Oats Cultivation Guide:
Introduction of Oats:- Oat is primarily cultivated for fodder crop as well as grain crop. The cultivation practices are similar to wheat farming. Oats belong to the family of Poaceae (alt. Gramineae). Oats were orginated from Mediterranean region. Recently they became very popular due their health benefits. Oats botanical name is Avena sativa L and belongs to tribe of Poeae. Oat meal is most famous food made out of oats.
Health Benefits of Oats:- Following are some of the health benefits of Oats.
- Oats are a source of low calories, high protein and high fiber.
- Oats may help in reducing bad cholesterol.
- Oats are heart healthy and protect from cancer.
- Oats regulates the blood sugar levels by improving insulin sensitivity.
- Oats are a source of good antioxidants.
- Oats may help in controlling blood pressure.
- Oats may help in weight loss.
- Oats may help in building strong immune system.
- Oats are gluten free and safe.
Local names for Oats in India:- Oats (English), Jaee (Hindi),Joi ( Bengali), Javie or Jawie (Punjabi), Oatarisi (Tamil), Yavalu (Telugu), Oat (Malayalam), Tooki Goodhi (Kannada), Saya (marathi).
Hybrid Varieties of Oats in India:- Brunker-10, NP-2,Weston-11,Np-1,Kent,Palampur-1,OS-6,OS-7,OL-9,HFO – 114,UPO-94,Algerian,Bundel Jai-822,Harita (RO -19),Sabzaar (SKO-7),Haryana Javi-8 and Bundel Jai 2001-3.
Climate Required for Oats Cultivation:- Oat is a cool climate crop. They do not grow well in hot dry conditions.
Soil Requirement for Oats Cultivation:- Oat can be cultivated on wide range of soils. However they thrive best on well drained loamy soils having good organic matter. The optimum soil pH range required is 5.0 to 6.5 for higher yield. Oat crop tolerates higher pH range soils than wheat or barley.
Land Preparation in Oats Cultivation:- Land should be made weed free from previous planting or crop and it should be ploughed 6 to 7 times to achieve fine tilth stage.
Propagation in Oats Cultivation:- Propagation is done through seeds.
Sowing and Seed Rate in Oats Cultivation:- Generally, sowing is done by drilling method by keeping 20 cm to 30 cm distance between any two rows. An average seed rate required is about 70 to 80 kg per one hectare land.
Manures and Fertilizers in Oats Cultivation:- Application of Farm Yard Manure along with chemical fertilizers would increase the quality and crop yield. For an irrigated crop, 40 to 45 kg of ‘N’ and 20 to 25 kg of P2O5 should be provided.
Irrigation in Oats Cultivation:- Usually, oats are cultivated as rainfed crop, in case of irrigated crop, it requires 1 irrigation for every 15 days after sowing the seeds.
Weed Control in Oats Cultivation:- Usually, in an oat crop, weeding is not needed, if solid stand is established. However, 1 to 2 hoeing should be given as intercultural operations.
Harvesting in Oats Cultivation:- Oat crop will become available for harvesting after 4 months of sowing. If it is for fodder use, 2 cuttings should be taken @ 40 to 45 day’s interval and leave for seed setting. In order to avoid grain shedding, crop harvesting should be done in early April month.
Yield of Oats Crop:- If oats are cultivated for fodder purpose, an average fodder yield of 220 to 300 quintals per hectare and an about 5 quintals grain/ha can be obtained.
If they are cultivated for grain purpose, an average grain yield of 15 to 20 quintals/ha and straw yield about 25 quintals/ha can be achieved.
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