Introduction: Hello livestock farmers we are back with a great information on Pig farming business plan.Pig farming is the raising and breeding of various pigs. Among the different livestock species, piggery is the most potential source for meat production and pigs are more efficient feed converters after the broiler. Pig rearing has traditionally been in the major occupational axis of the socially backward down-trodden class of the Indian population since time immemorial. What are we waiting for? Let’s get into the details of pig farm design and pig farming business plan.
A step by step guide to pig farming business plan
Pig farming needs a small investment in buildings and equipment. Pig farming offers quick returns because the marketable weight of fatteners can be reached within 6 to 8 months. Several pigs have the highest feed conversion efficiency. This means pigs create more live weight from a given weight of feed than any other class of meat-producing animals with the exception of broilers chickens. Wide variety of feeds are;
- Damaged feeds
Pig farming business is a profitable business, and many people are making money all over the world by starting a piggery business. To build a successful pig farming business then you need sufficient knowledge of how to efficiently raise the pigs, and a good piggery business plan.
Advantages of pig farming
Pig farming will provide employment opportunities to seasonally employed rural farmers and supplementary income to develop their living standards. The advantages of pig farming are given below;
- Pig farming needs a small investment in buildings and equipment.
- Pigs manure is generally used as fertilizer for agriculture farms and fish ponds.
- The pig has got the highest feed conversion efficiency that means they create more live weight gain from a given weight of feed than any other class of meat-producing animals except broilers.
- A pig can utilize a wide variety of feedstuffs that are grains, forages, damaged feeds, and garbage and convert them into valuable nutritious meat. However, feeding of damaged grains, garbage, and other unbalanced rations could result in lower feed efficiency.
- They are prolific with shorter generation interval and a sow can be bred as early as 8-9 months of age and can farrow twice in a year. They produce 6 to 12 piglets in each farrowing.
- Pigs have high feed conversion capability that is they grow faster in comparison to the other domestic animal. Pigs are capable of converting all types of waste and inedible food, grain byproduct, garbages, and forages, etc to nutritious and tasteful meat.
- Pigs store fat rapidly for which there is increasing demand from poultry feed, soap, paints, and chemical industries.
- Pig farming provides quick returns since the marketable weight of fatteners can be achieved within a period of 6 to 8 months.
- There is good demand from domestic as well as an export market for pig products such as pork, bacon, ham, sausages, and lard, etc.
- Pigs have a low mortality rate compared to other animals and they are more rugged and easier to raise. They can survive days without food or water.
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Some points to be considered for starting a pig farm
Pigs are cheaper to raise compared to fishes or poultry because they can eat most foods that humans eat and even if you have to buy feed for them, their feeds are cheaper than those of other animals. If you do not have money for fancy pig feed, you can always make do with stuff you can find around you or food wastes from the kitchen. This is impossible with fishes.
Few points which are as under are useful in starting of pig farm;
You have your own land. (Farming/Agriculture Land)
- Shade for the animals.
- Electricity connection.
- Availability of freshwater.
- Wastage area for manure and other things.
- Labor rooms.
Classifications of pig farming
Pig farming has two classifications.
Breeding business – In the breeding business farmer has his farrowing shades and parent stock and then take piglets from female pigs and after weaning all weaners (age 60 days or above) purchases by the new farmers.
Fattening business – If you are developing animals for cutting purposes than your way of working is fattening. One animal simply developed in 8 months by complete balanced pig feed in which one piglet feed milk of mother pig for 60 days rest 6 months is for feed. In these 8 months, piglets will grow up to 100kg to 120kg bodyweight.
Selection of housing location for pig farming
The site must be at an elevated place that cannot be flooded by rainwater. The site must be protected from the sun (shade from trees) and have ample fresh air. Away from residences and around 8-10 meters away downwind. In the case of a large scale pig farm, the site selected needs to be well connected to roads throughout the year, suitable for manure disposal, connected to reliable water and electricity sources.
Housing management for pig farming
- Construct shed on dry and properly raised ground for pig farms.
- Avoid water-logging, marshy areas, and heavy rainfall areas.
- The sidewalls of the sheds should be 4-5 feet high and the remaining height should be fitted with GI pipes or wooden poles.
- The walls must be plastered to make them damp proof.
- The roof must be at least 8-10 ft. high.
- The pig stys must be well ventilated.
- The floor should be hard, even, non-slippery, and impervious, well sloped (3 cm per meter) and properly drained to remain dry and clean.
- A feed trough space of 6 to 12 inches per pig should be provided. The corners of feed troughs drain and walls must be rounded for easy cleaning.
- Provide adequate open space for each animal that means double the covered area.
- Give proper shade and cool drinking water in summer.
Construction plan for a good pig house or shed
- The important points about the pig house are given below;
- The floor of the pig house must be 3 X 3 m.
- The floor of the house must be raised about 60 cm above the ground and the floorboards should have spaces of 2 cm between them.
- The roof must be rain, proof and high side of the roof should face in a direction where some sun can shine a little way into the house on this side but should always be shade in some part of the house.
- The house should be strongly built. A pigsty can be constructed cheaply by using locally obtainable materials. It needs to be constructed according to climatic conditions and pig production.
- The pigsty must be comfortable for the pigs that are good ventilation and ample shade, no overheating, no smells, no draft and no dampness.
- The building must be constructed with its long axis in an East-West direction (protected from sun and rain).
- The pig building divided into different pens for each phase of the production cycle. The number and the size of the pens depend on the probable numbers of pigs to be housed in each production phase.
- The costs of constructing the pigsty must fit the pig production systems. Efficient pig production is necessary to cover high construction costs.
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Raise a high yielding and productive breed for pig farming
There are numbers of species obtainable in the market, which are raised commercially throughout the globe. But, it is a good idea to choose a fast maturing and highly productive commercial breed of pig. Though, White Yorkshire, Hampshire, Light White Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc, Indigenous, and Knight Houses are more prevalent.
However, here is a list of few breeds of pig, which are used for raising pigs for meat, all over the world.
- Chester White
- Poland China
To start your pig farming business, you need breeding stock. The breeding stocks you require boars and sows. Boars are the male pigs that will service the sows, these are the female pigs. Ensure that you purchase an excellent breed of pigs. When you are buying the breeding stock, buy from farms that are known to produce excellent and healthy pigs. The growth potential of piglets will depend on the nature and quality of the parent stock. Thus it is of great value to buy a good pig breeding stock from reliable piggery farmers.
You require one boar for every 15-20 sows. The number of soars that you buy for pig farming business will depend on the scale of your piggery business. One sow gives birth to 9 to 11 piglets from one pregnancy. A sow can fall pregnant twice a year and the pregnancy of a pig lasts for 3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days (114 days). The pig farming business plan must take into consideration the cost of buying the breeding stock.
Pig’s breeding process is easy and simple. Normally, both male and female pigs become suitable for breeding within their 8 months of age. Within this time they reach 100 to 120 kg. The heat period of female pig lengths 2 to 3 days. The first day during the heat period of gilts is the best time to pig breed and the second day is best for a sow. Sow becomes suitable for breeding again after 2 to 10 days of weaning and the gestation period of pigs is not more than 115 days. A sow can give birth to piglets twice a year and 8 to 12 piglets each time.
Financial assistance available from banks or NABARD for pig farming
For piggery development schemes with large outlays, detailed project reports to be prepared. The items are land development, construction of sheds and other civil structures. And the purchase of the breeding stock, equipment, feed cost up to the point of income generation is normally considered under bank loan. Other items of investment will be considered on the basis after providing satisfactory information justifying the need for such items.
Sanction of Bank loan and its disbursement
After ensuring technical feasibility and economic viability, the particular scheme is sanctioned by the bank. The loan is disbursed in stages against the creation of specific assets for example construction of sheds, purchase of equipment and animals. The end use of the fund is verified. And constant follow-up is done by the bank.
Feeding is an important part of commercial pig farming in India. Growth, production and animal health depends mainly on feeding high quality and nutritious feed. Choose the most economical ingredients for preparing the feed. The basic ingredients of pig feed can be oat, grains, maize, wheat, rice, sorghum, and other millets. You can add some protein supplements are oil cakes, fishmeal and meat meal.
This is the important task of this business, commercial pig farming business. Because the health, growth rate, reproductive power, and etc all factors depend on the feeding. Feeding high-quality food which is also full of nutritious to pigs for keeping them healthy and happy. It can be bought from the market or can be arranged at home.
For preparing a nutritious and high-quality fodder for pigs, one can use maize, wheat, oat, sorghum, grains, rice, and other type of millet. Protein can be supplement by adding meat meals, fishmeal, oil cakes, and etc to it. Also, add the minerals and vitamins to it for making it more nutritious. In addition to this, try to add antibiotics, 10 mg per kg of fodder as the supplement.
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The best way of feeding pigs is to keeping separately and feeding them alone on the basis of pig age. Since they need food on the basis of their body weight and age. However, it is an excellent idea to allow them for feeding on green legumes. There is also a need for providing an adequate amount of clean and fresh water along with sufficient food. In commercial pig farming business in India, it is good to feed the reared pigs on the basis of their body weight and age.
Creep Feed is the baby piglets’ first and important dry food. It contains 20% protein that is highly fortified with milk by-products and is obtainable in small, chewable, highly palatable pellets for easy digestion. A combination of protein source, milk replacer, vitamins, amino acids, and rich feed ingredients will make complete feed the ideal start for young healthy piglets.
For pig farming, the feed ingredients in descending order are corn, soya bean meal, barley, wheat bran, vegetable protein, oilseeds extracts, pig vitamins, and trace minerals. Creep feed (about 20g per piglet per day) or an excellent home-made mixture with fine rice bran, broken rice, and milled maize grains. Clean drinking water should always be available.
Traditional pig feeds
- Feeds must meet the animal’s needs for maintenance, growth, and reproduction.
- Good pig feed consists of sufficient energy, protein, minerals, and vitamins. Rice bran, broken rice, maize, soya beans, cassava, several vegetables, and distillers residues are often used in pig feed.
- Distillery waste is much appreciated in the traditional pig husbandry, particularly for fattening pigs. It is advisable, however, not to provide this high valued feed to pregnant and lactating sows and to piglets and weaners because of the alcohol contents in the waste.
Water requirement for pigs to start pig farming
The feeding trough can be used to supply water. At large farms, automatic drinkers can be used (bowls or nipples). All pigs require sufficient clean drinking water.
- A pregnant sow – 10 to 12 liters water per day.
- A lactating sow – 20 to 30 liters per day.
- A growing pig – 6 to 8 liters per day.
- A boar – 12 to 15 liters per day.
Not enough water quantity can reduce daily feed intake. Ample clean water should be available to drink at all times.
Protection against diseases
- Be on the alert for signs of illness in pigs such as reduced feed intake, fever, abnormal discharge or unusual behavior.
- Please consult the nearest veterinary aid center for help if the illness is suspected.
- Protect the pigs against common diseases.
- In case of outbreak of contagious diseases, immediately segregate the sick and the healthy pigs and take essential disease control measures.
- Deworm the pigs regularly.
- Examine the feces of adult animals to detect eggs of internal parasites and treat the pigs with suitable drugs. Wash the pigs from time to time to promote sanitation.
- Strictly follow the vaccine schedule as given in Annexure IX.
That’s all folks about benefits of pig farming and pig farming business plan. You may be interested in HF Cow Facts.