Panchagavya Preparation & Its Importance:
Introduction to Panchagavya –An Organic Fertilizer:- What is Panchagavya? Well, it is nothing but a bio-fertilizer or organic growth stimulant made from natural ingredients to promote plant growth and safeguard the soil micro-organisms. Why should we use this? Using this solution in farming, it preserves the reproductive and regenerative capacity of the soil, good plant nutrition, and sound soil management, produces nutritious food rich in vitality which has resistance to diseases. This also plays important role in animal health and human health. As consumers are showing lot of interest in organic farming as current agriculture sector is full of chemicals and pesticides. This is boosting the market for naturally made organic/bio fertilizers like Panchagavya and farmers started making their own Panchagavya at their farm to use as bio-fertilizer or pest repellent on their commercial crops or orchards. Even some people are making profits with production of Panchagavya. In some areas in India, it also termed as “Panchakavya”. This can also be used as organic growth stimulant in milch animals, goat, sheep, poultry, fish & pet animals. In the following write-up, let us discuss about preparation and application of wonderful organic fertilizer..
Uses and Benefits of Panchagavya:-
- It acts as an organic growth-promoter and immunity booster plants. This also cures already infested plants and other living organisms.
- It increases the yield (in most cases, yield increased by 20 to 25%, in few cases like cucumber, yield has been doubled) and quality of produce.
- It increases the shelf life of vegetables, fruits and other agriculture produce.
- It produces lager leaves and denser canopy.
- It increases the sugar content and aroma of fruits.
- This application makes crops to mature early. (Advance harvesting by 2 weeks).
- It reduces the water requirement by 25 to 30% thus sustains drought conditions.
- It profuse and dense roots, penetrating to deep layers in the soil.
- This can reduce cultivation coast when made on your own when compared to chemical fertilizers.
- It application is found to be more profitable than recommended fertilizer application and chemical spray in commercial agriculture.
- It helps growing organic farming sector.
- Finally, Panchagavya has very positive effect in animal health and human health.
How to Prepare Panchagavya:- To make 20 litres of Panchagavya solution, the following inputs / ingredients are required.
- Inputs or Ingredients:
- Cow dung mixed with water: 5 kg.
- Cow urine: 3 litres.
- Cow milk: 2 litres.
- Cow curd: 2 litres.
- Cow ghee: 1 kg.
- Well-ripened yellow banana: 1 dozen (12 pieces).
- Tender coconut water: 3 litres.
- Sugarcane juice: 3 litres. (Or ½ (half) kg of Jaggery should be mixed with 3 litres of water).
- Preparation Process: Wide mouthed mud pots or concrete tank or plastic should be used for preparation of Panchagavya solution. The above said and measured amount of cow dung and ghee should be added first into the selected container. This should be kept for about three to four days for fermentation to happen. On the fourth or fifth day the remaining ingredients should be added to the container and kept for 7 to 8 more days. The ingredients in the container should be well mixed by stirring for 20 to 30 minutes. This stirring should be carried out both in the morning and evening to facilitate aerobic microbial activity. After 10 to 11 days of incubation, different concentrations should be prepared and used as foliar spray for plants or crops.
Physico Chemical Properties:- The solution contains a pH value of 3.7 to 3.8, Nitrogen of 1.28%, Phosphorus of 0.72%, Potassium of 2.23% and Organic Carbon of 17.45%.
Preparation Cost:- Well, production cost of Panchagavya depends on current labour charges and cost of ingredients used in the process. Generally preparation cost varies from 40 to 50 Rs for preparing 1 liter of Panchagavya. If you are planning buying online, it may cost from 150 to 400 Rs based on brand and quality. As making this at home is very simple, it is better to prepare on your own for commercial crops.
Beneficial Commercial Crops:- Commercial crops such as Rice, Mango, Acid lime, Guava, Banana, Moringa (Drumstick), Turmeric, Jasmine, Sugarcane and vegetable crops have responded very well to Panchagavya application. Apart from this, all other cash crops, fruit crops, herbal crops are also benefits from using the Panchagavya solution. Crops grown using this soultion resulted in very tasty produce.
Recommended Dosage: The dosage of solution depends on treatment of crops or seed.
- Storage of seeds: In this process, 3% of Panchagavya solution should be used to dip the seeds before drying and storing them for long shelf life, vigour and more percentage of germination.
- Seed / Seedling treatment: In this method, seed or Seedling treatment before sowing in the field is an important task to prevent from any seed borne or soil borne pests and diseases. 3% of Panchagavya solution should be used to soak the seeds for 20 to 25 minutes or in case of seedling treatment dip the seedlings for 20 to 25 minutes before planting in the filed or nursery bed. Rhizomes of Ginger, Turmeric, & sets of Sugarcane should be soaked for 30 to 35 minutes before planting in the field.
- Spray system: In this method, 3% of Panchagavya solution is found to be most effective. Generally, 3 litres of Panchagavya/100 litres of water is suitable for all agriculture crops. The power sprayers of 10 liter capacity may need 300 to 325 ml/tank. When sprayed with power sprayer, sediments should be filtered. However, when sprayed with hand operated sprayers, the nozzle with higher pore size should be used.
- Flow system: In this method, the Panchagavya solution should be mixed with irrigation water @ 50 litres/ha either through flow irrigation or drip irrigation system.
Periodicity of Spraying:-
- Pre-flowering stage: Spray Panchagavya once in 2 weeks, two sprays depending upon duration of crops.
- Flowering and Pod development stage: Spray Panchagavya once in 9 to 10 days. Generally 2 sprays are sufficient
- Fruit / Pod maturation stage: Spray Panchagavya once during pod maturation phase.
When to Apply for Different Crops:- The following chart shows time frame for applying solution on different crops.
|Name of Crop||When to Apply Panchagavya|
|Rice / Paddy||10,15,30 and 50th days after transplanting in the field.|
|Sunflower||30,45 and 60 days after sowing in the field.|
|Black gram / Red Gram||Rain-fed Condition: 1st flowering and 15 days after flowering.
Irrigated Condition: 15, 25 and 40 days after sowing
|Green gram||15, 25, 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing in the field.|
|Castor||30 and 45 days after sowing in the field.|
|Groundnut||25 and 30th days after sowing in the field.|
|Okra/ Lady Finger / Bhendi||30, 45, 60 and 75 days after sowing in the field.|
|Moringa/Drumstick||Before flowering and during pod formation|
|Tomato Vegetable||Nursery and 40 days after transplanting in the field and
Seed treatment should be done with 1 % for 12 to 14 hours.
|Onion||0, 45 and 60 days after transplanting|
|Rose Flower||During Pruning and Budding|
|Jasmine Flower||Bud forming and setting flowers.|
|Vanilla||Vanilla sets should be dipped in Panchagavya before planting|
Other Applications or Effect on Animal Health:-
- Earthworms grow faster and can produce more vermicompost when treated with this Panchagavya solution.
- Adding Panchagavya in fish ponds will contribute to improved fish feed availability and thus resulting increased fish growth and yield.
- Feeding cows with Panchagavya solution of 200 ml/cow/day results in good health and produce milk with high fat content. Apart from this, the rate of conception can also be increased, and the various common ailments can also be completely cured. Panchagavya solution effect is same in sheep and goats as well.
- When mixed with the poultry feed or drinking water @ 5 ml/bird/day, the birds will become disease free and also this can contribute to lay larger eggs for longer periods. Especially In the broiler chickens, the weight gain is quick because of high feed conversion ratio (FCR).
Effect on Human Health:- Panchagavya is also proved to be beneficial in humans. The following health benefits can be achieved.
Bottom Line:- This is solution is very easy to prepare, economical and environment safe. As organic farming sector is going to boom in coming days, Panchagavya is definitely will play vital role in this sector.
For Vermicompost Preparation: Read Here.
For Sheep Farming Business: Read here.