Organic Compost Making from Manures, Kitachen Waste

The process of making an organic compost from manures:

Composting plays a major role in agriculture, farming and gardening. One should have proper knowledge on how to make organic compost from wastes and manure. We present a step by step guide of making compost on your own.

Organic Compost
Organic Compost.

Introduction:

This article details about making your own organic compost from manures. Any gardener or farmer will benefit from adding nutrients and organic matter to the soil in order to grow plants well. One of the most popular and beneficial things to add is compost. Compost can be purchased at any garden supply center, but it is very easy and less expensive to make your own compost.

Manure inputs for Compost:

Manures are plant and animal wastes that are used as sources of plant nutrients. They release nutrients after their decomposition. The art of collecting and using wastes from animal, human and vegetable sources for improving crop productivity is as old as agriculture. Manures are the organic materials derived from animal, human and plant residues which contain plant nutrients in complex organic forms. Naturally occurring or synthetic chemicals containing plant nutrients are called fertilizers. Manures with low nutrient, content per unit quantity have a longer residual effect besides improving soil physical properties compared to chemical fertilizer with high nutrient content. Major Input sources of manures are:

Farm Yard Manure
Farm Yard Manure.

You may be interested in Green Leaf Manure Advantages, Making.

Read: Poultry Farming Business Plan.

Oil cake manures.
Oil cake manures.
neem-oil-cake manure
neem-oil-cake manure

Composting:

Composting is a technique or process used to accelerate the natural decay process. The technique converts organic wastes to a mulch which is used to fertilize and condition the soil. Leaf waste decomposes naturally in about two years. Composting can take as long as a year or as little as 14 days, depending upon the amount of human control.

What material can be used in composting:

Most yard wastes can be composted into compost, including leaves, grass clippings, plant stalks, vines, weeds, twigs, and branches. Compostable food wastes include fruit and vegetable scraps, coffee grounds, eggshells, and nutshells. Other compostable materials are hair clippings, feathers, straw, livestock manure, bonemeal, and blood meal.

in Composting process, materials should NOT be composted if they promote disease, cause odors, attract pests, or create other nuisances. These include meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, foods containing animal fats, human/pet feces, weeds with developed seed heads, and plants infected with or highly susceptible to diseases, such as roses and peonies.

in composting process, materials that should be composted only in limited amounts include wood ashes (a source of lime), sawdust (requires extra nitrogen), plants treated with herbicides or pesticides (the chemicals need time for thorough decomposition), and black and white newsprint (composts slowly, so it should comprise no more than 10% by weight of the total pile).

Requirements of Compost preparation:

Composting from Kitchen Waste.
Composting from Kitchen Waste.
  • Shredded Organic Wastes: Shredding, chopping or even bruising organic materials hastens decay. One way to shred leaves is to mow the lawn before raking, collecting the shredded leaves in the mower bag. It takes at least 34 cubic feet of shredded material to form compost pile.
  • Good Location: The compost pile should be located in a warm area and protected from overexposure to wind and too much direct sunlight. While heat and air facilitate composting, overexposure dries the materials. The location should not offend neighbors.
  • Nitrogen: Nitrogen accelerates the composting process. Good sources include fresh grass clippings, manure, the bloodmeal, and nitrogenous fertilizer. Lime should be used sparingly if at all. It enhances decomposition, but too much causes nitrogen loss, and it usually is not necessary unless the pile contains large amounts of pine and spruce needles or fruit wastes.
  • Air: The organic compost pile and its enclosure should be well ventilated. Some decay will occur without oxygen, but the process is slow and causes odors.
  • Water: Materials in the organic compost pile should be kept as moist as a squeezed sponge. Too little or too much water retards decomposition. Overwatering causes odors and loss of nutrients.

Enclosing the Compost:

Enclosing the compost pile saves space and prevents litter. The enclosure should be collapsible or provide an entry large enough to permit the pile to be turned. It should measure at least 4’X4’X4′ (a pile under 3 cubic feet generally does not decompose properly), but no taller than 6′ (too much weight causes compaction and loss of oxygen). The enclosure can be built of wood, pallets, hay bales, cinder blocks, stakes, and chicken wire, or snow fencing. Prefabricated compost bins are also available.

Read: Compost Questions and Answers.

How to build the Pile in the Compost:

Aside from the basic requirements for decomposition and preventing odors and other nuisances, there is no set method for building a compost pile. One technique may be faster than another, but a variety of methods work well. Piles can be built in layers to ensure the proper proportion of carbon (e.g., leaves, woody materials) to nitrogen (grass, fertilizer), but the layers should be thoroughly intermixed after the pile is built.

Maintaining the Compost:

Turning and mixing the pile with a pitchfork or shovel, or shifting it into another bin, provides the oxygen necessary for decomposition and compensates for excess moisture. A pile that is not mixed may take 34 times longer to decompose. Recommendations for mixing the pile vary from every 3 days to every 6 weeks. More frequent turning results in faster composting. Odors indicate that the pile is too damp or lacks oxygen and that more frequent turning is necessary.

Occasional watering may be necessary to keep the Organic compost pile damp, especially in dry weather. Covering the pile with black plastic reduces the need for watering; it also prevents rainwater from leaching out the nutrients.

A pile that is decomposing properly should generate temperatures of 140°-160°F at its center. The heat kills most weed seeds, insect eggs, and diseases. The pile should be turned when the center begins to cool. Turning the pile maintains the temperature and ensures that all material is exposed to the center heat. When the compost is finished, the pile will no longer heat up.

Small amounts of fresh materials may be added but should be buried inside the pile to avoid pests and speed composting. It is better to add fresh materials to a new pile.

Finished Compost:

Finished compost is dark brown, crumbly, and has an earthy odor. Depending upon seasonal temperatures, a well-built, well-tended pile generally yields finished compost in 2 weeks to 4 months. An unattended pile made with unshredded material may take longer than a year to decompose.

Read: How to Grow Chinese Cabbage at Home.

4 COMMENTS

  1. Hi
    As I am running a poultry layer farm. I have to think about its waste. Therefore, I am looking to get a training on manure composting.
    Please advise me.

    Thanks & Regards
    Shantanu

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