Introduction To Pig Farming Project Report:
Are you planning for commercial pig farming, would like to know investment, profits from pig farming? Then continue to read the below content and find the actual calculations of pig farming project report at the bottom.
The domestic pig often called as Scrofa domestica given by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. Pigs are a domesticated large, even-toed and hoofed animal. It is variously considered as subspecies of wild boar. It belongs to class mammalian. Related creatures outside the genus include Pecary, the Babiursa, and Warthong. Pigs appear to have a good sense of direction and have found their way home over large distances. Of all the livestock species, pig finds an important place. Pig as compared to other species has a great potential to contribute to a faster economic return to the farmers because of certain intrinsic characters like higher productivity, better-feed adaptation efficiency, early maturity and short generation interval (few months of age). Pig farming also requires a small investment in buildings and equipment. It has an immense potential to ensure nutritional and economic factors. Differences in mature size, growth rate, and reproductive rate (5-15 piglets at a time) will impact the amount of feed and other resources needed for successful raise different types of pigs. Heritage or rare breeds of hogs are often an attractive choice for small farms because of their uniqueness. The gestation period varies 115 – 122 days. World largest pig producing countries are China, Russia, America, Brazil, and West Germany. Uttar Pradesh in India is the largest pig producing state.
Pig Farming Includes The Following Stages:
- Selecting A Suitable Land:
Selection of suitable place is very important. Before selecting, we need to make sure of the necessary amenities for the pigs which are given below.
- Make sure of the availability of sufficient, clean and fresh water in the selected land.
- Land in the rural area has been selected as the Labor can be obtained easily and at
- Accessibility of browsing place for the pigs. It will be helpful to sell the products and buy
The necessary material if a market exists near the farming place.
- It is more effective if good transportation is available.
- Availability of veterinary services near the farm.
- Productive Breed: There are numerous pig breeds available in the market. We need to select a proper breed which is highly productive. For commercial usage, imported and highly meat productive pig breeds can be chosen. These are available in our country which is given below.
Large White Yorkshire: It is an exotic breed of India, which is large in size. It has white colored with erect ears, dished face, and the snout of medium length. The male pig called an adult boar weighs around 300 – 400 kilograms while female pig called an adult sow weighs 230 to 320 kilograms. It is an excellent breed for cross-breeding and can say best for both rearings and raising pigs.
Landrace: They are also one of the best commercial breeds which are best in meat production. They have long sized body with black skin spots, drooping ears, and a long snout. These are excellent in crossbreeding like Yorkshire. An adult boar weights 270 to 360 Kilograms and an adult sow weighs 200 to 320.
Hampshire: They are of medium size and are used for commercial purposes. They are black in color and has a thick body. They are best used for meat production. Male weighs around 320 kilograms and whereas the females weigh around 250 kilograms.
Ghangaru: They are used for meat production. These species have high maturing power. They are maintained at less effort. They have high reproductive power, giving 7 to 14 young ones weighing 1 kilogram each. They give high-quality meat by taking waste and garbage.
Feeding: Feeding is the most important part of pig farming in India from a commercial point of view. Growth, animal health, and rate of reproduction depend on the quality and nutritious food supply. While preparing food, planning can be taken to consider the economical ingredients into consideration. The ingredients include grains, maize, wheat, rice, sorghum, and other millets. Protein supplements like cakes, fish meal and meat meal, vitamins and minerals can also be added. In addition to these, 11 milligrams per one kilogram of the antibiotic supplement has to be added. Allow the pigs to feed on green legumes. Better to keep the pigs according to their age, weight and feed them. Clean and fresh water can also be supplied along with nutrients sufficiently.
Housing: Comfortable house can be constructed for successful pig farming. The housing provides them not only the shelter but also protects from pollution, severe weather, parasites, and diseases. Care should be taken to provide proper ventilation. The different species have to be kept separate, and the following table gives an idea of space between them and the farm should be hygienic. Make use of heat lamps in winter to keep them warm. Beds can be prepared using a straw to create a warmer environment. Pigs may lose weight up to 5 kilograms in summer due to a dry environment.
Class of Pig
- Floor area Covered per Pig (m2) = 6.25-7.5
- Open yard area per Pig (m2) = 8.8-12.0
- Water required per Pig in (Liters) = 45.5
- Floor area Covered per Pig (m2) = 7.5-9.0
- Open yard area per Pig (m2) = 8.8-12
- Water required per Pig in (Liters) = 18 to 22
- Floor area Covered per Pig (m2) = 0.96-1.8
- Open yard area per Pig (m2) = 8.8-12.0
- Water required per Pig in (Liters) = 3.5 to 4
- Floor area Covered per Pig (m2) = 1.8 – 2.7
- Open yard area per Pig (m2) = 1.4-1.8
- Water required per Pig in (Liters) = 4.5 to 5.
Read: RAS Farming Project Report.
Breeding Pigs: The method of breeding of pigs is very simple and easy. These pigs, including male and female suitable for the breeding at the age of 8 to 9 months as they get maturity. At the time of breeding, both the pigs reach a weight of 100 to 200 kilograms. The heat period for female pig lasts 3 days. The first day can be the best time for breeding of the gilt whereas the second day is the best for so2 to 10 days of the sow. The sow breeds again after 2 to 10 days of weaning. The period of gestation of pigs is not more than 115 days. 8 to 12 piglets can be produced at a time.
Care And Management: Proper care should be taken to keep them free from all types of health hazards and diseases. All the piglets of male need not necessarily be for breeding purposes. Some can be kept for breeding and some for castered at the age of 3 to 4 weeks. Extra care should be taken for sow during lactation period and fed with nutritious food. Proper care can be taken for breeding boar, piglets, and pregnant sows. To prevent from swine fever, they can be vaccinated at the age of 2 to 4 weeks. The calm and quiet environment can be provided for the healthy maintenance of the farm and visitors can be avoided.
- Diseases and Control: Some common pig diseases are Piglet anemia, Swine brucellosis, piglet scours and Leptospirosis. These can be controlled by vaccinations and antibiotics (I W F).
- Porcine sarcoptic mange: Symptoms include Itching, dermatitis, rubbing, scratching, and reduced growth rate.
- Treatment: Mitiscidal sprays, injection and in-feed premix. Breeder pigs and weaners have been treated strategically.
- Gastric ulcers: Loss of appetite; vomiting; depraved appetite; blood in dung; sudden death. Antibiotics we feed Investigate feed, fineness, crude fiber, and vitamin E/selenium, reduce stress.
- Intestinal torsion: Sudden death Diet manipulation.
Marketing: As Pig meat has a domestic demand, marketing has become an easier process in commercial pig farming in India. As the demand increases, one can easily sell the products not only in nearest markets but also target the global market. Pig farming has become a profitable business in India and the social scenario has been changed greatly. Nowadays, everyone.
Economics of Pig Farming / Pig Farming Project Report / Cost and Profit of Commercial Pig Farming:
|Types of equipment within the Pig Farm||20,000|
|Cost of Pigs (16 Sows and 4 Boars)||60,000|
|Cost of Shed, Furrow pens||1,50,000|
|Medicines and Vaccines||10,000|
|Marketing and Transportation||10,000|
|Cost of Feed (Vegetables and Kitchen waste)||2,00,000|
|Bio-Security and Water Management Cost||40,000|
Expected Income Returns From Commercial Pig Farming:
Expected Income Returns for Pig Farming are high.
The average weight of Boar =350 kg.
The cost of 1kg pork is Rs. 300 Rs. However, it varies.
Meat cost from 1 Boar/sow = 350 x 300 = Rs. 1,05,000.00
Average income from 20 Boars/Sow = 1,05,000.00 x 20= Rs.21, 00,000.00.
Net profit from 20 pigs: Rs. 21,00,000.00 – 5,17,000.00 = Rs.15, 83,000.00.
However, you can also sell the whole Pig to a processing industry which is more profitable.
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The cost may differ based on the market value and breed.
From second year onwards equipment within the Pig Farm and Cost of Shed, Furrow pens will be reduced.
Read: Rabbit Farming Business Plan.