits. Besides the delicious taste, excellent flavor and attractive fragrance, it is rich in vitamin A&C. The tree is hardy in nature and requires comparatively low maintenance costs.

Mango fruit is utilized at all stages of its development both in its immature and mature state. Raw fruits are used for making chutney, pickles, and juices. The ripe fruits besides being used for dessert are also utilized for preparing several products like squashes, syrups, nectar, jams, and jellies. The mango kernel also contains 8-10 percent good quality fat which can be used for soap and also as a substitute for cola in confectionery.

Mango Tree Introduction.
Mango Tree Introduction.

Mango occupies 22% of the total under fruits comprising of 1.2 million hectares, with a total production of 11 million tonnes. Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh, Telangana are having the largest area under mango each with around 25% of the total area followed by Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.

You may be interested in reading the A Step By Step Guide for Goat Farming.

Fresh mangoes and mango pulp are important items of agro-exports from India. India’s main export destinations for mango are the USA and other Middle East countries with a limited quantity being shipped to the European market. Although India is the largest mango producing country, accounting about 60% of world production, the export of fresh fruit is limited to Alphonso and Dashehari varieties. India’s share in the world mango market is about 15 percent. Mango accounts for 40 percent of the total fruit exports from the country. There is good scope for increasing the area and productivity of mango in the country.

Planting Materials for Mango plantation:

Mango Orchard.
Mango Orchard.

Mango can be propagated from seed or propagated vegetatively. Plants are generally propagated vegetatively by using several techniques like veneer grafting, inarching and epicotyl grafting, etc.

The best planting season for Mango trees:

Planting is usually done in the month of July-August in rainfed areas and during February-March in irrigated areas. In case of heavy rainfall zones, planting is taken up at the end of the rainy season.

You may be interested in reading Mango Cultivation Project Report.

The spacing of Mango trees:

The planting distance is 10m. x 10m. and 12m. x 12m. in dry and moist zones respectively. In the model scheme, a spacing of 8 meters x 8 meters with a population of 63 plants per acre has been considered which was observed to be common in areas covered during a field study.

Training of Mango plants:

Training of plants as part of Mango Farming in the initial stages of growth is very important to give them a proper shape especially in cases where the graft has branched too low.

Tree Training.
Tree Training.

Nutrients required for Mango trees:

Fertilizers may be applied in two split doses, one half immediately after the harvesting of fruits in June/July and the other half in October, in both young and old orchards followed by irrigation if there are no rains. Foliar application of 3 % urea in sandy soils is recommended before flowering.

The following table gives the details of fertilizer applied (depending upon the age of the plants) in Mango Farming :

Age of the plant(in years)Fertilizer applied
1*100g. N, 50g. P2O5, 100g of K2O
101kg of N, 500g. P2O5, 1kg of K2O
11Same as above

*The doses applied in the subsequent years should be increased every year up to

10 years in the multiple of the first year’s dose.

Well decomposed farm-yard manure may be applied every year. For trench application of fertilizers, 400g. each of N and K2O and 200g. of P2O5 per plant should be provided. Micro-nutrients may be applied as per the requirement in the form of foliar sprays.

Fertilizers for Mango Trees.
Fertilizers for Mango Trees.

Irrigation requirements for Mango plants :

Young plants are watered frequently for proper establishment. In the case of grown-up trees, irrigation at 10 to 15 days interval from fruit set to maturity is beneficial for improving yield. However, irrigation is not recommended for 2-3 months prior to flowering as it is likely to promote vegetative growth at the expense of flowering.

Intercropping in Mango orchard:

Intercrops such as vegetables, legumes, short duration and dwarf fruit crops like papaya, guava, peach, plum, etc. depending on the agro-climatic factors of the region can be grown. The water and nutrient requirements of the intercrops must be met separately.

Harvesting and the yield of Mango crop:

Mango Farming
Mango Farming.

The yield of mango varies greatly, depending upon the variety and agro-climatic conditions prevailing in a region.
Grafted mango trees start bearing from the fifth year onward. However, seedling trees may take 8-10 years.

At the start of bearing at the age of 3 – 4 years the yield may be as low as 10-20 fruits (2-3 kg) per tree, rising to 50-75 fruits (10-15 kg) in the subsequent years, and to about 500 fruits (100 kg) in its tenth year. In the age group-20- 40 years, a tree bears 1,000-3,000 fruits (200-600 kg) in an ”on” year. The productive age of a grafted mango tree is usually 40-50 years, after which the yield declines.

Post-Harvest management of Mango crop:

Storage of mangoes:

The shelf life of mangoes being short (2 to 3 weeks) they are cooled as soon as possible to a storage temperature of 13 degree Celsius. A few varieties can withstand storage temperature of 10 degree Celsius. Steps involved in post-harvest handling include preparation, grading, washing, drying, waxing, packing, pre-cooling, palletization and transportation.

Packaging of mangoes:

Mangoes are generally packed in corrugated fiberboard boxes 40 cm x 30 cm x 20 cm in size. Fruits are packed in single layer 8 to 20 fruits per carton. The boxes should have a sufficient number of air holes (about 8% of the surface area) to allow good ventilation.

Financial institutions have also formulated mango financing schemes in potential areas for expansion of area under mango. Individual mango development schemes with farm infrastructure facilities like well, pump set, fencing, and drip irrigation system, etc. have also been considered.

Read: How to Grow Strawberries in Hydroponics.

34 COMMENTS

  1. I grow and have organic onions. I want to know are there any buyers for Organic Onions. If anybody wants to buy Organic Onions, please contact me at my phone number: 06261301114

  2. Hi,
    I want to grow mango trees (Kesar) in my farms in solapur(Maharashtra). I don’t want to buy small plants and wait for 3 to 4 years to get the fruit. I want to by those plants which can give me good amount of fruits in the next year of plantation, meaning that, if I plant trees in 2018, I want to yield good amount of mangoes in 2019. So,I am confused, how old plant should I buy and what height. I will be buying grafted tree, Please, let me know how many years old plant and what should be the height of the plant, which I should buy. Or tell me any office name in Pune or Solapur where I can get this information.

    • We don’t suggest to plant already grown up plants in nursery bags/beds. The growth rate and yield would be very less if you buy 3 years plant for your field. 6 months old is good to plant for better root establishment and strong framework.

  3. What’s the best way to find which alternate crop we can try with our Dashheri variety of mangoes. We are located at the edge of greater noida besides dasna but we don’t want to impact the current yield of mangoes. Please suggest.

    Also for some reason from what i know, Mango crop is an alternating one with less yield each alternate year. Is there a way to increase yield of the crop or this is the known behavior of Mango trees.

  4. What are the best mango variety to plant in Hyderabad, Telangana climate? And alphanso can be grown in Hyderabad climate. Please reply.

    • Well, many people are growing different varieties of mangoes near and around Hyderabad like Mallika, Dasheri, Sundari, Rasalu, Totapuri and mainly Banganapalli Mangoes. Banganapalli can fetch more profits as market demand for this fruit is high.

  5. 1) If the yield of a grafted mango tree declines after 40 to 50 years, then how much yield per plant can we expect after 40-50 years? 2) What do farmers do of trees that are 40-50 years old and are less productive?

  6. I am interested to plant mango trees in an area of 4 acres and am looking for technical help to know how and cost of planting etc.. Can you guide me in this field.

    Thanks

    • Check the soil for nutrient. Make sure the plants are provided with good water. Usually, In mango orchard, farmers apply well decomposed Vermicompost or cow dung (Farmyard manure). I am not sure the trees are pruned properly.

  7. hello,
    I am interested in growing mango trees. Would like to know which type of mangoes can be grown in betam, Madhya Pradesh keeping the climate condition in mind. What is the best option for business and how to go about it.

  8. Hello, Can you share your contact number or call me @ 9030007283, i planning to start Mango Farming in my Farm land @ Hyderabad.

  9. We want to create Ultra density mango plantation. I understand that there are 700 trees/acre. Is it advisable for kesar mangoes

  10. Is there a complete mango farming guide (preferably in Hindi), covering the whole yearly cycle and possible issues and remedies. How to start a new season, soil prep, fertilizers, insecticides, etc., for every stage and all kinds of issues, until plucking and restarting the cycle next year.

  11. I have more than 2 Acres Mango plantation age group from 4 years to 35 years old trees. I want to start goat farming as well hybrid vegetable farming by using green house.

    Thanks

  12. Hi
    I want to start mango farming in my native (Satara).I am ready to spare 20 gunta farm for this project.I am biginer in this field.
    Please suggest me best variety of plants for cultivation.Also let me know the approximate profits after 5 years.

  13. My Field is situated in a flood area , although a lot of mango trees are there.but nobody have done it commercially. Can I go for mango planting.and if yes how?

    • Mango trees cannot survive in waterlogged areas. They get rootrot diseases due to heavy water at the root system. If the land is sandy loam where water draining happens quickly, there won’t be any issue. However,flooding prone areas are not recommended.

  14. Hi,

    I have 3 acres of sandy soil land, I am planning to do mango plantation in that land. Can you please suggest sandy soil is ok or not for mango plantation

    Regards,
    Reddy

  15. I planted mango pulp collecting from
    govt horticulture officebut some trees are not totally flowering & fruiting though I am waiting for ten years so what can I do .whetherI will cut those trees,any step ther to flowering those trees.any medicine ? Please give me good veritable mango grafted plup address o phone number to collect.

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