Noni Fruit Cultivation – A Beginners Guide

Noni Fruit Cultivation For Beginners:

Introduction of Noni Fruit Cultivation:- Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is a small tree that grows at a normal height of around 10  to 30 feet. The leaves of this plant are thick, shiny, dark green, and deeply veined. The fruits have an unusual shape and about 3 to 5 inches long, ovoid & yellowish-white & become quite tender at maturity. This small evergreen shrub has large bright green elliptical leaves. The fruit is borne on stalks that arise opposite to an unpaired leaf. The fruit starts out as a small lump that swells, creates a blossom, then forms into the fruit. Noni is one of the most important fruits which was widely used for its health restorative properties, within the years because its popularity diminished due to different odor from the ripened fruit. It is a tropical fruit commonly known as Indian Mulberry. Its native range extends through Southeast Asia and Australasia, and the species is now cultivated throughout the tropics and widely naturalized. Morinda citrifolia (Noni Fruit) grows in shady forests, as well as on open rocky or sandy shores. The plant bears flowers and fruits throughout the year. The fruit has a pungent odor when ripening and is thus also known as cheese fruit or even vomit fruit. It is oval in shape and reaches 10 to 18 centimeters in size. At first green, then the fruit turns yellow then almost white because it ripens. It contains lots of seeds. This plant and fruit have excellent medicinal values, and Green fruit, leaves, and root/rhizomes are being used in traditional medicines. Commercial cultivation of Noni fruit yields good profits under ideal horticulture management practices. Let us discuss more Noni fruit cultivation in forthcoming sections.

Scientific Name/ Botanical Name of Noni Fruit:- Morinda citrifolia.

Family Name of Noni Fruit:- Rubiaceae.

Genus of Noni Fruit:- Morinda.

Common Names of Noni Fruit:- Noni, Great Morinda, Indian Mulberry Beach Mulberry, and Cheese Fruit.

Indian Names of Noni Fruit:- Noni fruit is called with different names in India.

  • Hindi: Bartundi.
  • Telugu: Mogali / Maddi Pallu.
  • Malayalam: Mannapavatta / Shedheveli.
  • Kannada: Tagase Maddi / Maligyan Hannu.
  • Marathi: Nagakunda
  • Assamese: Noni.
  • Tamil: Nunaakai / Nuna.
  • Gujarati: Surangi.
  • Oriya: Pindre.
  • Bengali: Hurdi.

Health Benefits of Noni Fruit:-The following are some of the health benefits of Noni Fruit or its juice.

Noni Fruit Health Benefits.
Noni Fruit Health Benefits.
  • Boosts Energy.
  • Cures Asthma.
  • Cures chronic pain.
  • Cures kidney disorders.
  • Moisturises Skin.
  • Fights Aging.
  • Treats Scalp Irritation.
  • Prevents Cancer.
  • Treats Arthritis.
  • Lowers Risk of Gout.
  • Boosts Immunity.
  • Reduces Stress.
  • Treats Fever.

Varieties / Types (Cultivars) of Noni Fruit:- No cultivated varieties of Noni are recognized in India. However, talk to any horticulture professional in your area for the availability of any improved/hybrid Noni varieties.

Soil and Climate Requirement for Noni Fruit Cultivation:- Noni crops may be grown all around the year although more fruits being produced in the summer than in winter. Noni grows in a very wide selection of soils and environments with a notable ability to survive in harsh environments. Noni tolerates a wide variety of drainage conditions including seasonal waterlogging, but it prefers free, well-drained soils. It can grow in a wide range of acidic conditions.  Mature cultivated Noni can easily withstand 20 °C to 35°C and mean annual rainfall of 25 cm to 40 cm.

Site Selection and Land Preparation in Noni Fruit Cultivation:- Avoid locations where other crops have been planted recently, due to the susceptibility of Noni to root-knot nematodes. Select a site in full or partial sun with well-drained, well-aerated soil. Prepare a hole about the size of the pot and transplant it carefully. In rocky locations,  plough the subsoil before grading to prepare a horizontal or gently sloping field. Young Noni transplants don’t grow well where winds are strong. If a windy site is chosen for Noni cultivation, windbreaks must be implanted for protection. Trees such as eucalyptus should be implanted 150 to 175 feet apart are excellent windbreaks for Noni. Remove any clods in the field and give a couple of ploughing to bring the soil to the finetilth stage. The land should be levelled to an optimum level. Remove any weeds or dried trees, rocks from the field.

Propagation in Noni Fruit Cultivation:- Noni crop is relatively easy to propagate from seeds, stem or root cuttings, and air layering. The preferred ways of propagating are by seed and by cuttings produced from the stem. Noni blossoms and fruits around the entire year.

Noni Fruit Seeds.
Noni Fruit Seeds.

Germination in Noni Cultivation:- Noni seeds require hot, wet conditions for optimum germination. Un-scarified seeds require several months to a year before organic germination takes place, but their germination can be reduced to a month or so using heat. The seeds may tolerate a fever of 38°C, possibly even higher. Choose the warmest spot in the nursery or greenhouse to germinate Noni seeds. Or, heat could be supplied using nursery heating pads under the seedbeds, or simply by placing the beds or containers in a special “hoop house” coated with clear plastic. If germinated outside, partial sunlight is preferable to full sun to avoid excessive drying of this medium.

Noni seeds may be germinated in seedling flats or trays or sown directly in containers. A light-medium that retains water yet remains aerated is best. Suitable components to get a planting medium include vermiculite, perlite, peat moss, commercial potting media, compost, and fine volcanic cinder. For seedling flats, use a light-medium, like one part each of perlite and peat moss, or perlite, vermiculite, and potting soil in a 2:1:1 ratio. For containers, a slightly heavier medium is better, like one part of perlite or vermiculite and three components of a potting mix. Fertilizers shouldn’t be mixed into the medium because additional nutrients are not required until after the crops have their first true leaves.

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Seed Processing, Treatment, Planting in Noni Fruit Cultivation:- After picking, allow the fruit to ripen until it seems soft and translucent. This may require 3 to 5 days if just semi-ripe fruits were accumulated. Once the fruits have fully softened, press them against a screen, the soft, fibrous pulp will slowly be eliminated completely eliminate the clinging flesh.

Rinsing in water periodically helps float off the pulp. If the seeds are to be used immediately, tender fruits may be suspended in water and exposed to short pulses in a blender, very sparingly, to remove the majority of the flesh while slightly scarifying the seeds. If the seeds are to be stored, the flesh ought to be removed entirely, then the seeds air-dried and stored in a paper bag in a cool room with low humidity. Germination is high for new seeds, often over 85 to 90%. There are approximately 39,000 to 40,000 seeds in each kilo of Hawaiian Noni fruit.

Without pre-treatment, Noni seeds germinate sporadically over 8 to 12 months. A simple technique is to place ripe fruits in a blender and then pulse the blending mechanism a few times to reduce open the Noni seeds prior to separating them from the pulp. A more time-consuming procedure that results in a higher germination percentage consists of clipping off the tip of Noni seeds close to the embryo to allow water to penetrate the seed coat. Germination time for scarified Noni seeds is 20 to 120 days, depending upon temperature, environment, and variety or genotype. Seed germination can be rapid and uniform (20 days) in full sun to partial shade and a mean temperature of approximately 37 to 38°C.

Weed and nematode-free natural or local forest soil mixed with sand, composted organic matter is excellent for seedling production. Nematode-infested soils or media ought to be avoided or treated with heat (at least 50°C  for 15 minutes prior to using. Most nurseries prefer natural potting media rather than commercial media for Noni production. Mulch like sawdust, leaf litter or sand can be put over the seeds for both weed control and moisture retention. Noni seeds can germinate in conditions ranging from deep shade to full sun. Most uniform germination is achieved in the light partial shade (20 to 30 percent). Following the germination and early establishment phases, partial shade (20 to 30%) is employed for growing out the individual seedlings in containers.

Noni seedlings may be transplanted in about 2 to12 months after germination. After transplanting, the first year of seedling development is slow due to transplant shock and also the establishment of an origin program. Later, seedling growth is far more rapid since the crown gains size and photosynthetic mass.

Propagation from Stem Cuttings in Noni Cultivation:- Varying sizes of stem cuttings can be used, however, 20 cm to 40 cm cutting are manageable and effective. Stem cuttings can root in 3 weeks and be ready for transplanting in 6 to 9 weeks. As with plants derived from seeds, rooted stem cuttings may be grown in pots for up to 24 weeks or even longer with exceptional outcomes when transplanted.  

Irrigation in Noni Fruit Cultivation:- Noni plants can thrive with moderate irrigation and can survive even in dry/drought conditions, once the plant is established. However, plants require irrigation during the early stages of the crop. The frequency of irrigation depends on soil moisture condition and climate.

Manures and Fertilizers in Noni Fruit Cultivation:- Well, we require organically grown fruits and most of the medicinal plants are grown without any chemical fertilizers, it is better to apply organic compost like cow dung, chicken, goat, sheep manures.

Intercrops in Noni Fruit Cultivation:- You can grow any vegetable or legume intercrops during the initial years until Noni trees cover the field with shade.

Intercultural Operations in Noni Fruit Cultivation:- Appropriate intercultural operation should be carried out in Noni fruit cultivation for quality produce and better yield.

  • Weeding in Noni Fruit Cultivation: Weed growth can be controlled by drip irrigation and mulching practice. Carry out the weeding during the first 2 years of planting manually whenever required.
  • Pruning in Noni Fruit Cultivation: Young Noni plants less than 3 years old can be pruned back after or during their first production of Noni fruit. In the following years, the pruned plants will become bushy. Because Noni trees may reach a height of approximately 20 to 30 ft, growers might wish to prune the vertical branches of mature plants to facilitate fruit crops. Pruning is an effective way of disrupting conditions conducive to pest and disease outbreaks.

Pests and Diseases in Noni Fruit Cultivation:- Usually, the Noni crop is resistant to pests and diseases. However, In moist, high-rainfall, or flooded areas, Noni is prone to certain plant diseases brought on by fungi or fungus-like organisms leaf spots, stem, leaf, and fruit blights. Organic practices include control steps using neem-based formulations; fish oil resin soap may be employed to manage these pests. In Noni cultivation, diseases like damping off, root rot could be managed by application of Trichoderma viridi (2kg/ha) and Psuedomonas flurescens (2kg/ha).

Note: Your local horticulture department is a good source of finding information about pests and diseases in Noni fruit cultivation. Don’t experiment on your own without knowing the symptoms and causes of pests and diseases.

Harvesting in Noni Fruit Cultivation:- Fruits are harvested once they begin turning white, or even if they have become fully ripe, i.e., turned soft, translucent, and characteristically odorous.

Yield and Economics in Noni Fruit Cultivation:- The Noni tree starts yielding at an age of 3 years and the regular yield will be from the fifth year onwards. The yield of the Noni crop depends on many factors such as tree age, cultivation method, variety, irrigation, pest and disease control, soil, genotype, planting density, climate, and other horticulture management practices.

In India, NABARD (The National Bank for Rural and Agriculture Development) is promoting Noni fruit cultivation and it’s being largely grown in Jharkhand state. For More information on Noni crop subsidy, contact the nearest NABARD branch.

The following are proposed returns for 5 Acres of Noni Fruit Cultivation for the period of 10 years.
Tree Age (years) Yield/ Tree/year No Trees Yield (in Kgs) Total Amount (In INR)
3rd year 20 Kg’s 1450 29,000 2,17,500
4th year 50 Kg’s 1450 72,500 5,43,750
5th year 80 Kg’s 1450 1,16,000 8,70,000
6th year 110 Kg’s 1450 1,59,500 11,96,250
7the year 150 Kg’s 1450 2,17,500 16,31,250
8th year 200 Kg’s 1450 2,90,000 21,75,000
9th year 250 Kg’s 1450 3,62,500 27,18,750
10th year 300 Kg’s 1450 4,35,000 32,62,500
Note: Average price/cost for Noni fruit is calculated at Rs. 7.50/ Kg

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  1. Very good up date on the noni cultivation am very impressed by it. am I young guy who want to go in noni plantation an I need your assistant in starting these project .will be glad if you can mentor me through. Thank you.

  2. We want to introduce the Nony cultivation among farmers through our CSR projects in Palamau & Garhwa districts of Jharkhand. How can we get assistance/guidance in nony cultivation

  3. Could anyone please share me details of companies, which are providing buy-back of Noni fruits? And any more details in terms of marketing the Noni fruits, please?

  4. Dear sir,
    Please let me know the sources of Poni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) ‘ saplings, in and around Ahmadnagar ( M R), and Eastern U.P.

    R. K RAM
    Ex. Addl. General manager
    National Seeds Corporation.

  5. Thanks sir all information submit in google…. Pls send all details information plantation in farming

  6. I have ready to give my 2:5 acres land to forming wit borewell and drip line also have with State Highway road also… Karnataka Ballari….tq


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