Papaya Farming Project Report:
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – INTRODUCTION
Papaya is a large, herbaceous crop known as papaw or pawpaw. This crop is a dual purpose, early bearing and space conserving variety. It is a native of Northern South America and Mexico, but of late it has become a natural growing plant in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The papaya crop cultivation is a rewarding venture even when undertaken on a small piece of land. The demand for this fruit is increasing because the farmers and consumers realize the importance and benefits of the fruit. More than 60 countries produce papaya, but the majority is being produced by the developing countries. The phytosanitary restriction on the Mexican papayas has resulted in a high price of the papayas and due to this many cultivators in the other parts of different countries are planning to get back to papaya farming. In India research was done for over 30 years and finally there were 100 strains and 16 local varieties of papaya introduced for commercial farming. At the bottom of this article, you can find the Economics of Papaya Cultivation/Papaya Farming Project Report.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – PLANT AND ITS PROPERTIES
- Papaya is a fast growing herb with a short life. Generally the plant has a straight stem of height 2 to 10 m and 10 to 30 cm of diameter.
- The plant is of three types; male, female or hermaphroditic and it is categorized as the polygamous species.
- The leaves of the plant are bundled at the apex. They are 25 to 75 cm in diameter and are smooth with moderate thickness. The color of the leaf on the top is dark green or yellowish green, whereas at the bottom it is pale green with off white nerves visibly marked.
- This plant is known to have six types of flowers; the typical female flower producing spherical or oval shaped fruits, a closed flower which produces egg shaped fruits, hermaphrodite flower producing irregular carpelodic shaped fruits, hermaphrodite elongated flower producing pear shaped fruits, hermaphrodite sterile flower which doesn’t bear fruit and the typical male flower which are non-functional.
- The fruit of papaya is oval or round in shape, 15 to 50 cm in length and 10 to 20 cm thick. The fruit weighs around 9 kg at the maximum. The skin of the fruit is thin, waxy and tough. The unripened fruit has white latex and as it ripens, it changes to yellow or orange colored flesh. Inside the fruit is a white fibrous tissue to which the black or gray peppery seeds are attached.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – CULTIVARS/VARIETIES
Each place depending on the climatic conditions of the area cultivates different commercial varieties, some of which are named here.
- Honeydew, Washington, solo, Co-1, Co-2, Co-3 sunrise solo, Taiwan etc. are known to grow in Andhra Pradesh.
- Jharkhand and West Bengal cultivate pusa nanha, pusa delkious and Ranchi selection.
- Kerala and Karnataka cultivate coorg green, coorg honey dew, pusa delkious etc.
- Odisha cultivates pusa delkious, Ranchi selection, honey dew etc.
- Other varieties grown in Trinidad and Tobago are Tainung no 1, Tainung no 2 and red lady.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – FRUIT AND ITS PROPERTIES
Papaya as a fruit is considered highly nutritious with lots of positive impact on the human health. It is estimated that one fruit of papaya has 120 calories, 30 grams of carbohydrates and 2 grams of protein. Apart from these they also contain some small quantities of folate, vitamin A magnesium, copper, fiber and panthothenic acid. Also, some traces of lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin E, calcium, etc. The fruit is consumed for its vast nutrient availability and anti-oxidant property. Some impacts of the fruit are;
- Decreases age related macular degeneration.
- Lowers the risk of asthma.
- Reduces the risk of cancer due to the presence of beta carotene.
- Improves bone health.
- Controls the insulin levels of fluctuation.
- Helps in digestion.
- Lowers the risk of heart diseases.
- Reduces chronic inflammation due to the presence of choline.
- Vitamins in the fruit promote hair health.
It is important to note that the latex of papaya and its fruit contain two enzymes, the papain and the chymopapain. The papaya is generally used in the market as a meat tenderizer, but some other uses are treating wool or silk before dyeing, pharmaceutical preparations, etc. The compound Chymopapain is used to treat cases of slipped spinal discs or pinched nerves.
The latex of papaya may cause skin irritation to the harvesters due to the papain content present in it.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – CULTIVATION NEEDS
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – SOIL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
Light, porous soil rich in organic matter is good for papaya farming. The pH of the soil should range from 5.5 to 6.7. When the soil has rich organic content, then the yield of papaya is heavy but with a low quality. A soil which is sticky or calcareous in nature is not suitable for papaya farming. Since papaya is a tropical plant it grows best in temperatures between 25 to 30˚C. The plant is sensitive to frost, but needs a good irrigation or plenty rainfall with good drainage facility. A papaya plant cannot tolerate strong winds.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES
Propagation is papaya is through seeds/seedlings. The germination of seeds takes 3 to 5 weeks. The seeds can germinate faster when the aril is washed off and they are treated with a fungicide (Thiram). The seeds of papaya can be directly sown on the land or can be initially grown in a nursery. The transplantation of saplings into main area is a limited practice. Seedbed of 3 m length, 1 m width and 10 cm high is required for nursery planting. The bed is covered with dry paddy straw or polythene sheet for protection. These saplings are transplanted into the main area after two months. Propagation can also happen through tissue culture. Air layering is also sometimes used to cultivate papaya plants.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – LAND PREPARATION AND PLANTING
February – March, June – July or October – November are the best months for planting papaya. The land should be ploughed twice for proper pulverization and canals could be built for proper drainage. The organic manure applied as a basal dose should be properly spread and incorporated into the soil during preparation of the land for sowing. The planting distance of papaya plants is 2.5 x 1.6 m to 3 x 2 m. In the high density plating method, it is 1.2 x 1.2 m. Pits of dimensions 60 x 60 x 60 cm are dug and are filled with topsoil mixed with 20 kg of farmyard manure, 1 kg of neem cake and 1 kg of bone meal. Proper irrigation is done after planting.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – MANURE AND FERTILIZERS REQUIREMENTS
Fertilizing the papaya crop is essential for a satisfactory production. It is observed that 250 g of nitrogen, 250 g phosphorous and 500 g of potash supplied to the papaya plant in 6 equal parts over a period of one year has delivered better results. Initially the land before planting is supplied with fermented compost @ 10 tons per hectare as a basal dose, this is repeated every year for grown up plants. Micronutrients such as 0.05% of ZnSO₄ and 0.1% of H₂BO₃ are sprayed during the 4th and 8th months for increased growth and yield. Fertigation can also be used for supplying nutrients; 13.5 g of urea and 10.5 g of muriate of potash is mixed with 10 liters of water and supplied through drip irrigation on a bimonthly basis from the 3rd or the 4th month of planting.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – IRRIGATION REQUIREMENTS
The papaya plants are irrigated based on the soil variety and the weather conditions of the region. In the first year of planting protective irrigation is given. In the second year irrigation is provided on a fortnightly basis during winter and in 10 days interval during the summer. Rain fed areas use basin system of irrigation whereas low rainfall areas use a sprinkler or drip irrigation.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – INTERCULTURAL ACTIVITY
Removal of weeds is highly essential and it is done either by using chemicals or by hand. Weeds are controlled by the application of generic glyphosate substance for about 6 times in a year. When the plants are young then hand weeding is done so that plants are not destroyed by the herbicides. Hoeing can also control weeds during the tender years.
Earthing up should be done before and after monsoon such that there is no water logging and the plants have support to stand erect.
Control of weeds in the beginning days of transplanting can be done by mulching the soil bed with a plastic film or with rice, sugarcane straw such that it also helps in the control of soil erosion and water retention.
Intercropping between papaya plants can be done in the initial years of growth, crops are not grown after the flowering has begun in papaya plants. Generally leguminous plants are preferred to intercrop with papaya. Also pomegranate plants are intercropped with papaya.
After the onset of flowering in papaya plants the farm is checked for male plants and only one male plant for 20 female plants is left on the farm for good pollination; the rest of the male plants are removed.
Fruit thinning is also an important activity as it removes the risk of fruit destruction. When a fruit in the cluster is damaged or has stunted growth, it is immediately removed to facilitate proper growth of the remaining fruit in the cluster.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL
The commonly found pests on papaya plants are fruit flies, aphids, red spider mite, stem borer, gray weevil, snail and slugs and grasshoppers. They are all controlled by spraying prophylactic substances such as 0.3% of dimethoate and 0.05% of methyl demeton.
The common diseases of papaya plants are powdery mildew, anthracnose, damping off, black spot, nematode and stem rot. These are all controlled by the application of 1 g/l of wettable sulphur, 1 g/l of carbendazim and 2 g/l of mancozeb. Another important control measures are growing disease resistant varieties, selecting well drained soils, practicing crop rotation and growing the seedlings or plants under net house, intercropping with a barrier crop like the corn, mulching the bed with silver and plastic film, destroy the infected plants immediately and replanting the crop each year to arrest the virus infection.
Sometimes boron deficiency can be a physiological problem with papaya plants when sown in sandy gravel soil in the dry cool season. Immature fruits are covered with the latex and there is a severe malfunction in the fruits. The fruits get hard and do not ripe easily. To control this, the soil has to be supplemented with organic manure. Alternatively 0.25% of borax is dissolved in hot water and sprayed in the dry season with an interval of 2 to 3 weeks. Another source of borax supplement is applied 2.5 to 5 g of borax along with other fertilizers to the plant in the beginning of the dry season.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – HARVESTING
Papaya plants give an economical yield in 3 or 4 years time. Generally the indication of harvest is the change of color of the fruit. Little yellow color of the fruit is the sign that the fruit is ready for harvest. The papaya plant bears fruit from 9 to 14 months of planting. The latex from the papaya plant stops to be milky and becomes watery which is also an indication of crop harvest. While harvesting great care must be taken so as to avoid scratching of the fruit or staining of the fruit with the leaking latex. For commercial purposes the fruit is cut with a knife, but for domestic use the fruit is generally twisted and removed.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT
The fruits are graded based on their weight, color and size. The papaya fruit is highly perishable nature; therefore the fruits are kept at 29˚C and at high atmospheric humidity for ripening and color enhancement before packing them. Baskets made of bamboo with banana leaf lining are used to carry the fruits from the farm area to the local market. The produce is transported either by Lorries or other vehicles to the nearest market and sold there at a wholesale price or through middlemen.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – COST AND PROFIT ANALYSIS
The estimation of papaya farming done for one acre of land is outlined here. The values projected in the tables below may vary depending on the location of the farm area and also depend largely on the cost of raw materials in the local market. The labor cost, transport, etc. may also differ for each area. It is important to note that these values may be taken as a reference only and not for real implementation of papaya farming practice.
The area needs 1700 plants @ Rs 10.00 per sapling/plant.
Manual labour is required for 100 days @ Rs 200 per day per single labour.
Cost of urea is Rs 50/kg.
Cost of 1 kg muriate of potash is Rs 8.00.
Cost of irrigating one acre land where plants are planted at a distance of 3 m is Rs 35,000.00 to 55,000.00.
The cost of fencing includes pole cost, barbed wire cost, labour cost, and wiring. This may change depending on the cost of material in the market.
The general cost of insecticide or pesticide is Rs 450/l.
The cost of land is variable depending on whether it is rented or owned and is not included in the calculation.
|COMPONENTS FOR FARMING||INVESTMENT (IN Rs.)|
|Planting material (saplings)||15,000.00|
|Manure and fertilizers for the farm||10,000.00|
|Cost of insecticides and pesticides||5000.00|
|Infrastructure for drip irrigation||35,000.00|
|Drip irrigation for Fertigation technique||50,000.00|
|Shed for the labour||10,000.00|
|Total cost of implementation||2,10,000.00|
It is estimated that 1 acre of land produces 30 tonnes of papaya i.e. approximately 27,000 kg.
The cost of 1 kg of papaya is nearly Rs 20.00.
Therefore, if it is considered that there is a fruit loss of around 10%, which amounts to total produce of around 27 tonnes i.e. 24,494 kg @ Rs 20/kg: Rs 4,89,880.00.
The profit from papaya farming is estimated around: (Rs 4, 89,880.00 – Rs 2, 10,000.00)
Rs 2, 79,880.00.
This model does not include any transport charges or post harvest management charges because they vary on the type of produce and its location.
There could be other miscellaneous charges like the electricity for irrigation etc.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – PRODUCTION TRENDS/YIELD
The yield from different cultivars is different. It is considered that healthy plants produce 34 kg of fruits per plant in a year, which amounts to roughly 38,000 kg fruits per hectare. The total area under papaya farming in India has increased over the past years. The nutritive and medicinal value of papaya has resulted in heavy consumption within the country, i.e. only 0.08% of the produce is exported. The export is also less because of less production due to traditional farming practices. Delhi and Mumbai are the major markets for papaya. The total production in the country accounts to 54 lakh tonnes per year.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – LOANS AND SUBSIDIES
The Karnataka Horticulture department provides subsidy of 50% to the scheduled castes and 40% of the general category under the comprehensive horticulture development scheme. Also a 90% subsidy is available under the national horticulture mission for implementing micro irrigation system.
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For papaya cultivation in Punjab, the horticulture department is providing a 50 % subsidy and the land conservation department is providing a 80 % subsidy for the purchase of papaya plants to help raise the underground water level.
The assistance provided under the National Horticulture Mission is outlined as: 75% of the cost of planting material in 3 installments of ratio 60: 20: 20 when the survival rate is 75% in the first year and 90% in the second year.
PAPAYA FARMING PROJECT REPORT – ADDITIONAL MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES and TIPS
There are some other management practices which can be useful for papaya farming
- Removing the side shoots of the stem
- Pruning the old, dry and diseased leaves
- Removing or thinning the under grown fruits or diseased fruits immediately
- Supporting the young plants with stalks by tying them with a rope during storm
- Pollinating by hand when papaya is grown in the kitchen garden
- In case of a storm the land must be drained well, fungicide should be applied immediately to control blight, 0.5% of urea is sprayed, the fallen plants are given support, fruits are covered with paper to avoid sun scald and the damaged fruits are removed if the plants are severely hit by the storm.
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