Mango Farming Project Report/Economics of Mango Orchard
Mango is a tropical flowering tree cultivated for its fruit. It is native to South Asia, but now it is cultivated widely in the tropics. It has the status of being the national fruit of India, Pakistan, Philippines and the national tree of Bangladesh. This tree is cultivated in tropical and warm subtropical climatic zones which are frost free. Half the mango production is done in India and China is the second largest producer. Almost around 1000 different varieties of mangoes are found all over the world, which indicate that mango has a special value. It is just like a common garden tree in the tropics. Mango framing is a leading practice in India and is generally referred to as ‘king of fruits’. The farming of mango is low maintenance, agriculture venture. The fruit that is obtained from the plant is either used raw or in a ripened form. It is widely consumed for its taste, flavor, and fragrance. This mango farming project report consists of all the detailed information about the farming of mango/cultivation practices of mango orchard and it’s cost and profit analysis.
Scope and Importance of Mango Fruits:
In India, the production of mangoes is 151.88 lakh tonnes annually and it occupies almost 36% of the total area under fruits i.e. 22.97 lakh hectares. The states of Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh have the largest area under mango cultivation. India exports mangoes as well as the pulp of mango to Middle East countries, Bangladesh and Europe. Only two major varieties of mango are exported from India. 40% of total fruit production in India accounts to mango and there is a large scope for further development and production.
Mango Fruit and its Properties:
The fruit of mango has nutrition as well as medicinal values in it. It has a pleasant flavor and taste. The farm of mango produces the fruit and some additional by-products which can be used for different purposes. Mangoes contain carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins (A, C, B₁, and B₂). Upon ripening the concentration of vitamin C decreases and the amount of glucose, fructose, and sucrose increase.
The peel and pulp of mango contain several phytochemicals such as triterpene, lupeol, etc. the peel of mango contains compounds like provitamin A, beta-carotene, lutein, polyphenols and xanthonoid (mangiferin).
Volatile organic chemicals which belong to terpene, furanone, lactone, and ester classes are the reason for the typical flavor in mangoes.
The raw mango is used for flavoring; the seed is boiled and made into starchy flour for consumption and the tender leaves are consumed as vegetables.
The medicinal uses of mango are:
- A bark infusion is a remedy for mouth infections.
- Raw mango drink is a remedy for heat stroke and exhaustion.
- Half-ripe mango can help solve gastrointestinal disorder when consumed with salt and honey.
- Can be used to treat night blindness due to the presence of vitamin A.
- Diarrhea is treated with the flour of dry mango seeds.
- The fruit sap is useful in treating bee and scorpion bites.
Leaves and seeds serve as food for the animals. The mango tree is a rich source of nectar.
The timber from the mango trees is used for making wooden articles, but it should be treated with preservation elements. The wood from mango tree is an excellent charcoal substitute and a yellowish –brown dye for silk is made from the bark, which is called the tannin.
Mango Plant Characteristics:
- Mango trees are evergreen and survive for over 100 years and develop a big trunk of over 4 m diameters. The tree attains a maximum height of 15 to 30 m. The trees are branched and form a canopy, depending on their variety.
- The roots of a mango tree are long and branched. There are generally two to four anchoring taproots which reach 6 m below the soil. Also, some fine fibrous roots called the feeder roots can be found just 1 m below the surface which change seasonally depending on the moisture level of the soil.
- The flowers of mango tree are conical and are 60 cm long. There are two forms, hermaphrodite and male; these forms vary depending on the variety. The hermaphrodite flowers are small and have four to five ovate, out of which only one or two stamens in the internal margin of the disc are fertile. The male flower differs from the hermaphrodite because it doesn’t have the pistil.
- The leaves of the tree are simple with petioles of 1 to 12 cm length. The leaves are oblong and the tip of the leaf is either round or acuminate. The leaves are initially light green, tan brown, purple and finally dark green when mature.
- The mango fruit is categorized as a drupe i.e. fleshy fruit with a single seed covered by a leathery endocarp. The shape and taste of the fruit vary for different varieties. Each fruit weighs around 50 g to 2 kg approximately. The fruit is dark green in color during growth, but changes to light green or yellow upon ripening. The mesocarp of the fruit is fleshy and is edible with sweet turpentine flavor.
The seed of the mango tree is either monoembryonic or polyembryonic. Monoembryonic are formed from the cross of maternal and paternal parents. Polyembryonic seeds are asexual and are identical to the maternal parent.
Varieties of Mango:
There are over 1000 varieties of mango found all over the world and India alone has more than 500 varieties. The commercial farming of mango is restricted to only a certain type of improved varieties. The varieties for commercial trade and domestic use are different. The selection of mango for farming is done based on factors such as temperatures, adapt to weather, availability of materials and market demand. Some of the popular Indian varieties are listed here.
- Bombay green.
- Rampur gola.
- Samar bahist chausa.
Some other hybrid varieties are: Mallika, Ratna, mangers, Arka Aruna, Arka Puneet, Arka Anmol, Sindhu etc.
The pacific varieties are: Ah – ping, Fairchild, Gouviea, Haden, Kensington Pride, Kopu Reva, Mapulehu, Momi-K, Popa and Rapoza.
Mango Cultivation Practices:
Suitable Soil And Climatic Conditions For Mango:
The Mango tree grows well in areas which have cool, dry climate with severe heat during the flowering and fruiting period. It is possible to grow mango trees at an elevation of 1200 m above sea level in tropical zones. The average annual rainfall required for mango farming is 400 to 3600 mm and the temperature of the area should be around 24 to 27˚C. Alkaline, calcareous soil and heavy soil are suitable for mango farming. The pH of the soil should be in the range of 5.5 to 7.5. However, the trees produce best on well-drained sandy or gravel soil.
Tolerances of the Mango Tree:
- Drought: the trees can tolerate drought for up to 8 months, the tap roots, tough leaves, etc help the plants resist dry weather conditions.
- Sun: the fruits and flowers grow at the edge of the trees and are found to be high heat resistant.
- Shade: shade is not very suitable for farming mango trees because they get easily infected by diseases in the shade.
- Fire: mango trees cannot regenerate after fire.
- Waterlogging: depending on the variety of the mango tree they get tolerant to waterlogging by developing hypertrophic lenticels on the trunk near the waterline, which helps them remove the toxic products of anaerobic metabolism.
- Frost: frost can destroy the trees, but very big trees have the capacity to regenerate.
- Salt spray: they are intolerant of salt, but if the trees grow in fresh water, then they are not adversely affected.
- Wind: highly resistant to wind and are used as windbreaks.
Propagation Of Mango:
The propagation in mango can happen either by seeds or by other vegetative methods. The embryo of the seed decides the quality of the seedling. The polyembryonic seeds produce three or 4 seedlings which are different from the parent plant. Whereas, the monoembryonic seeds produce one seedling different from the parent plant. To produce varieties of mango, grafting is done. The upper part, scion of one variety is joined to the lower part, rootstock of another variety. This process is done generally when the plants are very young, in the nursery stage. The grafting can be done either by the cleft graft method or by the whip-tongue method. Grafting is generally done in the shade with temperatures around 18 to 21˚C. The scion of the plant is generally treated with a fungicide or insecticide before grafting to avoid diseases.
Land Preparation and Planting of Mango:
The land for mango planting should be ploughed deeply and levelled properly with a gentle slope for drainage. The spacing between the plants varies in different areas. The spacing is 10 m x 10 m for dry areas and it is 12 meters x 12 meters in heavy rainfall and rich soil areas. The pits are filled with 20 to 25 kg of FYM, 2.5 kg of superphosphate and 1 kg of muriate of potash mixed with the original soil. one-year-old old seedlings that have grown in the nursery are transplanted into the main area in the month of July – August if the area is rain-fed else transplantation is done in the month of February – March if irrigation facility is available.
Manure And Fertilizer Requirements of Mango Tree:
Decomposed farmyard manure has to be applied every year to the plants. Fertilization is done in two doses, one in October when the plants are young and the season for flowering would begin; the second dose is given after harvest the crops in the month of June or July. 3% foliar is needed for the plants where the land is sandy. The age of the mango tree decides the amount of fertilizer required by it. Young plants require 100 g of nitrogen, 50 g of phosphate and 100 g of potash. The plants which are older than 10 years need high quantities of nutrients such as 1 kg of nitrogen, 500 g of phosphorous and 1 kg of potash. The other important nutrients required for the mango trees are chlorine, boron, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, zinc, sulphur and calcium.
Irrigation Requirement Of Mango:
Irrigation is supplied depending on the soil type and climate of the area. The plants are not irrigated during the monsoon season. Young plants are irrigated at an interval of 2-3 days or 4-5 days in the dry areas when the plants are 5 to 8 years old the irrigation is provided at an interval of 10-15 days. During the fruit-bearing stage, the irrigation is provided in 2 or 3 cycles. Intercropping has done in the early years of mango farming so the irrigation has to be adjusted accordingly. The drip irrigation system is highly beneficial and also helps in the Fertigation technique.
Pest and Disease Control of Mango:
The most commonly occurring diseases of mango trees are:
- Anthracnose – is controlled by spraying burgundy or Bordeaux mixture.
- Powdery mildew – spraying 5-5-5- Bordeaux, cosan, karathane WD and benomyl can control the spread of disease.
- Dieback – selecting healthy scion of the plants and exposure to the sun can help control the disease.
- Ganoderma root rot – drenching the roots in dinocap @2 ml/l reduces the problem.
- Sooty mould – spraying 0.2% of wettable sulphur is useful.
- Blight – destroying the infected plants and parts can check the spread of infection.
- Red rust – a spray of Bordeaux mixture is useful.
- Necrosis – borax @ 2.7-3.6 kg / 100 gal of water can be sprayed two or three times to control the infection.
- Mango scab and Alternaria rot are other common diseases found in the mango plants.
Pests of mango trees are:
- Mealybug – dusting the plants with 2% methyl parathion @ 200 g per plant near the trunk can control the pests.
- Mango hopper – spraying 0.15% of carbaryl and 0.04% of monocrotophos can keep the pests away.
- The stem borer – the tunnel is cleaned with hard wire and cotton soaked in kerosene is plugged into it.
- Mango scale – methyl parathion 50 EC in 1 liter of water is sprayed.
- Bark eating caterpillar – injecting kerosene oil in the holes with a syringe is helpful
- Budmite – rogor or metasystox @ 2 ml/l of water is sprayed in summer
- Leaf gall Insect – 2% tar oil during the egg-laying period of four weeks can control the infestation of pests.
Intercultural Activities In Mango Garden:
Intercropping is practiced depending on the agro-climatic conditions of the area and their nutrition, irrigation, etc. facilities have to be taken care separately. Crops like the papaya, guava, peach, plum, and some legumes are grown as intercrops. For better economical results vegetable crops can be cultivated.
If the mango trees are not pruned they become very large. So, pruning the canopy to a limited size is important and should be done once in two years. Pruning reduces the flower and fruit production that particular year but increases the harvest in the following years.
Harvesting of Mango:
Fruits of the mango tree should be harvested only when they are fully mature, early picking can reduce the quality. The maturity of the fruit is known by the following;
- The skin of the fruit becomes smooth and the shoulders, the beak of the fruit are filled well.
- The green color of the fruit begins to lighten.
- The stem of the fruit shrivels and gets easily separated from the fruit.
- The flesh of the fruit changes from pale white to yellow color.
Mature fruits are picked and ripened in crates or baskets. The sap of the fruit should not come in contact with the human skin during picking otherwise there may be blemished or skin burns. Long stems are used to pick the fruits and are dipped in detergent to avoid sap related problems. Grafted mango plants bear fruit in 3 to 4 years, but optimum fruits are obtained when the crop reaches 10 to 15 years.
Post-Harvest Management of Mango:
The shelf life of mangoes is short, so the fruits are cooled to a temperature of 13˚C and stored. The process of handling mangoes after harvest includes cleaning, grading, drying, waxing, packing, pre-cooling, palletizing and transporting.
Fiber boxes are used to pack mangoes and each cartoon is packed with 8 to 20 fruits in a single layer. The boxes are chosen such that they have air holes to allow ventilation.
Grading of the fruits is done based on size, color, and maturity. Small and large fruits are separately ripened. The underdeveloped, immature fruits are discarded from further processing. 750 ppm ethrel in hot water is used for ripening the fruits by dipping them for 5 minutes.
Mango Farming Project Report – Malformations:
It is commonly observed that there is a vegetative malformation in mango plants at the nursery stage. There is also a possibility of floral malformation and mixed malformation. These are controlled by removing the malformed shoots or by spraying 100 ppm of NAA twice in October and November.
Jhumka is identified by the marble-sized fruits at the panicle tip and does not increase in size. This can be controlled by spraying jaggery @ 10% on the bloom to attract pollinizers.
Spongy tissue is another physiological disorder characterized by a patch on the fruit flesh on ripening. It can be controlled by mulching the soil bed, maintaining proper soil moisture and growing legumes as cover crops.
Mango Farming Project Report – Cost And Profit Analysis:
The mango farming project report model shown below is estimated for 1 acre of land. The charge on the land is not included because it depends on whether the land is rented or owned. Also, variable costs like transport, post-harvest management charges may vary depending on the location of the farm and the local transport structure. It is to be noted that there could be other hidden costs of the entire process.
The cost of 1 mango sapling: Rs 50/piece (1 acre of land can accommodate 100 saplings).
Cost of 1 kg of urea: Rs 6.00.
Cost of 1 kg of superphosphate: Rs 20.00.
Cost of 1 kg of potash: Rs 8.00.
Labor cost for 1 day: Rs 200 to 250.
Cost of arranging the drip irrigation system for 1 acre of land: Rs 35,000- 55,000.
Cost of 1 unit of power: Rs 2.50/unit < 30 units; Rs 3.70/unit for 31 – 100 units; Rs 4.85/unit for 101 – 200 units and beyond this it is Rs 5.85/unit.
Bordeaux mixture cost per kg: Rs 250.00.
Sulphur spray cost per kg: Rs 50.00.
The average cost of other insecticides and pesticides per kg: Rs 600.00.
The average cost of centrifugal pump settings depends on the manufacturer and the capacity of the pump: Rs 5000.00.
|Cultivation Material And Labour Charges||Investment (In Rs)|
|Manure and fertilizer cost||7000.00|
|Insecticide and pesticide cost||4000.00|
|Labor cost @ 30 days for 3 persons||18,000.00|
|Power requirement @ 6 units per day||8000.00|
|Tube well pump cost for one acre||35,000.00|
|Drip irrigation arrangement||50,000.00|
|Fencing the farm||35,000.00|
There could be some extra charges included for labor tents and extra labor employment, which are not included in this mango farming project report model.
Mangoes yield per acre in 1 year: 2.5 to 3 tonnes (Cost: Rs 2, 70,000.00).
Cost of 1 kg of mango: Rs 100.00 (average cost, but may change depending on the variety).
Total profit from the venture: (Rs 2, 70,000.00 – Rs 2, 00,000.00) = Rs 70,000.00.
As the tree ages, the yield of the tree increases to 9 or 10 tonnes per acre; thereby, increasing the profits every subsequent year.
Loans and Subsidies for Mango Farming:
Mango farming in rocky areas has provided a subsidy of 1.5 lakh rupees from the agricultural department of Mapusa, Goa. Non-rocky areas would also be considered for the subsidy scheme, but the amount will be lower, around Rs 68,000 per hectare.
Telangana government is also providing the subsidy for mango farming project report and it amounts in between Rs 9840 to Rs 26,880 per hectare.
Ministry of Agriculture has implemented a central sector scheme under which subsidy of 25% (maximum Rs 50 lakhs) on the capital cost for marketing and 33.3% (maximum 60 lakhs) of capital cost for each farming project in northeastern states, hilly areas, and scheduled castes and tribes is sanctioned.
Also, there is one scheme called the mango weather insurance to provide risk management service to the mango cultivators. You must understand the mango farming project report before you enter into commercial mango cultivation in India.